Chondrocyclus pondoensis

Cole, Mary L., 2019, Revision of Chondrocyclus s. l. (Mollusca: Cyclophoridae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 569, pp. 1-92: 33-35

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.569

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79BE13FC-B840-4C39-8D25-3328BDCC44D2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/101687E3-D570-FFEA-FDBF-ACC3FAD4D4FC

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chondrocyclus pondoensis
status

sp. nov.

Chondrocyclus pondoensis  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3913

Figs 10View Fig G–H, 16 A, 17

Diagnosis

Shell small, depressed, lenticular; protoconch not mammillate; periostracum with dense, erect, transverse costae, expanded to form five spiral rows of raised flanges: a paddle-shaped row at periphery, a row of well-developed quadrangularly-shaped flanges around umbilicus and above periphery and a row of lower semi-circular flanges below suture; operculum duplex, lamella forming outer portion of operculum step shaped and terminating in a long solid fringe, portion above fringe consists of a lattice-like network of interwoven bristles some fused to fringe, projecting well above fringe and sloping inward towards centre; umbilicus wide and deep, exposing all the whorls; radula  with three large cusps on second lateral tooth, cusps of rachidian, first and second lateral teeth fairly uniform in size; penis flattened dorsoventrally and laterally expanded about midway down the shaft, intromittent organ relatively long.

Etymology

Named for the distribution of the species, centered around the Pondoland region.

Type material examined

Holotype

SOUTH AFRICA – KwaZulu-Natal • Port Shepstone area, Marble Delta, Hlokohloko Valley , middle section, riverine/scarp forest; 30.6619° S, 30.3342° E; 175 m a.s.l.; Feb. 2012; J. Harvey leg.; in leaflitter; NMSA PView Materials 0643/ T 4160. ( Fig. 10View Fig G–H)GoogleMaps 

Paratypes

SOUTH AFRICA – KwaZulu-Natal • 8 specimens; same collection data as for holotype, NMSA WView Materials 8763/ T 4161GoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20160079View MaterialsGoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; RMNH. MOL.338286GoogleMaps  8 specimens; Port Shepstone area, Marble Delta, Hlokohloko Valley , middle section, riverine/scarp forest; 30.6608° S, 30.3325° E; 188 m a.s.l.; in leaf-litter, Feb. 2012; J. Harvey leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA WView Materials 8733/ T 4162GoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMW. Z.2016.003.00002GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Port Shepstone area, Marble Delta, Hlokohloko Valley , middle section, riverine/scarp forest; 30.6622° S, 30.3386° E; 145 m a.s.l.; Feb. 2012; J. Harvey leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA WView Materials 8765/ T 4171GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; RMNH. MOL.338287GoogleMaps  17 specimens; Port Shepstone, Simuma area, Hlokohloko valley , riverine/scarp forest; 30.6631° S: 30.3368° E; ca 150–200 m a.s.l.; 5 Mar. 2011; Herbert and Davis leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA WView Materials 7844/ T 4144GoogleMaps  7 specimens; Umtamvuna Nature Reserve, Port Edward, Old Pont Road , 2.5 km upstream of mouth; 31.0603° S, 30.1725° E; 56 m a.s.l.; 13 Apr. 2011; M. Cole, D. Herbert, L. Davies and R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16940View Materials / T 113GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03627/ T 114GoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120271View MaterialsGoogleMaps  . – Eastern Cape • 1 specimen; Mtentu , north bank; 31.2400° S, 30.0367° E; 20 May 2005; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; ELM W 03027View Materials / T 109GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Mtentu , north bank, 1.5 km upstream, inlet to first waterfall, on east side of inlet; 31.2389° S, 30.0340° E; 13 Jan. 2012; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17406View Materials / T 110GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W 03602View Materials / T 111GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Mtentu , north bank, 3 km upstream of mouth, inlet to second waterfall, west side of inlet; 31.2295° S, 30.0182° E; 43 m a.s.l.; 12 Jan. 2012; M. Cole leg.; ELM W 03603View Materials / T 112GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Mkambati Nature Reserve, ‘ Superbowl’ forest, 5 km upstream of Msikaba mouth, east side of Msikaba River ; 31.2978° S, 29.9293° E; 3 May 2004; M. Bursey leg.; in leaf-litter; ELM D14256View Materials / T 107GoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 18 May 2005; ELM D15585View Materials / T 108GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Mbotyi, Drewes camp, east of village, dune forest at east end of beach, just before cliffs; 31.4432° S, 29.7686° E; 13 Jan. 2003; M Bursey leg.; ELM D14396View Materials / T 106GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Ntafufu , below lodge, west bank, 2 km upstream of mouth; 31.5514° S, 29.6175° E; 24 Apr. 2005; D.- J. Hodgkinson leg.; ELM D15532View Materials / T 101GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Ntafufu , east bank, 1.5 km upstream of mouth; 31.5565° S, 29.6261° E; 24 Apr. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15531View Materials / T 102GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Mpame forest ; 32.0856° S, 29.0306° E; 19 Feb. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16941View Materials / T 105GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Xora, Kumqolo Forest, west bank of Xora River opposite mangrove swamp; 32.1589° S, 28.9848° E); 25 Oct. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15537View Materials / T 103GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; 13 Aug. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM W 03663View Materials / T 104GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Manubi forest ; 32.4426° S, 28.6130° E; 3 Oct. 2017; M. Cole leg.; ELM W 04034View Materials / T 203GoogleMaps  .

