Chondrocyclus amathole,

Cole, Mary L., 2019, Revision of Chondrocyclus s. l. (Mollusca: Cyclophoridae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 569, pp. 1-92: 26-30

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.569

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79BE13FC-B840-4C39-8D25-3328BDCC44D2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/101687E3-D549-FFD5-FDAB-AABDFB45D008

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chondrocyclus amathole
status

sp. nov.

Chondrocyclus amathole  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:2B4E9251-C68B-450D-9EC6-820

Figs 9View Fig, 10View Fig D–E, 14

Chondrocyclus alabastris – Connolly 1939: 539  .

Diagnosis

Shell small, very depressed, discoidal to lenticular; protoconch mammillate; periostracum with dense transverse costae developing at periphery broad quadrangular flanges; lamellate axial costae with dense axial riblets, rendering upper edge of each costa scalloped along its length; operculum duplex, exterior portion very shallowly concave to almost flat, multispiral lamella with fringe of very long bristles, fused at their tips, below main fringe is a second shorter fringe of loose bristles; umbilicus wide, exposing all the whorls; radula with two large cusps on second lateral tooth.

Etymology

Named after the Amathole Mountains, Eastern Cape, an area of natural and historic interest.

Type material examined

Holotype

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • Amathole Mountains, Hogsback, downstream of Madonna and Child Waterfall , Southern Mistbelt forest ; 32.6068°S, 26.9622°E; 1061 m a.s.l.; 6 Apr. 2014; M. Cole, D. Herbert and L. Davis leg.; NMSA P0640View Materials /T4157. ( Fig. 10View Fig D–E)GoogleMaps 

Paratypes

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • 18 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; ELM W3812View Materials / T59GoogleMaps  21 specimens; Hogsback, downstream of Madonna and Child Waterfall ; 32.6068°S, 26.9622°E; 1061 m a.s.l.; 31 Dec. 2008; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D16944View Materials /T55GoogleMaps  9 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3629View Materials /T56GoogleMaps  22 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; M. Cole leg., 13 Sep. 2012; ELM D17014View Materials /T57GoogleMaps  6 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3665View Materials / T58GoogleMaps  4 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMSA P0601View Materials /T4115GoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120278View MaterialsGoogleMaps  3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMW.Z.2012.065.00008GoogleMaps  3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; RMNH MOL.33050GoogleMaps  3 specimens; Hogsback, forest above Hobbiton Camp, Southern Mistbelt forest ; 32.5958°S, 26.9617°E; 1253 m a.s.l.; 1 Dec. 2005; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; ELM W02966View Materials /T54GoogleMaps  13 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 13 Sep. 2012; ELM D17013View Materials /T60GoogleMaps  13 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3662View Materials /T61GoogleMaps  28 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 10 Jun. 2013; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17338View Materials /T63GoogleMaps  7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 6 Apr. 2014; M. Cole, D. Herbert and L. Davis leg.; ELM W3811View Materials /T62GoogleMaps  1 specimen; Kologha Forest, Evelyn valley, north side of Maden Dam , Murray’s Krantz ; 32.7257°S, 27.3078°E; 25 Apr. 1998; M. Bursey and N. Smith leg.; alive under a log; ELM D14417View Materials /T76GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3693View Materials /T77GoogleMaps  13 specimens; Isidenge , SE of Mount Kemp, harvested site, south-facing forest; 32.6885° S, 27.2783°E; 1159 m a.s.l.; 5Apr. 2016; M. Cole leg.; ELM D18082View Materials /T198GoogleMaps  4 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03915View Materials /T196GoogleMaps  23 specimens; Isidenge, Sandile’s Rest, small patch of forest near base of Mount Kemp ; 32.6614° S, 27.3004° E; 900 m a.s.l.; 7 Apr. 2016; M. Cole leg.; ELM D18077View Materials /T200GoogleMaps  8 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03914View Materials /T195GoogleMaps  3 specimens; Stutterheim, Kologha Forest , waterfall walk from picnic site; 32.5339°S, 27.4308°E; 18 Jan. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM W3633View Materials /T64GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 22 Dec. 2009; M. Cole and T. Pretorius leg.; ELM D16942View Materials /T65GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03628View Materials /T66GoogleMaps  2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 11 Dec. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM W3634View Materials /T67GoogleMaps  4 specimens; Qacu forest ; 32.4031°S, 27.4486° E; 6 Apr. 2016; M. Cole leg.; ELM D18126View Materials /T201GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03917View Materials /T197GoogleMaps  5 specimens; Patchwood Farm, forest at source of Quanti River ; 32.3924°S, 27.4470°E; 1238 m a.s.l.; 18 Dec. 2012; M. and K. Cole leg.; ELM D17100View Materials /T80GoogleMaps  3 specimens; Patchwood Farm , forest below (north of) house; 32.3875° S, 27.4501° E; 1196 m a.s.l.; 6 Apr. 2016; M. Cole leg.; ELM D18140View Materials /T199GoogleMaps  8 specimens; Fort Fordyce , south facing slope near top of pass; 32.6843° S, 26.4956° E; 1110 m a.s.l.; 29 Dec. 2008; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16946View Materials /T68GoogleMaps  19 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3630View Materials /T69GoogleMaps  36 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 3 Jan. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16947View Materials /T70GoogleMaps  12 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3632View Materials /T71GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; 31 Dec. 2011; ELM D17005View Materials /T72GoogleMaps  7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3631View Materials /T73GoogleMaps  4 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120279View MaterialsGoogleMaps  4 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMSA P0600View Materials /T4111GoogleMaps  10 specimens; Fort Fordyce , south facing slope behind lookout; 32.6956°S, 26.4857°E; 1120 m a.s.l.; 30 Dec. 2008; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16950View Materials /T74GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 17 Jan. 2015; ELM D17860View Materials /T75GoogleMaps  10 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 1 Apr. 2016; ELM D18116View Materials / T202GoogleMaps  3 specimens; Kapp River , north bank, indigenous riverine forest on shady, south-facing slope; 33.4830° S, 27.0807°E; 30 Dec. 2002; M. Bursey; ELM W3694View Materials /T78GoogleMaps  2 specimens; Beggars’ Bush , 15 km E of Grahamstown, south facing slope; 33.2871°E, 26.6885°E; 25 Feb. 2013; M. Cole, G. Godfrey and S. Ritcher leg.; ELM D17289View Materials /T79  .

