HYMENOPTERA

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola, 2011, Insects found in birds’ nests from the Neotropical Region: addenda, corrections, and the Subantarctic Region of Argentina and adjacent countries 2950, Zootaxa 2950 (1), pp. 1-108 : 56-71

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2950.1.1

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/1167F308-965E-FFA6-FF65-F9AE0BB74980

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

HYMENOPTERA
status

 

HYMENOPTERA

Braconidae

[Undetermined sp.]

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009).

PSOCOPTERA

Liposcelidae

[Undetermined sp.]

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009).

Psocoidea

[Undetermined sp.]

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009).

HEMIPTERA

Anthocoridae

Cardiastethus aequinoctialis Poppius, 1909

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009).

Lyctocoris campestris (Fabricius, 1794)

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009).

Cimicidae

Psitticimex uritui (Lent & Abalos, 1946)

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009)

Pentatomidae

Chinavia musiva (Berg, 1878)

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009).

Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758)

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: [localities not distriminated], from a total of 43 beds of fresh vegetal matter and one communal nest (Aramburú et al. 2009).

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947

BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul: Barra do Quaraí, “em ninhos” ( Bedin et al. 2009, following Salvatella et al. 1993); Brazil, in nests ( Panzera et al. 2007 [following Salvatella et al. 1993, not cited among the references]).

URUGUAY: in nests ( Panzera et al. 2007, following Panzera et al. 1995).

Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913

ARGENTINA: Corrientes ( Bar et al. 1986); Reserva Iberá, 55 specimens ( Bar et al. 2005).

Note: A nest was illustrated by Bar et al. (2005), but it was not stated if the 55 specimens were found in the illustrated nest or in more than one nest.

Undetermined sp.

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Rhodnius pallescens Barber, 1932

[Country not stated]: “nidos de Psitacidae habitados por Didelphis marsupialis ” ( Carcavallo 2002) .

Note: Original record not found.

RAMPHASTIDAE

Ramphastos sulfuratus Lesson, 1830

= Ramphastos brevicarinatus: Van Tyne 1929 .

DIPTERA

Milichiidae

Milichiella sp.

PANAMA: Panama Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Biological Station, 1926, larvae among the debris in the bottom of the same nest, reared by C.T. Greene ( Van Tyne 1929).

Muscidae

Philornis pici ( Macquart, 1853)

PANAMA: Panama Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Biological Station , 1926, two young parasitized by dipterous larvae under the skin of the lower neck and back (two on one bird and one on the other) of 4 young in one examined nest, first noticed when the nestling were sixteen days old; one larva at twenty-one days reared to maturity and identified by C.T. Greene [ USNM]; another larva at thirty-six days ( Van Tyne 1929) .

Stratiomyidae

Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758)

PANAMA: Panama Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Biological Station, 1926, larvae among the debris in the bottom of the same nest, reared by C.T. Greene ( Van Tyne 1929).

Ramphastos tucanus Linnaeus, 1758

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Pastrongylus lignarius (Walker, 1873)

COLOMBIA: [Meta Lejano ], 2 nymphs, 1 adult, from a nest of a toucan in a hollow moriche palm ( D’Alessandro & Barreto 1985) .

SPHENISCIDAE

Spheniscus humboldti Meyen, 1834

= Eudyptes humboldti: Johnson 1957 .

SIPHONAPTERA : Rhopalopsyllidae

Parapsyllus longicornis humboldti Jordan, 1942

= Parapsyllus humboldti: Smith et al. 2007: 132 .

PERU: Ica: Marcona, Punta San Juan , 15º 21’ 50’’ S, 75º 12’’ W, occasionally found on birds, in the nest burrows, and in the soil or sand around the nests ( Smith et al. 2007) .

CHILE: Aconcagua: Zapallar , 3 males, 15 females type series [ BMNH], ex nests (Jonhson 1957, following Jordan 1942a) .

STRIGIDAE

Bubo virginianus? (Gmelin, 1788)

= Bubo crassirostris: Linardi & Guimarães 2000 .

SIPHONAPTERA : Pulicidae

* Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835)

BRAZIL: [locality not discriminated] ( Linardi & Guimarães 2000).

Note: This record is posterior to Costa Lima & Hathaway (1946), but the original citation was not found. No species of Strigidae was named crassirostris (American Ornithologists’ Union 1998 2000, Remsen et al. 2008, Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos 2007).

Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817)

= Otus choliba: Leite et al. 2009: 687 [host]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis falsificus Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD]: already recorded as a parasite ( Leite et al. 2009 [following Dodge & Aitken 1968, Teixeira 1999]). VENEZUELA: 30 km south of Caracas, II-1975, 4 maggots, attached to the ventral sides of two nestlings in one examined nest; one maggot tentatively identified as Neomusca (= Philornis ) falsificus ( Thomas 1977) .

Speotyto cunicularia [partridgei Olrog, 1976]

SIPHONAPTERA : Rhopalopsyllidae

* Ectinorus (Panallius) galeanus (Jordan, 1939)

ARGENTINA: Santiago del Estero: [locality not stated], 20-VIII-1934, J.M. de la Barrera leg., 3 females [ BMNH], in the nest ( Smit 1987) .

* Polygenis (Polygenis) byturus ( Jordan & Rothschild, 1923)

ARGENTINA: Santiago del Estero: [locality not stated], 20-VIII-1944, J.M. de la Barrera leg., 1 male, 6 females [ BMNH], on the bird and nest ( Smit 1987) .

* Polygenis (Polygenis) platensis cisandinus (Jordan, 1939)

ARGENTINA: Santiago del Estero: [locality not stated], 20-VIII-1944, J.M. de la Barrera leg., 2 males, 3 females [ BMNH], on the bird and nest ( Smit 1987) .

Note: All are rodent fleas, and the burrowing owl can be considered as an accidental host.

