Chondrocyclus cooperae,

Cole, Mary L., 2019, Revision of Chondrocyclus s. l. (Mollusca: Cyclophoridae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 569, pp. 1-92: 49-53

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.569

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79BE13FC-B840-4C39-8D25-3328BDCC44D2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/101687E3-D560-FFFC-FDAA-AC5FFAD4D1A1

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chondrocyclus cooperae
status

sp. nov.

Chondrocyclus cooperae  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:16788

Figs 10View Fig M–N, 16 B, 24

Chondrocyclus putealis – Herbert & Kilburn 2004: 91  .

Diagnosis

Shell small, depressed, lenticular; periostracum with dense axial costae expanded into seven spiral rows of flanges on last whorl: one at periphery, and three each between periphery and suture and between periphery and umbilicus; costae and flanges bear numerous tiny vertical ridges; operculum duplex, exterior concave portion shaped like a wide cup or bowl, multispiral lamella with horizontal shelf of interwoven bristles spiralling up on inside of bowl, fused to a very long, loose fringe reflexed over peristome; radula with three large cusps on second lateral tooth; penis flattened dorsoventrally with prominent lateral expansion on left of shaft towards distal end, and with a characteristic long intromittent organ.

Etymology

Named for Janna Cooper, who helped collect specimens of this species and in recognition of her intimate knowledge of the Transkei coast.

Type material examined

Holotype

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • Umtiza Nature Reserve, east side of Buffalo Pass , indigenous scarp forest; 33.0144° S: 27.8081° E; 21 Apr. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; in leaf litter; NMSA WView Materials 9271/ T 3074. ( Fig. 10View Fig M–N)GoogleMaps 

Paratypes

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • 2 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; ELM D14918View Materials / T 122GoogleMaps  15 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; M. Cole leg., 18 Mar. 2011; ELM D16936View Materials / T 120GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 3623/ T 121GoogleMaps  4 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120280View MaterialsGoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMSA WView Materials 9275/ T 3076GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; NMW. Z.2012.065.00009GoogleMaps  3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; RMNH MOL.330502GoogleMaps  3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 20 May 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17008View Materials / T 123GoogleMaps  4 specimens; Hickmans River , dune forest west of lagoon; 33.0700° S, 27.8364° E; 15 Mar. 2003; M. Bursey; ELM D16934View Materials / T 124GoogleMaps  15 specimens; East London, Nahoon estuary east bank, 1 km upstream of mouth; 32.9804° S, 27.9433° E; 2 Jun. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15533View Materials / T 126GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 3681/ T 125GoogleMaps  3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 8 Dec. 2009; M. Cole leg., ELM D16931View Materials / T 127GoogleMaps  11 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03621/ T 128GoogleMaps  7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 30 Mar. 2011; M. Cole and D.- J. Hodgkinson leg., ELM WView Materials 03622/ T 129GoogleMaps  5 specimens; Gqunube Green, east bank of Gonubie River , 1 km upstream of mouth, forest on steep slope; 32.9329° S, 28.0235° E; 9 Apr. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM WView Materials 03028/ T 130GoogleMaps  5 specimens; Gqunube Green, Wilderness Valley, tributary of Gonubie River on east bank 2.5 km upstream of mouth; 32.9303° S, 28.0128° E; 11 Apr. 2002; M. Cole leg., ELM D17009View Materials / T 131GoogleMaps  4 specimens; Kwelera, Monrepos, Schultz Farm ; 32.8883° S, 28.0417° E; 13 Nov. 2007; M. Cole leg., ELM D15603View Materials / T 132GoogleMaps  11 specimens; Viskop, east bank of Cefane River ; 32.8047° S, 28.1319° E; 20 Nov. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15121View Materials / T 133GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03112/ T 134GoogleMaps  12 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 30 Dec. 2009; M. Cole leg., ELM D16929View Materials / T 135GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03620/ T 136GoogleMaps  3 specimens; Mazeppa Bay, east bank of Sihlontlweni estuary near mouth; 32.4783° S; 28.6460° E; 28 m a.s.l.; 23 Apr. 2015; M. Cole leg., ELM D17931View Materials / T 137GoogleMaps  3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03867/ T 138GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Colleywobbles , south facing slope above vulture colony, sparse thicket invaded with Lantana  ; 31.9833° S, 28.5833° E; 20 Feb. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D14968View Materials / T 139GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Dwesa Nature Reserve , forest along roadside east of camp; 32.1528° S, 28.8417° E; 7 Mar. 2000; M. Bursey leg.; ELM WView Materials 03212/ T 140; 5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 20 Feb. 2011; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16935View Materials / T 141GoogleMaps  3 specimens; Xora, Nxeni Forest, east bank of Ntlonyane River ; 32.1933° S, 28.9574° E; 8 Nov. 2012; M. and K. Cole leg., ELM D17499View Materials / T 142GoogleMaps  13 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03813/ T 143GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Mpame forest ; 32.0856° S, 29.0306° E; 20 Feb. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16937View Materials / T 144GoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03624/ T 145GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Hluleka Nature Reserve , forest on north bank of river, steeply sloping, after second bridge along forest road; 31.8196° S, 29.3155° E; 20 Apr. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15529View Materials / T 146GoogleMaps  4 specimens; Port St. Johns, east bank of Umzimvubu River , 3 km upstream; 31.5972° S, 29.5350° E; 6 Jul. 2006; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; alive in leaflitter; ELM D15227View Materials / T 147GoogleMaps  3 specimens; Port St. Johns, travertine deposit area, 26 km upstream on Umzimvubu River ; 31.5211° S, 29.4569° E; 22 Apr. 2005; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; ELM D15311View Materials / T 148GoogleMaps  7 specimens; Mbotyi, forest near Mkozi River, south-facing forest on steep slope on east bank of Mkozi River ; 31.4459° S, 29.7549° E; 2 Mar. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D14394View Materials / T 149GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 2836/ T 150GoogleMaps  .

