Hippothoa flagellum Manzoni, 1870,

Judith L Winston, 2016, Bryozoa of Floridan Oculina reefs, Zootaxa 4071 (1), pp. 1-81: 38

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Hippothoa flagellum Manzoni, 1870


Hippothoa flagellum Manzoni, 1870 

( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21; Table 20)

Material examined. VMNH. no. 70631, 70632; USNM no. 1283247.

Description. Colonies forming inconspicuous, thread-like uniserial chains of zooids that may branch or meander over unoccupied substrata between and among larger calcareous epifauna ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 A). Autoozooids oval, convex, with broadly cleithridiate orifice surrounded by low, smooth-rimmed, slightly hooded peristome ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 B, F). Autozooids with long trailing, stolon-like caudate portion connected with preceding zooid ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 C). Autozooids with single distal budding site and paired lateral budding sites. Female zooids form at latter sites ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 E, F), are smaller than autozooids, with a more pointed proximal end and a distal orifice that is shorter and wider than in autozooids. Ooecia helmet shaped and imperforate; orifice with broad proximal sinus

Remarks. The species is considered to be widespread on calcareous substrata in temperate and tropical waters. The Oculina  specimens best fit the definition of this species, but zooidal dimensions are slightly smaller and the orifices of autozooids less elongate than those of Mediterranean specimens studied by Hayward & McKinney (2002).

Distribution. In the Western Atlantic it occurs from Cape Hatteras to Florida and the Caribbean.

TABLE 20. Measurements in mm of Hippothoa flagellum Manzoni, 1870.

              Lfemz Wfemz    
Mean     0.065 0.047 0.124 0.141     0.050 0.788
      0.011 0.007 0.013 0.011     0.006 0.248
      0.045 0.036 0.108 0.126     0.045 0.540
      0.090 0.054 0.144 0.162     0.054 1.080