Strix [rufipes chacoensis Cherrie & Reichenberger, 1921]

= Strix sp. : Noireau et al. 1997.

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Triatoma infestans Klug in Meigen, 1834

[ ARGENTINA: Santa Fe] ( Noireau et al. 1999, following Bejarano 1967).

Note: Noireau et al. (1999) repeat that the nest of a bird was occupied by an owl, but the original record is about a nest of an owl.

Undetermined sp.

= “owl”: 1909: Hopkins & Rothschild 1953; Hastriter & Méndez 2000; Blank et al. 2007.

SIPHONAPTERA : Tungidae

Hectopsylla psitacii Fraunfeld, 1860

= Rhynchopsyllus pulex: Macchiavello 1948: 426 [distr.; hosts]

PERU: Huacho, from “lechuza (no clasificada)” ( Macchiavello 1948); Huacho, 1947, 5 males, 109 females, on two species of owls ( Jordan 1950); Huacho city, 1947, A. Macchiavello leg., 1 male ,, many females, # 1948.196 [ BMNH], in alcohol, from an owl ( Hopkins & Rothschild 1953); Campiña Huacho, ex owl ( Johnson 1957).

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: 1913, 2 females [ BMNH], ex “owl” ( Hopkins & Rothschild 1953, Hastriter & Méndez 2000), 1 female [ BMNH], ex “owl” ( Blank et al. 2007); without locality, on “Ave indeterminada” [below Strigiformes ] ( Autino & Lareschi 1998).

THAMNOPHILIDAE

Formicivora erythronotos (Hartlaub, 1852) DIPTERA : Muscidae Philornis sp. BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis, Mambucaba, XII-1997 to I-1998, one nestling three-days-old (3.5 cm long) infested in the dorsal region by a 1.0 cm subcutaneous larva; third instar larva extracted two days later, when it was 1.5 cm long and the nestling 5.0 cm long; 2 not identified puparia found in two other nests of this species ( Mendonça & Couri 1999).

Grallaria flavotincta Sclater, 1877

SIPHONAPTERA : Ceratophyllidae

Dasypsyllus (Dasypsyllus) gallinulae (Dale, 1878)

COLOMBIA: Nariño: Reserva La Planada, 11-II to 13-III-1989, at least two fleas, identified by R. Traub ( Oniki & Willis 1991).

Gymnopithys leucaspis olivascens (Ridgway, 1891)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

COSTA RICA: Puntarenas: 7 mi E Golfito , 13-VI-1965, 7 larvae ( Arnold 1970) .

Taraba major (Vieillot, 1816)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis torquans Nielsen, 1913

ARGENTINA: Santa Fe: 31º 23’ 08’’ S, 60º 55’ 00’’ W, IX-2006 to III-2007 and IX-2007 to III-2008, 4.0 % infested from 25 examined nestlings in 8.3 % infested from 12 examined nests; maximal intensity 1 larva /nestling ( Antoniazzi et al. 2010) GoogleMaps .

Note: Apparently specimens reared from T. major were not sent to M. Couri for identification. Because P. torquans and P. seguyi are present in the same area ( Couri et al. 2009), the identification of P. torquans given by Antoniazzi et al. (2010) needs a further corroboration.

Thamnophilus caerulescens Vieillot, 1816

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

BRAZIL: Parana: Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus Jardim Botânico , III-2006 to II-2007, 1 nest parasitized (unsuccessfull), from a total of 23 examined nests ( Jesus et al. 2007).

Thamnophilus palliatus (Lichtenstein, 1823)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis, 31-III-1998, one breeding female infested by subcutaneous larvae; some upper left wing coverts lost as a result of the presence of one larva and two openings probably used by other larvae; another larva found on internal region of the left thigh; third instar larvae extracted and deposited on the nest; two males [ MNRJ] hatched after a period between 10 to 13 days ( Mendonça & Couri 1999) .

Thamnophilus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1816)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis, 31-III-1998 one nest collected as soon as the fledglings had abandoned it; one adult male [ MNRJ] emerged two days later ( Mendonça & Couri 1999) .

THRAUPIDAE

Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas (50 km from Brasilia), M.A. Marini, unpublished data (Duca Soares 2008).

Euphonia xanthogaster (Sundevall, 1834)

SIPHONAPTERA : Ceratophyllidae

Dasypsyllus (Dasypsyllus) gallinulae (Dale, 1878)

COLOMBIA: Nariño: Reserva La Planada, 11-II to 13-III-1989, at least two fleas on each bird, identified by R. Traub ( Oniki & Willis 1991).

Habia atrimaxillaris (Dwight & Griscom, 1924)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

COSTA RICA: Golfo Dulce , Estación de Investigación Tropical La Gamba (8° 42’ N, 83° 12’ W), 23-II-2009, one nestling infested by about 14 larvae of parasitic botflies in one examined nest with two nestlings [one nestling disappeared for unknown reasons the next day when encountered] ( Riedl et al. 2010) GoogleMaps .

Neothraupis fasciata (Lichtenstein, 1823)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

BRAZIL: locality not stated (Duca Soares 2008, following Alves 1988); Distrito Federal: Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas (50 km from Brasilia), 2003, 1 parasitized nest (4 %), from a total of 25 examined nests, 2004, 1 parasitized nest (3.7 %), from a total of 27 examined nests, 2006, 1 parasitized nest (2.3 %), from a total of 43 examined nests (Duca Soares 2008); ( Duca et al. 2009, folowing Duca Soares 2007).

Spindalis zena (Linnaeus, 1758)

= Spindalis puertoricensis (Bryant) : Wetmore 1916: 121-122 [distr.; biol.]

[ DIPTERA : Muscidae ]

[ Philornis sp. ]

PUERO RICO: “these birds are frecuently infested with a species of parasitic grub, which, however, in most cases does not appear to affect their vitality seriously. The parasites are found usualy on the breast just under the skin, though sometimes they occur on the abdomen and underside of the wings. One bird had about 30 of the grubs, but this was exceptional, 2 or 3 being the usual number” ( Wetmore 1916).

