Loxosceles malintzi, Valdez-Mondragon, Alejandro, Cortez-Roldan, Mayra R., Juarez-Sanchez, Alma R. & Solis-Catalan, Karen P., 2018

Valdez-Mondragon, Alejandro, Cortez-Roldan, Mayra R., Juarez-Sanchez, Alma R. & Solis-Catalan, Karen P., 2018, A new species of Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe (Araneae, Sicariidae), with updated distribution records and biogeographical comments for the species from Mexico, including a new record of Loxosce, ZooKeys 802, pp. 39-66: 41-54

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.802.28445

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2F0B0C94-83D8-47DF-AF57-1854420D8B70

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/27AB2D03-1166-4734-9107-47241F5156C2

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:27AB2D03-1166-4734-9107-47241F5156C2

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Loxosceles malintzi
status

sp. n.

Loxosceles malintzi  sp. n. Figs 1-5, 6-10, 18-21, 22-27, 28-31, 32-37, 38-43, 44-49, 50-54, 55-62, 63-67

Type material.

MEXICO: Puebla: male holotype (CNAN-T01262) from 1.5 km NE of Panteón de San Pablo Anicano (18.1355, −90.1010, 1223 m), Municipality San Pablo Anicano, 5.VII.2017, A. Valdez, A. Juárez, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi Cols. (night collecting). Paratypes: 2 males (CNAN-T01263), 2 females (CNAN-T01264, CNAN-T01265), same data as holotype.

Other material examined.

MEXICO: Puebla: 1 male, 1 female (LATLAX-Ara 0149), 5 males, 6 females, 19 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0148), same data as holotype. 2 males, 1 female, 13 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0125) [10-III-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, A, Juárez, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi Cols.], same locality as holotype. 4 females, 2 immatures (LATLAX-Ara 0122) from 3 km S of San Juan Rabozo (18.54062, −98.44353; 1298 m), Municipality Izúcar de Matamoros, 10-III-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi, M. Sánchez Cols. 24 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0144) [05-VII-2017, A. Valdez, M. Cortez, A. Juárez, J. Valerdi Cols.], same locality. 8 immatures (LATLAX-Ara 0123), from road to Tepenene (18.49335, −98.39623; 1300 m) Municipality Izúcar de Matamoros, 10-III-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi, M. Sánchez Cols. 1 female, 7 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0146) [05-VII-2017, A. Valdez, M. Cortez, A. Juárez, J. Valerdi Cols.], same locality. 1 male, 3 female, 31 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0145), 1 male (LATLAX-Ara0194) from 2 km S of Agua Escondida (18.54999, −98.45229; 1275 m), Municipality Izucár de Matamoros 05-VII-2017, A. Valdez, M. Cortez, A. Juárez, J. Valerdi Cols.1 male, 1 female, 13 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0124) from Santa Cruz Tejalpa (18.35028, −98.37773; 986 m), Municipality Tehuitzingo, 10-III-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi, M. Sánchez Cols. 7 immatures (LATLAX- Ara 0126) from 9 km NE of Garzones Santa Gertrudis (18.31016, −98.02065; 1686 m), Municipality Acatlán de Osorio, 11-III-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi, M. Sánchez Cols. 1 male, 6 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0127), 1 female (LATLAX-Ara0185) from 4 km NE of Totoltepec Guerrero (18.26285, −97.84125; 1427 m), Municipality Totoltepec, 11-III-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi, M. Sánchez Cols. 10 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0147) from 1.5 km SE of Guadalupe Alchipin (18.25741, −98.21145; 1256 m), Municipality Ahuehuetitla, 05-VII-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi, M. Sánchez Cols. 2 male, 4 female, 28 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0150) from 2 km al S de Petlatzingo (18.05715, −97.9122; 1439 m) Municipality Petlatzingo, 06-VII-2017, A. Valdez, E. Briones, M. Cortez, J. Valerdi, M. Sánchez Cols. Guerrero: 1 male, 8 females, 14 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0163) from road to Mexcaltepec viejo (18.42838, −99.54851; 1142 m), Municipality Taxco de Alarcón, 20-IX-2017, A. Valdez, I. Navarro, P. Solís, J. Valerdi Cols. 1 male (CNAN-Ar009171) 2 km W of Ahuelican "Cerro de la Coronilla" (18.01628, −99.52875; 855 m), Municipality Tepecoacuilco de Trujano, 09-I-2009, O. Francke, A. Valdez, C. Quijano, T. López Cols. Morelos: 1 male (CNAN-Ar009174), 1 male (CNAN-Ar009176) from Ticumán (18.76111, −99.11917; 960 m), Municipality Tlaltizapán, 24-IX-2011, G. Montiel Col. 1 male (CNAN-Ar009000) from Biological Station El Limón Cuachichinola (18.52641, −98.93343; 1293 m), Municipality Tepalcingo, 21-IX-2012, G. Montiel, D. Barrales  , J. Arreguin Cols. 1 male, 2 immatures (CNAN-Ar009001) from Biological Station El Limón Cuachichinola (18.55132, −98.94288; 1434 m), Municipality Tepalcingo, 22-IX-2012, G. Montiel, D. Barrales  , J. Arreguin Cols.