Other material examined

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • 1 specimen; Umtiza Nature Reserve, east side of Buffalo Pass , indigenous scarp forest; 33.0144° S, 27.8081° E; Nov. 1993; C. J. Vernon leg.; ELM D13141View MaterialsGoogleMaps  32 spcimens; East London, Nahoon estuary east bank, 1 km upstream of mouth; 32.9804° S, 27.9433° E; 30 Mar. 2011; M. Cole and D.- J. Hodgkinson leg.; ELM D16932View MaterialsGoogleMaps  1 specimen; East London, forest below casino, west bank of Nahoon River near Abbotsford causeway, 4.5 km upstream of mouth; 32.9692° S, 27.906000° E; 28 Jan. 2008; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16959View MaterialsGoogleMaps  4 specimens; Gqunube Green, east bank of Gonubie River , 1 km upstream of mouth, forest on steep slope; 32.9329° S, 28.0235° E; 9 Apr. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D13644View MaterialsGoogleMaps  1 specimen; Inkwenkwezi Private Game Reserve, inland of Cintsa ; 32.8333° S, 28.0667° E; 22 Nov. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15186View MaterialsGoogleMaps  4 specimens; Viskop, east bank of Cefane River ; 32.8047° S, 28.1319° E; 8 Apr. 2000; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D16930View MaterialsGoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 15 Jun. 2000; ELM D15536View MaterialsGoogleMaps  3 specimens; Morgan’s Bay, Yellowood Park , 2 km upstream of mouth, riverine forest on south-west facing slope, predominantly Strelitzia nicolai  ; 32.6967° S, 28.3347° E; 14 Mar. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15338View MaterialsGoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 6 Mar. 2011; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16968View MaterialsGoogleMaps  1 specimen; Dwesa Nature Reserve , forest along roadside east of camp; 32.1528° S, 28.8417° E; 5 Mar. 2000; M. Bursey leg.; ELM WView Materials 03261GoogleMaps  28 specimens; Xora, Nxeni Forest, east bank of Ntlonyane River ; 32.1933° S, 28.9574° E; 11 Aug. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16938View MaterialsGoogleMaps  7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM WView Materials 03625GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Sinangwana, Sigxeni Forest, east bank of Sinangwana River ; 31.7474° S, 29.3708° E; 21 Apr. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15427View MaterialsGoogleMaps  3 specimens; Port St. Johns, east side of Umzimvubu River in valley north of Mount Sullivan ; 31.5899° S, 29.5451° E; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; 6 Jul. 2006; alive in leaf-litter; ELM D15235View MaterialsGoogleMaps  .