Note: This description corresponds to a Philornis species , and it is the first record made on a Puerto Rican bird. No other parasitized bird is mentioned by Wetmore (1916), although he examined nests with nestlings of several birds and adults of circa 90% of the birds known from Puerto Rico at the date. The following record of larval parasitism on adult birds (see Mimidae , Margarops fuscatus ) was seen sixty-nine years after, also in Puerto Rico ( Arendt 1985a).

Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Jardim Morumbí [fragmented area], near the border of the Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas (50 km from Brasilia), IX to XII-2006, 13 larvae in one nestling, from a total of 2 examined nests ( Alves Borges 2008).

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

Undetermined sp.

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859

VENEZUELA: “en los nidos” [in the nests] “la poblacion de R. prolixus es menos numerosa” [the population of R. prolixus is less numerous] (Gamboa C. 1974).

TINAMIDAE

Crypturellus obsoletus (Temminck, 1815)

= Crypturus obsoletus : Costa Lima & Hathaway 1946: 142 [cat.]; Linardi & Guimarães 2000: 85 [host].

SIPHONAPTERA : Rhopalopsyllidae

* Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis ( Cunha, 1914)

BRAZIL: São Paulo (Johnson 1947, following Guimarães 1948); [locality not discriminated] ( Linardi & Guimarães 2000).

* Rhopalopsyllus crypturi Wagner, 1939

BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: F. Plaumann leg., 25-III-1938, 2 females type series, 20-III, 1 female type series, 4-X, 1 male, 3 females type series ( Johnson 1957); Nova Teutonia, 4-X-1938, Fritz Plaumann leg., 1 female Paralectotype [ ZMH] ( Smit 1987); [locality not discriminated] ( Linardi & Guimarães 2000).

TITYRIDAE

Pachyramphus validus (Lichtenstein, 1823)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela, 29º 19’S, 50º 48’ W, XII-2004, a nestling with about ten days old observed on the floor, in the same direction of the nest in the top of an araucaria tree ( Araucaria angustifolia ), being fed by their parents, highly parasitized; 75 collected larvae distributed in the body as follows: 29 (39 %) on the head (crown, chin, lores, forehead and base of the bill), 15 (20 %) on wings (base of the primaries), 12 (16 %) in the crissum, 7 (9 %) in the thighs, and 12 (16 %) in other regions of the body (neck, back, rump, breast, belly, and flanks) ( Franz & Couri 2008).

TROCHILIDAE

Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Angra dos Reis, Fazenda Ariró, X-1999 to I-2000, one dead nestling (7 days old) with 3 larvae in one nest, a second nestling dead after 4 days in the same nest, with 5 larvae; one nestling 3 days-old in a second nest, “devoured” by 10 larvae [an unusual behavior in larvae of this genus, Couri pers. com.] ( Mendonça & Ribas 2000) .

Chlorostilbon aureoventris

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[ BRAZIL]: nestlings ( Oniki et al. 2000).

Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[ BRAZIL] nestlings ( Oniki et al. 2000)

Oreotrichulus estella (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838)

SIPHONAPTERA : Ceratophyllidae

Trochilopsylla torresmurai Beaucournu & González-Acuña, 2010

CHILE: Tarapacá: Chusmisa , 41° 02’ S, 69° 10’ W, 3170 m, 13-I-2008, J.C. Torres-Mura leg., 1 male Holotype [ MNHN], 1 female Allotype [ MNHN], 1 male Paratype [ MNHN], 1 female Paratype [ MNHN], 1 male Paratype [ PFCV], 1 female Paratype [ PFCV], ex nest “Picaflor de la Puna” ( Beaucournu & González-Acuña 2010) GoogleMaps .

TROGLODYTIDAE

Campylorhynchus fasciatus (Swainson, 1838)

[+ woven stick nest from other unidentifed species]

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Rhodnius ecuadoriensis Lent & León, 1958

ECUADOR: Manabí, Portoviejo Co. [El Bejuco, 0º 57’ 24.75’’ S, 80º 19’ 34.12’’ W; Maconta Abajo, 1º 5’ 40.88’’S, 80º 20’ 53.52’’ W], 131 exx. (21.8 ± 6.6 insects per nest) in 6 (7.8 %) positive from a total of 77 examined nests ( Suarez-Davalos et al. 2010); Manabí, associated also with Campylorhynchus fasciatus ( Grijalva et al. 2010, following Suarez-Davalos et al. 2010); Guayas: Colimes county, San Antonio, 1 adult, 3 nymphs II, in two separate nests in the same tree ( Grijalva et al. 2010); Loja: associated also with Campylorhynchus fasciatus ( Grijalva et al. 2010, following M.J. Grijalva et al. unpublished observations).

Campylorhynchus yucatanicus (Hellmayr, 1934)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

[ Philornis sp. ]

= “colmoyotes”: Soriano 2008: 14.

= “ Cuterebridae ”: Soriano 2008: 15 [Fig. 5], 25.

MEXICO: Campeche: Reserva de la Biosfera Ría Celestún, between 6 and 13 parasites [per nestling] in 20 young birds (16.9 %) out of seven nests, from 118 examined young birds ( Soriano 2008).

Note: The larvae of Cuterebridae are exclusive parasites of mammals ( Guimaraes & Papavero 1999, Slansky 2007). Therefore, this mention on birds corresponds to some species of Philornis .

Campilorhynchus turdinus unicolor (Lafresnaye, 1852)

= Heleodytes unicolor Lafresnaye, 1852 : Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979: 329.

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Triatoma sordida sordida (Stal, 1859)

( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979).

Note: Original citation not found. Country and locality unknown.

Cantorchilus modestus modestus (Cabanis) 1861

= Thryotorus modestus modestus: Arnold 1970 .