Etymology.

The species epithet is a noun in apposition and refers to the volcano "La Malinche, Malintzi  or Matlalcueye" (meaning "blue skirt" in Nahuatl language), a seismically active volcano (4,420 m) of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, located in the states of Tlaxcala and Puebla. This last state is where the type locality is located.

Diagnosis.

Loxosceles malintzi  sp. n. resembles L. huasteca  Gertsch & Ennik, 1983 and L. coyote  Gertsch & Ennik, 1983 in having a long, slender male palpal tibia and by the embolus ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 173‒176, 200‒203). However, L. malintzi  has a more slender palpal tibia (Figs 22-24, 38, 55-62), 4.4 × longer than wide (in L. huasteca  the tibiae is 2.7 × longer than wide ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: fig. 200), and L. coyote  is 2.9 × longer than wide ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: fig. 173)). The palpal tibia of L. malintzi  is nearly straight (Figs 22-24, 55-62) (in L. huasteca  and L. coyote  it is more curved ventrally ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 200, 173 respectively)). In dorsal view, the palpal tibia in L. malintzi  is nearly straight (Fig. 23) (in L. huasteca  and L. coyote  it is more curved each side ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 201, 174 respectively)). In retrolateral view, the embolus of L. malintzi  is straight as in L. huasteca  ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: fig. 200), but slightly shorter (Figs 24, 25); also, L. huasteca  has a small spur near tip of embolus ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: fig. 202), which is absent in L. malintzi  (Figs 25-27, 40, 41). The embolus in L. coyote  (Gertsch & Ennik, 1983: figs 173, 176) is markedly longer and wider than in L. malintzi  , which is smaller and more slender (Figs 22, 24-26, 38-41, 55-62). Females resemble L. colima  Gertsch, 1958 ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 291‒292) and L. devia  Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940 ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 42‒46) in having long and curved seminal receptacles; however, L. malintzi  has seminal receptacles finger-shaped, shorter than those of L. colima  and less curved than those of L. devia  (Figs 30, 63-67); also, the base of the receptacles in the new species point obliquely and they are closer to each other (Figs 30, 63-67), whereas in L. colima  and L. devia  , the base of the receptacles are widely separated ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 42‒46, 291-292).

Description.

Male (holotype) (CNAN-T01262): Measurements: Total length 9.30. Carapace 4.40 long, 3.90 wide. Clypeus length 0.62. Diameter of AME 0.22, PME 0.24, PLE 0.22; AME-PME 0.26 Labium: length 0.96, width 0.80. Sternum: length 2.30, width 2.10. Leg lengths: I (total 28.20): femur 7.50 / patella 1.60 / tibia 8.90 / metatarsus 8.40 / tarsus 1.80; II (31.45): 8.40 / 1.60 / 9.80 / 9.75 / 1.90; III (24.10): 7.00 / 1.60 / 6.60 / 7.50 / 1.40; IV (26.90): 7.50 / 1.60 / 7.30 / 8.80 / 1.70. Leg formula: 2-1-4-3.

Prosoma: Carapace pale orange, longer than wide, pyriform, with small, numerous setae, with well-defined dark brown “violin” pattern dorsally (Figs 5-7, 10, 18, 29), which is reddish brown in the ocular region and markedly dark brown in posterior part (Figs 18, 29). Carapace with three irregular brown spots on each side. Fovea with a dark brown triangular pattern projected towards posterior part (Figs 18, 29). Six eyes in three groups, clypeus brown (Figs 4, 5, 29). Sternum pale orange, longer than wide (Figs 19, 46). Labium reddish, longer than wide, fused to the sternum, rounded in the middle (Fig. 19). Endites pale orange basally, reddish orange distally and white apically. Endites longer than wide, rounded basally, with sparse long setae, becoming shorter distally (Fig. 19).