Description

SHELL ( Fig. 17View Fig A–C). Small, depressed, lenticular, adult diameter 4.59–6.18 mm, height 2.42–3.42 mm, diameter:height 1.59–2.00 (n = 19). Spire not much raised, protoconch not mammillate. Embryonic shell just over 1.5 whorls, microscopically malleate, junction between embryonic shell and teleoconch not particularly distinct, initially costae weak, becoming well developed after about a quarter of a whorl ( Fig. 17DView Fig). Teleoconch comprising 2.75 whorls, moderately convex, rapidly increasing, suture deeply impressed. Aperture circular, last whorl descending near aperture, peristome simple, continuous and free. Umbilicus wide and deep, exposing all the whorls. Periostracum glossy, honey-brown and lacquer-like with dense lamellate costae at regular intervals, approx. 154–184 (n = 14) on last whorl, expanded into five spiral rows of flanges: a paddle-shaped row at periphery, a row of well-developed quadrangularly-shaped flanges around umbilicus and above periphery and a row of lower semi-circular flanges below suture; flanges bear numerous axial riblets visible at very high magnification ( Fig. 17 EView Fig); intervals between costae with microscopic axial threads. Shell translucent, glossy, corneous yellowbrown when fresh.

LIVING ANIMAL. Creamy white with slight pigmentation on tentacles.

OPERCULUM ( Fig. 17View Fig G–H). Duplex, outer portion consists of multispiral lamella with 4.5–5 whorls; lamellar blade high, stepped, long fringe emanates near top of vertical portion of blade; blade projects high above fringe and slopes inward towards centre, upper portion of lamellar blade consists of latticelike network of interwoven bristles, some bristles connected to main fringe so there is no groove between fringe and lamellar blade ( Fig. 17 GView Fig); at the growing edge the top portion of lamellar blade is more or less square, not sloping, becoming arrow shaped below fringe ( Fig. 17 HView Fig). Outer lamellar fringe reflexed over peristome preventing animal withdrawing into shell.

RADULA ( Fig. 17 FView Fig). Rachidian with five cusps, central one slightly longer; first and second laterals each with three large cusps, a smaller fourth and a vestigial fifth, cusps increase in size very slightly from central tooth outwards, but there is not a large difference in size between cusps.

PENIS ( Fig. 17View Fig I–J). Expanded towards distal end, intromittent organ relatively long.

Distribution and habitat

Known primarily from near the coast between Xora in Transkei and Umtamvuna in southern Kwazulu- Natal, and also recorded inland in the Port Shepstone area (ca 200 m a.s.l.) ( Fig. 16 AView Fig). (The Transkei is the area of the Eastern Cape Province between the Kei and Umtamvuna Rivers.)

Indigenous Scarp Forest of the Pondoland Gorge and Transkei Coastal Scarp subtypes ( von Maltitz et al. 2003), adjacent to rivers, in leaf litter. Scarp forests are a forest type occurring on south- and east-facing hills and gorges of the first plateau escarpment (300– 1100 m) and unique to the east of South Africa.

Remarks

Morphologically, C. pondoensis  sp. nov. resembles C. trifimbriatus  in features of the periostracum, operculum and radula. The position of spiral rows of flanges is equivalent in C. pondoensis  sp. nov. and C. trifimbriatus  specimens from the type locality. The radulae have teeth with cusps relatively uniform in size. The operculum of C. pondoensis  sp. nov. is flatter than that of coastal species of Chondrocyclus  . However, it is distinguished from that of C. trifimbriatus  by the outer lamellar blade projecting high above the fringe and sloping towards the centre and a well-developed lattice of interwoven bristles joining the lamellar blade to the fringe ( Fig. 17 GView Fig). Other species bearing a lattice of interwoven bristles at the top edge of lamellar blade, fused with the main fringe are the coastal C. putealis Conolly, 1939  , C. bathrolophodes Conolly, 1929  and C. cooperae  sp. nov. but these species have a relatively deep operculum.

In the molecular study, C. pondoensis  sp. nov. did not appear related to C. trifimbriatus  or to any other lineages ( Cole et al. 2019).

In coastal areas of Transkei where C. pondoensis  sp. nov. is sympatric with C. putealis  and C. cooperae  sp. nov. specimens appeared to be scarce and patchily distributed, while at localities in southern KwaZulu-Natal (Umtamvuna Nature Reserve and Hlokohloko valley inland of Port Shepstone) where C. pondoensis  sp. nov. was the only Chondrocyclus  species recorded, specimens appeared to be common.

F

Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department

CB

The CB Rhizobium Collection

B

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet

BB

Buffalo Bill Museum

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

J

University of the Witwatersrand

NMSA

KwaZulu-Natal Museum

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

MOL

Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Z

Universit�t Z�rich

M

Botanische Staatssammlung M�nchen

L

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

ELM

East London Museum

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

G

Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève

H

University of Helsinki

C

University of Copenhagen