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

COSTA RICA: Puntarenas: Río Ceibo , 4 mi N, 2 mi W Buenos Aires, 28-VII-1965, 12 larvae ( Arnold 1970). Cantorchilus modestus zeledoni (Ridgway, 1878)

= Thyotorus modestus zeledoni: Arnold 1970.

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

COSTA RICA: Limon: 1 km E Siquirres , 15-X-1964, 2 larvae ( Arnold 1970) .

Thryophilus rufalbus castanonotus Ridgway 1888

= Thryotorus rufalbus cantanonotus: Arnold 1970.

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis pici ( Macquart, 1853)

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: 1.4 mi NE Tilarán, 5-VIII-1965, 58 larvae [from 3 nestlings]; adults reared from 12 larvae forced into pupation ( Arnold 1970) .

Troglodytes aedon albicans Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884

= Troglodytes musculus ave: Otero et al. 1975 , Torrealba et al. 1985.

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Psammolestes arthuri (Pinto, 1926)

VENEZUELA: [localities not discriminated] (Otero et al. 1975, following Cova Garcia & Suarez 1959 and/or Machado Allison & Ramirez Perez 1967 and/or Pifano 1939); ( Torrealba et al. 1985).

Note: The bird is mentioned twice with different names, and the references were not discriminated. None subspecies named ave is figured in Peterson (2002).

Troglodytes aedon [bonariae Hellmayr, 1919]

COLEOPTERA : Cerambycidae

Nathrius brevipennis (Mulsant, 1839)

ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires: Campo de Mayo, 3-XII-05, Di Iorio & Turienzo leg., 3 exx. [ ODI], emerged from sticks of Morus sp. ( Moraceae ) in the platform of a nest ( Di Iorio & Farina 2009).

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis seguyi García, 1952

ARGENTINA: Santa Fe: Site U [Reserva Universitaria “El Pozo”, 31 º 38’ S, 60º 40’ W] + site C [Parque Tecnológico Litoral Centro, 31º 38’ S, 60º 40’ W, at less than 1 km from site U] + site P [Isla Peruhil, 31º 39’ S, 60º 35’ W], summer 2004-2005, 8 (25.0 %) infested of 32 examined nests; summer 2005-2006, 15 (32.6 %) infested of 46 examined nests; summer 2006-2007, 4 (11.1 %) of 36 examined nests; summer 2007-2008, 12 (27.9 %) infested of 43 examined nests; adults [ MNRJ] of 4 larvae per nest in 39 nests (= 156 larvae) identified by Couri ( Quiroga 2009, Quiroga & Reboreda 2011); 31º 38’ S, 60º 91’ W, 27 males, 44 females [ MNRJ], reared from larvae, ex nest ( Couri et al. 2009); site A [campus of University of Litoral (31°38' S, 60° 40’ W)] + site B [private cattle ranch about 10 km from Site A and close to the Colastiné River (31°38’ S, 60° 35’ W)], summer 2004-2005, 57.3 ± 6.8 larvae per brood (range 40-92) in infested broods, 15.6 ± 1.4 larvae per nestling (range 8.3-23) in infested broods of 8 (25.0 %) infested of 32 examined nests in table 1 (32 nests in materials and methods; summer 2005-2006, 41.4 ± 5.9 larvae per brood (range 16-99) in infested broods, 11.9 ± 1.6 larvae per nestling (range 4.3-24.8) in infested broods of 15 (32.6 %) infested of 46 examined nests; summer 2006-2007, 20.3 ± 1.2 larvae per brood (range 17-22) in infested broods, 5.1 ± 0.3 larvae per nestling (range 4.3-5.8) in infested broods of 4 (11.1 %) of 35 examined nests [36 nests in materials and methods]; summer 2007-2008, 55.9 ± 9.9 larvae per brood (range 20-128) in infested broods, 14.5 ± 2.5 larvae per nestling (range 4.3-30.3) in infested broods of 12 (27.9 %) infested of 43 examined nests; 0% mortality in 5 (13%), 100% in 13 (33%) and partial mortality in 21 (54%) of the total of 39 infested nests ( Quiroga & Reboreda 2011).

Note 1: The sites U and C of Quiroga (2009) correspond to the site A of Quiroga & Reboreda (2011), and apparently the site P of Quiroga (2009) to the site B of Quiroga & Reboreda (2011). The coordinates given by Couri et al. (2009) are not coincident to any of those given by Quiroga (2009) and Quiroga & Reboreda (2011). Therefore, the exact locality of the identified specimens cannot be assigned.

Note 2: Apparently the 4 larvae per nest in 39 nests (= 156 larvae) identified by Couri ( Quiroga 2009, Quiroga & Reboreda 2011) gave only 27 males and 44 females ( Couri et al. 2009).

Philornis torquans Nielsen, 1913

= “larvas de moscas”: De la Peña 2005; De la Peña 2006.

[ ARGENTINA: Santa Fe]: the nestlings are affected by larvae of flies ( De la Peña 2005); ( De la Peña 2006); 31º 23’ 08’’ S, 60º 55’ 00’’ W, IX-2006 to III-2007 and IX-2007 to III-2008, 7.5 % infested from 53 examined nestlings in 16.7 % infested from 12 examined nests; maximal intensity 2 larvae /nestling ( Antoniazzi et al. 2010).

Note: Apparently specimens reared from T. aedon were not sent to M. Couri for identification. Because P. torquans and P. seguyi are present in the same area ( Couri et al. 2009), but also P. seguyi was reared from T. aedon in the surroundings of Santa Fe city ( Quiroga 2009, Couri et al. 2009), the identification of P. torquans given by Antoniazzi et al. (2010) needs a further corroboration.

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Triatoma sordida sordida (Stal, 1859)

ARGENTINA: Corrientes: Dto. Empedrado, 18 nymphs in a birds’ nest inside a equine skull ( Bar et al. 1997: 308, table 2).