Legs: Coxae pale yellow, gray towards pro- and retrolateral parts (Fig. 19). Legs with scales (seta) (Fig. 32). Trochanters orange. Femora pale orange, paler on femora III and IV (Figs 18, 19, 36). Patellae reddish basally, pale gray distally. Patellae with two ventral lyriform organs (Figs 35, 37). Claws with seven teeth (Figs 33, 34).

Chelicerae: Fused basally, chelated chelicerae laminae, reddish orange, stridulatory lines laterally (Figs 44, 45, 49). Fangs reddish orange, with long and thin setae around them (Figs 44, 45, 47, 48). VO on posterior part of the fang (Figs 47, 48).

Opisthosoma: Pale orange, darker posteriorly (Figs 18, 19), oval, longer than wide and high (Figs 18, 19). Region of gonopore pale orange, with small setae. Colulus long, pale orange, conical (Fig. 50). Spinnerets pale orange, anterior lateral spinnerets cylindrical and the longest, posterior median spinnerets smallest, with long setae; posterior median spinerets cylindrical and with many long setae (Figs 50, 51). Tracheae opening near posterior margin of opisthosoma (Fig. 53).

Palps: Trochanters pale orange, femora brown, long and thin, patellae brown, tibiae reddish orange and almost cylindrical, wider distally than ventrally (Figs 22-24, 38). Tarsus oval, reddish orange, bulb spherical, with long and straight embolus (Figs 22-27, 38-41). Spermatic outlet at the tip of embolus (Figs 42, 43). Embolus with oval cuticular marks (unknown function) (arrows, Figs 42, 43).

Female (Paratype) (CNAN-T01264): Measurements: Total length 9.60. Carapace 4.30 long, 3.60 wide. Clypeus length 0.56. Diameter of AME 0.20, PME 0.23, PLE 0.21; AME-PME 0.25 Labium: length 0.87, width 0.67. Sternum: length 2.12, width 1.90. Leg lengths: I (total 19.65): femur 5.35 / patella 1.40 / tibia 5.90 / metatarsus 5.50 / tarsus 1.50; II (19.00): 5.70 / 1.50 / 6.20 / 4.40 / 1.20; III (18.10): 5.20 / 1.40 / 4.70 / 5.40 / 1.40; IV (20.90): 5.90 / 1.40 / 5.60 / 6.50 / 1.50. Leg formula: 4-1-2-3.

Differs from male as follows: Prosoma: Carapace pale orange, with well-defined dark brown “violin” pattern (Figs 20, 28). Carapace without three irregular brown spots on each side but with a wide and well-defined dark brown marginal region, forming a pale “bat-wing” -shaped region in the middle (Fig. 28). Sternum darker orange (Fig. 21). Labium more reddish orange, less rounded in the middle. Endites more reddish orange, less rounded basally.

Legs: Coxae yellow, paler gray towards pro- and retrolateral parts (Fig. 21). Trochanters darker orange. Femora pale brown (Figs 20, 21). Patellae reddish brown basally, darker gray distally. Tibiae brown, metatarsi and tarsi dark orange (Figs 20, 21).

Chelicerae: Darker reddish brown, with stridulatory lines laterally.

Opisthosoma: Opisthosoma dark gray (Figs 20, 21). Spinnerets darker orange. [Note: Vetter (2015) mentioned that the opisthosoma color depends what the spider eats, so the coloration is variable].

Palps: Trochanters pale orange, femora pale brown, patellae brown, tibiae and tarsi reddish with several long and wide spread setae around. Tibiae cylindrical, tarsi conical (Fig. 20).

Genital area: Seminal receptacles visible by transparency in ventral view (Fig. 31). Seminal receptacles asymmetric, finger-shaped (Fig. 30). Right lobe long and curved, with one small accessory lobe receptacle next to it. Left lobe long, less curved than right one, without accessory receptacles. Base of seminal receptacles wide and strongly sclerotized, directed toward each other in oblique position (Fig. 30). See variation section for more details.

Variation.

