Loxophyllum apochlorelligerum, Zhang & Zhao & Chi & Warren & Pan & Song, 2022

Zhang, Gongaote, Zhao, Yan, Chi, Yong, Warren, Alan, Pan, Hongbo & Song, Weibo, 2022, Updating the phylogeny and taxonomy of pleurostomatid ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora) with establishment of a new family, a new genus and two new species, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 196 (1), pp. 105-123 : 110-112

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlac028

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scientific name

Loxophyllum apochlorelligerum

sp. nov.


( FIGS 4 View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5 ; TABLE 1 View Table 1 )

Zoobank registration: urn: lsid: zoobank. org:act: 32A46325-B72C-4B1D-A5AA-44145403DBB3

Diagnosis: Body lanceolate, about 170 – 280 µm × 35–50 µm in vivo; seven to nine left and 12–14 right somatic kineties; extrusomes clavate, distributed along entire cell margin; three to five inconspicuous dorsal warts located at anterior one-third of body; single subterminal contractile vacuole; two ovoidal macronuclear nodules and one micronucleus; freshwater habitat.

Type material: A silver proteinate slide with the holotype specimen circled by ink and another two silver proteinate slides with paratype specimens deposited in the Laboratory of Protozoa, Ocean University of China, with registration numbers ZGAT2020051801-1 (holotype) , ZGAT2020051801-2 and ZGAT2020051801-3 .

Type locality and ecological features: A boggy area in Weishan Lake (34°45′59.56″N, 117°09′22.65″E), Ji’ning, China. Water temperature 21 °C and pH 8.30 GoogleMaps .

Etymology: Composite of the Greek adjective αΠό- (from) and the species-group name chlorelligerum (‘bearing chlorellae’, a green alga), indicating a ciliate similar to Loxophyllum chlorelligerum Vuxanovici, 1959 .

SSU rDNA sequence: The SSU rDNA sequence of Lo. apochlorelligerum sp. nov. has been deposited in the GenBank database, with length 1531 bp, G+C content 42.26% and accession number MW414675 View Materials . The SSU rDNA gene sequence similarity between Lo. apochlorelligerum sp. nov. and its congeners ranges from 0.958 to 0.978 ( Fig. 8 View Figure 8 ).

Description: Body lanceolate, slightly contractile, with a beak-like anterior end and a pointed posterior end. Cell size about 170–280 µm × 35–50 µm in vivo when fully extended. Neck region inconspicuous, occupying 25% of cell length, often with several inconspicuous dorsal warts ( Fig. 4A View Figure 4 , arrows). Cell typically with a thin, well-defined hyaline fringe ( Fig. 5A, D, G View Figure 5 ). Right side densely ciliated; left side somewhat vaulted and sparsely ciliated. Two macronuclear nodules, elliptical in outline, about 15–23 µm × 10–15 µm in vivo, centrally located ( Figs 4D, E, H View Figure 4 , 5B, E, I View Figure 5 ; Table 1 View Table 1 ). Micronucleus positioned between macronuclear nodules ( Figs 4H View Figure 4 , 5I View Figure 5 ). Contractile vacuole subterminally located ( Figs 4A, D, F View Figure 4 , 5A, B, G View Figure 5 ), ~15–20 µm in diameter, pulsating about every 30 s. Extrusomes clavate, straight or slightly curved, ~5–7 µm long, distributed along entire cell margin and often clustered in anterior portion of dorsal margin to form three to fie warts ( Figs 4A, D, J View Figure 4 , 5C, F View Figure 5 ). Cortical granules tiny (<0.3 µm) and densely distributed between ciliary rows ( Figs 4I View Figure 4 , 5H View Figure 5 ). Cytoplasm colourless or greyish, with numerous densely packed food vacuoles (~4–7 µm in diameter) that render main body region opaque ( Figs 4A, F View Figure 4 , 5A, B, D, G View Figure 5 ). Locomotion typically by slowly gliding on substrate, sometimes by swimming while rotating about longitudinal body axis.

Ciliary pattern as shown in Figure 4B, C, G View Figure 4 . There are 12–14 right somatic kineties (including PK2 and PK3), each consisting of monokinetids and terminating anteriorly along PK3 ( Figs 4C View Figure 4 , 5J View Figure 5 ; Table 1 View Table 1 ). Left side sparsely ciliated, with seven to nine (average eight) left somatic kineties (including PK1; Figs 4B View Figure 4 , 5L, M View Figure 5 ; Table 1 View Table 1 ). Dorsal brush kinety consisting of regularly spaced dikinetids in anterior half of cell length and continuing posteriorly as monokinetids ( Fig. 4B, G View Figure 4 ).

Three perioral kineties around oral slit. Perioral kinety 1 (PK1) consisting of densely spaced dikinetids in anterior half and continuing posteriorly as a row of monokinetids ( Fig. 4B, G View Figure 4 ). Perioral kinety 2 (PK2) consisting of densely spaced dikinetids in anterior half and continuing posteriorly as a row of monokinetids ( Fig. 4C, G View Figure 4 ). Perioral kinety 3 (PK3) composed of densely spaced monokinetids ( Fig. 4C, G View Figure 4 ).

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