Note: Although the birds’ species was not stated by Bar et al. (1997), it is referred here as T. aedon . This species was seen nidificating in a great variety of places, including one skull of a cow [Santa Fe: Wildermuth] ( De la Peña 2005) and two nests inside skulls, one of a cow, the other of a horse (Zuberbhüler 1971).

Troglodytes aedon [sensu lato]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

PANAMA: La Laguna (approximately 25 km NE Panama City), nestling death due to botflies, [included among the] causes of failures of nests that contained remains of eggs or young ( Freed 1986).

Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis pici ( Macquart, 1853)

PANAMA: Panama Canal Zone, larvae from an adult wren, identified by C.T. Greene ( Van Tyne 1929).

Troglodytes solstitialis [auricularis Cabanis, 1883]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

[ Philornis sp. ]

= “parasitosis (miasis) de Diptero”: Ferreira et al. 2005: 97 [distr.; host].

ARGENTINA: Salta: San Lorenzo, 1470-1480 m upon sea level, infested nestlings in 1 of 3 examined nests; all survive, without damages ( Ferreira et al. 2005).

Note: This record of Philornis is the first related to the Yungas Province (Amazonian Dominion) from Argentina.

TURDIDAE

Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 SIPHONAPTERA : Tungidae Hectopsylla psitacii Fraunfeld, 1860 BRAZIL: Berlin Zoological Garden, on a bird from Brazil (Jordan & Rothschild 1911); Brazil ( Pinto 1930); ( Costa Lima & Hathaway 1946); Berlin Zoological Garden, on a bird from Brazil ( Johnson 1957, following Jordan &

Rothschild 1911); brazilian record ( Linardi & Guimarães 2000); Berlin Zoological Gardens, 14-IX-1906, K. Lemm leg., 2 females [ZMH], on a bird from Brazil ( Blank et al. 2007).

Turdus sp.

= “ Tordus sp.”: Macchiavello 1948: 425 [distr.; host]

SIPHONAPTERA : Tungidae

Hectopsylla psitacii Fraunfeld, 1860

PERU [probably from Huacho] ( Macchiavello 1948).

TYRANNIDAE

Alectrurus tricolor (Vieillot, 1816)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

BRAZIL: Goiás: Parque Nacional Chapada dos Veadeiros, 6-XI-2006, one nest (# 3) with 3 infested nestlings, from a total of 5 examined nests ( Silva Braz 2008).

Elaenia chiriquensis Lawrence, 1867

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[Country: Locality not stated] ( Teixeira 1999); ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Note: Original citation was not found.

Elaenia spectabilis Pelzeln, 1868

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis torquans Nielsen, 1913

ARGENTINA: Santa Fe: 31º 23’ 08’’ S, 60º 55’ 00’’ W, IX-2006 to III-2007 and IX-2007 to III-2008, 40 % infested from 10 examined nestlings in 40 % infested from 5 examined nests; maximal intensity 6 larvae /nestling ( Antoniazzi et al. 2010) GoogleMaps .

Note: Apparently specimens reared from E. spectabilis were not sent to M. Couri for identification. Because P. torquans and P. seguyi are present in the same area ( Couri et al. 2009), identification of P. torquans given by Antoniazzi et al. (2010) needs a further corroboration.

Fluvicula nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[Country: Locality not stated] ( Teixeira 1999); ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Note: Original citation was not found.

Legatus leucophaius (Vieillot, 1818)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis deceptiva Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009 2010, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Machetornis rixosa (Vieillot, 1819)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

= Philornis torquans: De la Peña et al. 2003 .

= “larvas de moscas”: De la Peña 2005.

= Philornis: Antoniazzi et al. 2006 .

[ ARGENTINA: Santa Fe: 31º 23´S, 60º 55´W]: ( De la Peña 2005); Esperanza, Reserva de la Escuela de Agricultura, Ganadería y Granja ( Antoniazzi et al. 2006).

Note: Apparently specimens reared from M rixosa were not sent to M. Couri for identification. Because P. torquans and P. seguyi are present in the area ( Couri et al. 2009), identification of P. torquans given by De la Peña et al. (2003) needs a further corroboration. A nest of M. rixosa was mentioned as negative by Antoniazzi et al. (2010).

Megarhynchus pitangua (Linnaeus, 1766)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[Country: Locality not stated] ( Teixeira 1999); ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Note: Original citation was not found.

Mionectes macconnelli (Chubb, 1919)

= Pipromorpha macconneli: Teixeira 1999; Luz et al. 2009.

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ BRAZIL] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Myiarchus sp.

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis carinata Dodge, 1968

[ BRAZIL] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Myiarchus swainsoni [ swainsoni Cabanis & Heine, 1859 ]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis [sp.]

[ ARGENTINA: Santa Fe]: Esperanza, Reserva de la Escuela de Agricultura, Ganadería y Granja ( Antoniazzi et al. 2006).

Note: Apparently specimens reared from M. swainsoni swainsoni were not sent to M. Couri for identification. M. swainsoni is not mentioned by Antoniazzi et al. (2010).

Myiarchus tyrannulus [ tyrannulus (Müller, 1776) ]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis gagnei Couri, 1983b

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Myiozetetes cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)

[ BRAZIL] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis diminuta Couri, 1984

BRAZIL ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis frontalis Couri, 1984

BRAZIL ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis vulgaris Couri, 1984

BRAZIL ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[Country: Locality not stated] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Note: Carvalho (1960) cites Philornis sp. on M. cayanensis , but this work is not cited by Teixeira (1999) among its references. The first mention of Philornis on M. similis was apparently due to Dyrcz (2002) [ Panama]. The original citations for M. similis and Myiozetetes sp. mentioned by Teixeira (1999) were not found.

Myiozetetes sp.

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[Country: Locality not stated] ( Teixeira 1999); ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Note: Original citation was not found.

Pitangus sp.