Description

SHELL ( Fig. 24View Fig A–C). Small, depressed, lenticular, adult diameter 4.51–6.51 mm, height 2.25–4.01 mm, diameter:height 1.44–2.32 (n = 66, measured in several populations throughout the range). Spire not much raised, apex almost flat ( Fig. 24 AView Fig). Embryonic shell ( Fig. 23DView Fig) just under 1.75 whorls, microscopically malleate, roughest in centre, junction between embryonic shell and teleoconch evident with appearance of a few weak costae, but not sharply demarcated. Teleoconch comprising 2.75 whorls, moderately convex, rapidly increasing, suture deeply impressed. Aperture circular, last whorl descending strongly near aperture, peristome simple, continuous and free. Umbilicus wide and deep, exposing all the whorls ( Fig. 24 CView Fig). Periostracum glossy, honey-brown and lacquer-like with dense lamellate axial costae at regular intervals, density varying between populations, 105–179 (n = 27, counted in three separate populations), expanded into tall quadrangularly-shaped flanges at periphery, and six additional spiral rows of lowerstanding flanges on body whorl, three between suture and periphery and three rows between periphery and umbilicus, the row closest to umbilicus weaker than other rows ( Fig. 24View Fig A–C); flanges and portion of costae near umbilicus bear axial ridges visible at very high magnification ( Fig. 24 EView Fig); intervals between costae with microscopic axial threads. Shell translucent, glossy, honey-brown when fresh.

LIVING ANIMAL. Head, tentacles and snout dark grey, underside of foot creamy white.

OPERCULUM ( Fig. 24View Fig G–H).Duplex, outer multispiral portion with5.5 whorls forming a widely cupolaeform cup or bowl, upper edge of lamellar blade thickened, forming a horizontal shelf of interwoven bristles in a lattice-like pattern; in the outermost whorl the latter is continuous with a very long fringe reflexed over peristome and preventing operculum being withdrawn into shell; in earlier whorls this fringe is not visible and appears fused with the lamella; growing edge of lamella arrow shaped. Surface of lamella of last whorl tuberculate at high magnification.

RADULA ( Fig. 24 FView Fig). Rachidian with five cusps, central one approx. twice length of outer two on each side; first and second lateral teeth similar but second is larger, each with four cusps and a vestigial fifth; first three cusps gradually increasing in size from centre outwards and fourth very small.

PENIS ( Fig. 24View Fig I–J). Shaft dorsoventrally flattened, with large lateral expansion on left side, with numerous annular rugae, distal end smooth and not bulbous, intromittent organ very long.

Distribution and habitat

Endemic to Eastern Cape from East London to Mbotyi, primarily near the coast. The range of C. cooperae  sp. nov. overlaps with that of C. bathrolophodes  in the west, and C. pondoensis  sp. nov. in the east ( Fig. 16 BView Fig).

Indigenous Scarp Forest ( Mucina & Geldenhuys 2006) and Eastern Cape Dune Forest ( von Maltitz et al. 2003), in leaf litter.

Remarks

Chondrocyclus cooperae  sp. nov. resembles C. bathrolophodes  and C. putealis  in general shape, operculum and radula, but differs consistently in the larger number of spiral rows of periostracal flanges. The very long intromittent organ of the penis is unmistakable and immediately distinguishes the species.

B

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

M

Botanische Staatssammlung M�nchen

NMSA

KwaZulu-Natal Museum

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

ELM

East London Museum

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Z

Universit�t Z�rich

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

J

University of the Witwatersrand

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

C

University of Copenhagen

F

Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Architaenioglossa

Family

Cyclophoridae

Genus

Chondrocyclus

Loc

Chondrocyclus cooperae

Cole, Mary L. 2019
2019
Loc

Chondrocyclus putealis – Herbert & Kilburn 2004: 91

Herbert D. & Kilburn D. 2004: 91