MALES. Puebla: Males from San Pablo Anicano are light brown, with brown spots on carapace well marked, legs darker than the body. Morelos: Males from Biological Station "El Limón” are light brown, with dark irregular brown spots on carapace, legs same color as carapace. Male from Tlaltizapan is light brown, with light brown spots on carapace, legs darker than the body. Guerrero: Male from road to Mexcaltepec Viejo, is light brown, with dark brown spots strongly marked on carapace, pale brown legs. Male from Tepecoacuilco de Trujano, is light brown, with dark brown spots on carapace slightly marked, legs light brown. Puebla: Agua Escondida, Municipality of Izúcar de Matamoros (N= 2): Tibia I 7.3, 7.5; carapace length (CL) 3.6, 4.4, carapace width (CW) 3.0, 3.2. 1.5 km NE of Panteón de San Pablo Anicano (N = 3): Tibia I 5.9 -8.9 (x = 8.0), CL 4.1-4.5 (x = 4.0), CW 3.6-4.0 (x = 4.0). San Pablo Anicano (N = 2): Tibia I 7.5-9.0 (x = 8.0), CL 4.0-4.4 (x = 4.0), CW 3.36-3.7 (x = 4.0). Morelos: Biological Station "El Limon" (N = 2) Tibia I 7.5, 11.0, CL 4.0, 4.2, CW 3.2, 3.9. Guerrero: road to Mexcaltepec viejo (N = 1): Tibia I 9.0, CL 3.8, CW 3.3; Tepecoacuilco de Trujano (N = 1): Tibia I 7.0, CL 3.6, CW 3.2. FEMALES. Puebla: females from San Pablo Anicano are light brown on carapace and legs, with a dark brown marginal region on carapace strongly marked. Females from San Juan Rabozo are dark brown, with dark brown marginal region on carapace strongly marked, legs light brown. Guerrero: females from road to Mexcaltepec Viejo are brown dark on carapace, with dark brown marginal region on carapace strongly marked, legs the same color as the body. Puebla: 1.5 km NE of Panteón de San Pablo Anicano (N = 1): Tibia I 6.0, CL 4.2, CW 3.7. San Pablo Anicano (N = 3): Tibia I 4.2-5.5 (x = 4.6), CL 3.7-4.1 (x = 3.9), CW 2.8-3.6 (x = 3.2). San Juan Rabozo, Municipality of Izúcar de Matamoros (N = 4): Tibia I 4.9-6.1 (x = 5.5), CL 3.5-4.3 (x = 3.9), CW 3.0-3.7 (x = 3.4). Guerrero: road to Mexcaltepec viejo (N = 4): Tibia I 5.7-6.2 (x = 6), CL 3.4-4.4 (x = 3.8), CW 3.4-3.7 (x = 3.6).

There is little variation in the shape of the male palps, even those from different populations (Figs 55-62). The seminal receptacles of females are asymmetrical and are broadly variable in shape, even in the specimens from the same locality (Figs 63-66). Some specimens have long and wide curved receptacles, finger-shaped (Figs 63, 65), with small accessory lobes receptacles on each side, more visible in some specimens than others (Figs 63, 65). Others have long and thin seminal receptacles (Figs 64, 66). The base of the seminal receptacles is variable; in some specimens wider, rounded and strongly sclerotized, directed towards each other in oblique position, but in other specimens, the base is slightly sclerotized and thinner (Figs 63-67).

Remarks.

Gertsch (1958) and Gertsch and Ennik (1983) reported Loxosceles zapoteca  Gertsch, 1958 (female specimen) and Loxosceles boneti  Gertsch, 1958 (immature specimen) from the state of Puebla, with Loxosceles malintzi  sp. n. being the third species from the state (Figs 75, 78). However, in the case of L. zapoteca  , males from Puebla are unknown, so we cannot corroborate the accurate identity of the species. In the collected material of L. malintzi  sp. n. from localities near Acatlán de Osorio where L. zapoteca  was reported (Fig. 75), only males of the new species were collected but no males of L. zapoteca  . Also, although there is high variation in the seminal receptacles in L. malintzi  (Figs 63-67), the seminal receptacles are completely different from those of L. zapoteca  ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 48-52). Also, the male palp and female genitalia are different in both species ( Gertsch and Ennik 1983: figs 32-35, 48-51). The record of L. boneti  from Puebla is also doubtful: the specimen is an immature, and the type locality of L. boneti  is Acapulco, Guerrero, 250 km from Puebla (Fig. 75).

Natural history.

The specimens of Loxosceles malintzi  sp. n. were collected in a tropical deciduous forest (Figs 11-16). The micro habitat where the specimens were collected was under and among large rocks, and inside of rotten and dry cactus of the genus Opuntia  and Pachycereus  (arrows, Figs 13, 14, 17). At the type locality, the specimens were collected close together on a live large cactus ( Pachycereus  ). They were collected at night when males are more active. These specimens were collected at 1.5-2.0 m high in the live cactus where their webs where located. In addition, the new species has anthropogenic habits: the specimens from San Pablo Anicano, Puebla were collected inside a house, under a concrete laundry sink and among concrete blocks in a yard. Even an adult male was collected at night walking on the kitchen floor of the house.

Distribution.

MEXICO: Puebla, Morelos, Guerrero (Figs 75, 78).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Sicariidae

Genus

Loxosceles