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

[Country: Locality not stated] ( Teixeira 1999); ( Luz et al. 2009).

Note: Pitangus sp. [= sulphuratus ] was mentioned for P. torquans from Argentina ( Turienzo & Di Iorio 2007) or Philornis sp. for Pitangus sulphuratus from Brazil ( Di Iorio & Turienzo 2009), but no Pitangus sp. was given for some Philornis sp. (except by the mention of Teixeira 1999).

Pitangus sulphuratus [bolivianus (Lafresnaye, 1852)]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis torquans ( Nielsen, 1913)

= “larvas de moscas”: De la Peña 2006: 144 [figs.].

= Philornis spp. : Antoniazzi et al. 2008, Saravia Pietropaolo et al. 2008; Manzoli et al. 2008.

= Philornis torquans: De la Peña et al. 2003 ; Couri et al. 2009; Luz et al. 2009.

[ ARGENTINA: Santa Fe]: up to 45 larvae were counted ( De la Peña 2005); ( De la Peña 2006); Espinal forest, near Esperanza, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 ( Manzoli et al. 2008); Esperanza, Reserva de la Escuela de Agricultura, Ganadería y Granja], one of four preferential hosts ( Antoniazzi et al. 2008); Santa Fe ( Saravia Pietropaolo et al. 2008); Reserva de la Escuela de Agricultura, Ganadería y Granja (31º 23’ S, 60º 55’ W), XI-2007, Antoniazzi leg., 2 adults [ MNRJ], # SF00053c, reared from larvae ( Couri et al. 2009); ( Luz et al. 2009, following Texeira 1999); [locality not stated], effect of larva removal (25 treated) not observed respect to 33 controls ( Manzoli et al. 2010); 31º 23’ 08’’ S, 60º 55’ 00’’ W, IX-2006 to III-2007 and IX-2007 to III-2008, 44.7 % infested from 76 examined nestlings in 56.0 % infested from 25 examined nests; maximal intensity 47 larvae /nestling ( Antoniazzi et al. 2010).

Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766)

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859

BRAZIL: Ceará: Chapada do Araripe , [municipalities of Barbalha (7º 18'S, 38º 55' W) + Crato (7º 14' S, 39º 24' W) + Juazeiro do Norte (7º 12' S, 39º 18' W) + Misso Velha (7º 15' S, 39º 08' W) + Santana do Cariri (7º 11' S, 39º 44’ W)] GoogleMaps ,

14-III to 6-IV-2006, 32 exx., almost all of which were engorged, in a nest in a catole palm [ Syagrus oleracea ] ( Dias et al. 2008).

Pitangus sulphuratus [trinitatis Hellmayr, 1906]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis deceptiva Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999, Luz et al. 2010, following Teixeira 1999). Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis sanguinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis sp.

[ BRAZIL]: 32 larvae [in one nestling] ( Luz et al. 2010, following Couri 1985).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Serpophaga sp. n. [sensu Herzog & Barnett (2004)]

= Serpophaga griseiceps: Mezquida 2000 .

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

ARGENTINA: Mendoza: Reserva de la Biosfera Ñacuñán (34º 02’ S, 67º 58’ W), 2 infested of 5 examined nestlings, 1.8 % of 82 examined nests ( Mezquida 2000) GoogleMaps .

Stigmatura budytoides (Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

ARGENTINA: Mendoza: Reserva de la Biosfera Ñacuñán (34º 02’ S, 67º 58’ W), parasitism by larvae of flies ( Mezquida 2000) GoogleMaps .

Note: Parasitism in this bird is not mentioned by Mezquida (2002).

Sublegatus modestus [brevirostris? (D’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

= Philornis torquans: De la Peña et al. 2003

[ ARGENTINA: Santa Fe: 31º 23’ S, 60º 55’ W]: ( De la Peña 2005); Esperanza, Reserva de la Escuela de Agricultura, Ganadería y Granja ( Antoniazzi et al. 2006); Mendoza: Reserva de la Biosfera Ñacuñán (34º 02’ S, 67º 58’ W), parasitism by larvae of flies ( Mezquida 2000).

Note 1: Apparently specimens reared from S. modestus were not sent to M. Couri for identification. Because P. torquans and P. seguyi are present in the area ( Couri et al. 2009), identification of P. torquans given by De la Peña et al. (2003) needs a further corroboration. S. modestus is not mentioned by Antoniazzi et al. (2010).

Note 2: Parasitism in this bird is not mentioned by Mezquida (2002).

Suiriri islerorum Zimmer, Whittaker & Oren, 2001

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861) + Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968

= Philornis sp. : Duca Soares 2008: 37 [distr.; host; ref.]

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas (50 km from Brasilia) (Duca Soares 2008, following Higgins et al. 2005).

Suiriri suiriri (Vieillot, 1818)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861) + Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968

= Philornis sp. : Duca Soares 2008: 37 [distr.; host; ref.]

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas (50 km from Brasilia) (Duca Soares 2008, following Higgins et al. 2005).

Philornis torquans Nielsen, 1913

ARGENTINA: Santa Fe: 31º 23’ 08’’ S, 60º 55’ 00’’ W, IX-2006 to III-2007 and IX-2007 to III-2008, 3.3 % infested from 3 examined nestlings in 100 % infested from 1 examined nest; maximal intensity 3 larvae /nestling ( Antoniazzi et al. 2010) GoogleMaps .

Note: Apparently specimens reared from S. suiriri were not sent to M. Couri for identification. Because P. torquans and P. seguyi are present in the area ( Couri et al. 2009), identification of P. torquans given by Antoniazzi et al. (2010) needs a further corroboration.

Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD] ( Luz et al. 2009, following Teixeira 1999).

Xolmis cinerea (Vieillot, 1816)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis deceptivus ( Dodge & Aitken, 1968)

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: município Seropédica, Figure 1 - Pupae of Philornis fixed to the substrate of the nest, Figura 3 - Nestling parasitized by the larvae of Philornis ( Luz et al. 2009) .

Xolmis coronatus (Vieillot, 1823)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

ARGENTINA: Mendoza: Reserva de la Biosfera Ñacuñán (34º 02’ S, 67º 58’ W), parasitism by larvae of flies ( Mezquida 2000) GoogleMaps .

Note: Parasitism in this bird is not mentioned by Mezquida (2002).

TYTONIDAE

Tyto alba tuidara (Gray, 1878)

= Strix perlata: Weyenbergh, 1881: 267 [host]; Jordan & Rothschild 1906: 171 [host]; Wolffhügel 1912: 27 [distr.; host]; Riet 1941: 505 [host]; Hopkins & Rothschild 1953: 53 [parat.; host; ref.]

= Strix flammea perlata (coruja): Pinto 1930: 370 [hosts]

= Strix pelate [sic]: Hastriter & Méndez 2000.

= Asio flameus: Capri & Capri 1959: 582 [host]; Del Ponte & Riesel 1939; Johnson 1957; Capri & Capri 1959; Autino & Lareschi 1998.

SIPHONAPTERA : Tungidae

Hectopsylla narium Blank, Kutzscher, Masello, Pilgrim & Quillfeldt, 2007

ARGENTINA: Río Negro: El Condor near Viedma , 41º 03’ 23” S, 62º, 48' 10" W, 3/ 23-XII-2001, C. Kutzscher & J.F. Masello leg., 5 larvae [ DEIM; PRLC], from a nest ( Blank et al. 2007) .

Note: This flea is a parasite on the parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus . Tyto alba was nidificating in the burrows ( Blank et al. 2007), and its nest was accidentally infested.

Hectopsylla psitacii Fraunfeld, 1860

= Pulex ( Hectopsylla ?) testudo Weyenbergh, 1881: 267-271 : Jordan & Rothschild 1906: 171 [syn.]; Wolffhügel 1912: 27 [host; ref.]

= Hectopsylla testudo Weyenbergh, 1881: 270 [descr.; host]

ARGENTINA: [original locality not stated], in great number ( Weyenbergh 1881); ( Jordan & Rothschild 1906); ( Wolffhügel 1912, following Weyenbergh 1881); Argentina ( Pinto 1930); ( Costa Lima & Hathaway 1946); 3 females Paratypes H. testudo [ BMNH] ( Hopkins & Rothschild 1953); 1 female Lectotype, 2 females Paralectotypes, ex “ Strix pelate ” ( Hastriter & Méndez 2000) ; 3 females (Lectotype and 2 Paralectotypes P. testudo ) [ BMNH], coll. Weyenbergh, ex Strix perlata [= Tyto alba ] ( Blank et al. 2007).

Note 1: Weyenbergh (1881) gives to understand that he checks more than one T. alba [“No todas las lechuzas tienen este parasito; pero si lo tienen, es alguna vez muy abundante”].

Note 2: The error by Asio flammeus was originated by Pinto (1930). This bird was omitted by Costa Lima & Hathaway (1946), but mentioned by all posterior works ( Del Ponte & Riesel 1939, Johnson 1957, Capri & Capri 1959, Autino & Lareschi 1998). In contrast, Tyto alba was omitted by Del Ponte & Riesel (1939), Johnson (1957), Capri & Capri (1959), and Autino & Lareschi (1998).

UNDETERMINED FAMILY

Undetermined species

[birds’ nests]

COLEOPTERA

Curculionidae

Ctenomyophila sp.

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: Lassance, 1934, J.C. Penido leg., 2 exx. [ IOC], labelled “19,” “ Ctenomyophila ,” “C.L.,” “4/ 935,” “S,” “2133/ supporte n. 613/ caixa n. 84/ divisão n. 2/ lamina n. 2492,” “em ninho de ave” (Anonymous without date).

Scarabaeidae : Aphodiinae

Ataenius punctatohirsutus Schmidt, 1909

ARGENTINA: La Rioja : Dto. Capital, surroundings of La Rioja city, 1 female, in abandoned bird nest occupied by arboricolous rodents and T. platensis ( Martínez 1952) ; Chaco: Capitan Solari, 12-V-1954, Martínez leg. [ FIML], “en nido de ave” ( Stebnicka 2006).

Note: The locality of Capitán Solari was given by Stebnicka (2006) as “ Tucuman, Pto Péron, Capitán Solari,” but this locality is in the province of Chaco, in the time period of Presidente Perón (= “Pto Péron” of Stebnicka 2006, erratum pro Pte. Perón). The material collected by Martínez in a bird’s nest, together with rodents and Triatoma platensis (mentioned by Stebnicka 2006 according to Martínez 1952), does not correspond to the material listed and examined by Stebnicka (2006). Apparently A. punctatohirsutus was found twice in birds’ nests, once in La Rioja, prior to 1952 ( Martínez 1952), and a second time in Chaco ( Stebnicka 2006). Other eight freshly-emerged specimens [ FIML] were pinned together with the larval cocoons. These cells were oval in shape, 1-1.5 cm long, appearing to be an agglomerate of fine particles of excrements mixed with an argillaceous substance ( Stebnicka 2006).

SIPHONAPTERA

Ceratophyllidae

Dasypsyllus (Dasypsyllus) gallinulae perpinnatus Baker, 1904

MEXICO: Chiapas: San Cristobal de las Casas , 19-VII-1926, A. Dampf leg., 13 males [ InDRE], 9 females [ InDRE], from “bird nest,” identification confirmed by R.E. Lewis ( Salceda-Sánchez & Hastriter 2006) .

Dasypsyllus (Dasypsyllus) gallinulae (Dale, 1878)

ARGENTINA: Tucumán: Tafí del Valle, in one abandoned nest of an undetermined bird ( Johnson 1957, following Del Ponte & Capri 1952, Capri & Capri 1959); undetermined bird nest ( Autino & Lareschi 1998).

Note: Beaucournu & Castro (2003) erroneously mention D. gallinulae as “signalé sur Pajaro” when it was found in an abandoned nest, and attribute the reference for D. gallinulae only to Autino & Lareschi (1998). Moreover, Beaucournu & Castro (2003) also state that identification of D. gallinulae is dubious, and it can be Dasypsyllus lasius or D. stejnegeri . The work of Del Ponte & Capri (1952) was unavailable in all libraries of Argentina.

Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla) lasius venezuelensis (I. Fox & Anduze, 1947)

PANAMA: Chiriqui: near Cerro Punta , III-1962, C.L. Hayward & V.J. Tipton leg., male, 5 females, from nest of unknown host which contained both bird and rodent fleas and ticks ( Tipton & Mendez 1966) .

Dasypsyllus (Neornipsyllus) stejnegeri (Jordan, 1929)

MEXICO: Cerro Potosi, 1-V-1964, 2 females, from bird’s nest found in stump of tree, 2-V-1964, 2 females, from bird’s nest (containing 4 newly hatched birds), 2 females, 1 male, from bird’s nest (containing 5 eggs), last 2 nests in tree about 5 m above ground ( Tipton & Mendez 1968); Cerro Potosi, from “bird nest” ( Holland 1985, following Tipton & Mendez 1968).

Tungidae

Hectopsylla psitacii Fraunfeld, 1860

[ BRAZIL?]: [on] “ Turdus versicolor ” ( Costa Lima & Hathaway 1946).

Note 1: This name is nonexistent nor can it be applied to Turdidae because several species of different families were included in the old concept of Turdus .

Note 2: The original citation was not found.

* Hectopsylla stomis Jordan, 1925

ARGENTINA “parasite of bird ( Mephitis sp. )” [lapsus calami] ( Pinto 1930): Buenos Aires: Cañada Mariano ( Del Ponte & Riesel 1939, Capri & Capri 1959); Buenos Aires ( Autino & Lareschi 1998); Cañada Mariano, 30-XII-1912, Miss Runnacles leg., 1 female Holotype [ BMNH], 3 females Paratypes [ BMNH], plus 3 females [ BMNH], in alcohol ( Hopkins & Rothschild 1953), XII-1912, type series, “a small series” ( Johnson 1957); Cañada Mariano, XII-1912, 1 female Holotype [ BMNH?], from “bird,” 30-XII-1912, 4 females Paratypes [ BMNH], from “birds” ( Hastriter & Méndez 2000).

Note 1: This record is omitted in Costa Lima & Hathaway (1946).

Note 2: According to Beaucournu & Castro (2003), this flea is accidental on a bird, and the main host seems to be the rodent Lagostomus maximus (Desmarest, 1817) [ Rodentia : Chinchillidae ], given as the primary host by Hastriter & Méndez (2000).

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis molesta Meinert, 1890

BRAZIL: “west coast of Brazil,” type species of the genus, two larvae, on a leg and a wing in one nestling of an oscine bird (Dodge 1968, following Meinert 1890) .

Philornis sp.

= “¿ Philornis pici, Macq. ,?”: Shannon & Del Ponte 1926: 37 [distr.; host]

ARGENTINA: Tucumán: [locality not stated, prob. the city of Tucumán], 2 females, from young birds ( Shannon & Del Ponte 1926) .

Note 1: The specimens are probably located in the collection FIML.

Note 2: Likely Philornis torquans Nielsen, 1913 , found in Tucumán on several birds. First identifications of Philornis pici in the country have been questioned as dubious ( Couri et al. 2009).

HYMENOPTERA : Chalcididae

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787)

ECUADOR: Galápagos Islands: reared from Philornis downsi [from nests of some Darwins’ finches?] but its effect is unknown ( Causton et al. 2006).

Conura (Spilochalcis) annulifera (Walker, 1864)

= Spilochalcis ornitheia Burks, 1960 : fide Couri et al. 2006: 554, 556 [distr.; host; ref.]

TRINIDAD: [locality not stated], reared from puparia of Philornis collected in bird nests (Couri et al. 2006, following Burks 1960).

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

ZMH

Zoologisches Museum Hamburg

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

IOC

Colecao de Culturas de Fungos do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Loc

HYMENOPTERA

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola 2011
2011
Loc

Otus choliba:

Leite, G. A. & Matsui, Q. Y. & Couri, M. S. & Monteiro, A. R. 2009: 687
2009
Loc

Parapsyllus humboldti:

Smith, K. M. & Karesh, W. B. & Majluf, P. & Paredes, R. & Zavalaga, C. & Hoogesteijn Reul, A. & Stetter, M. & Braselton, W. E. & Puche, H. & Cook, R. A. 2007: 132
2007
Loc

Heleodytes unicolor

Lent, H. & Wygodzinsky, P. 1979: 329
1979
Loc

Asio flameus:

Capri, J. J. & Capri, N. A. R. de 1959: 582
1959
Loc

Rhynchopsyllus pulex:

Macchiavello, A. 1948: 426
1948
Loc

Crypturus obsoletus

Linardi, P. M. & Guimaraes, L. R. 2000: 85
Costa Lima, A. & Hathaway, C. R. 1946: 142
1946
Loc

Strix flammea perlata

Pinto, C. 1930: 370
1930
Loc

Spindalis puertoricensis (Bryant)

Wetmore, A. 1916: 121
1916
Loc

Strix perlata: Weyenbergh, 1881: 267

Hopkins, G. H. E. & Rothschild, M. 1953: 53
Riet, J. 1941: 505
Wolffhugel, K. 1912: 27
Jordan, K. & Rothschild, N. C. 1906: 171
Weyenbergh, H. 1881: 267
1881
Loc

Hectopsylla testudo

Weyenbergh, H. 1881: 270
1881