Other material examined

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • 5 specimens; Amathole Mountains: Hogsback, downstream of Madonna and Child Waterfall , Southern Mistbelt forest ; 32.6068° S, 26.9622°E; 1061 m a.s.l.; 25 Jan. 2002; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D13627View MaterialsGoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W02834View MaterialsGoogleMaps  6 specimens; Hogsback, forest above Hobbiton Camp, Southern Mistbelt forest ; 32.5958° S, 26.9617° E, 1253 m a.s.l.; 31 Dec. 2008; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D16945View MaterialsGoogleMaps  14 specimens; Kologha Forest, near Stutterheim ; 32.5333°S, 27.3667° E; 27 Nov. 1993; R. Scott leg.; ELM D14405View MaterialsGoogleMaps  5 specimens; Stutterheim, Kologha Forest, forest drive near Protea Hill ; 32.5558° S, 27.3175°E; 26 Jan. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16943View MaterialsGoogleMaps  1 specimen; Stutterheim, Kologha Forest , waterfall walk from picnic site; 32.5339° S, 27.4308°E; 30 Dec. 2012; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17623View MaterialsGoogleMaps  3 specimens; Fort Fordyce , kloof with watercourse, running eastwards; 32.6704° S, 26.4851° E; 1137 m a.s.l.; 29 Dec. 2008; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16949View MaterialsGoogleMaps  3 specimens; Fort Fordyce , top of krantz near campsite; 32.6813° S, 26.4802°E; 1134 m a.s.l.; 30 Dec. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16948View MaterialsGoogleMaps  7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W3631View MaterialsGoogleMaps  2 specimens; Patchwood Farm, forest at source of Quanti River ; 32.3924° S, 27.4470° E, 1238 m a.s.l.; 18 Dec. 2012; M and K Cole leg.; ELM W03695View MaterialsGoogleMaps  3 specimens; Patchwood Farm , forest below (north of) house; 32.3875° S, 27.4501°E); 1196 m a.s.l.; M. Cole leg.; 18 Dec. 2012 ELM D17107View MaterialsGoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03699View MaterialsGoogleMaps  .

Description

SHELL ( Fig. 14View Fig A–C). Small, very depressed, discoidal to lenticular, adult diameter 5.09–7.4 mm, height 2.34–3.92 mm, diameter:height 1.52–2.54 (n = 68 measured in three populations spanning the Amathole Mountains). Spire little exserted, apex mammillate. Embryonic shell ( Fig. 14EView Fig) 2.25 whorls, microscopically malleate, junction between embryonic shell and teleoconch evident with development of costae on teleoconch. Teleoconch comprising 2.5 whorls, convex, very rapidly increasing, suture deeply impressed. Aperture circular, last whorl descending near aperture, peristome simple, continuous and free. Umbilicus wide, exposing all the whorls. Periostracum glossy, honey-brown and lacquerlike with dense lamellate costae at regular intervals, 73–167 (n = 58) on last whorl, expanded into broad quadrangular flanges at periphery; lamellar blades ridged with dense axial riblets, rendering upper edge of each blade scalloped along its length; intervals between costae with about 6 microscopic axial threads. Shell translucent glossy honey-brown when fresh.

LIVING ANIMAL. Head, tentacles and snout dark grey, underside of foot creamy white.

OPERCULUM ( Fig. 14D, GView Fig). Duplex, very shallowly concave to almost flat; outer portion consists of multispiral lamella with five–six whorls; each step-shaped; height of lamellar blade very low; fringe of very long bristles, fused at their tips but not along their entire length, below main fringe is a second shorter fringe of relatively loose bristles, long outer fringe of each whorl fused to lamella of following whorl, but due to its long length, fringe forms convex curve between one whorl and next, height of fringe of each whorl exceeds height of lamellar blade, outermost lamellar fringe very long and is reflexed over peristome in life, but operculum can be withdrawn into aperture.

RADULA ( Fig. 14FView Fig). Rachidian with five cusps, central cusp approx. twice length of outer cusps; first lateral tooth usually with three large cusps, small fourth cusp and a vestigial fifth, third cusp (from centre) largest; second lateral with two large cusps, second cusp (from centre) longer and broader than first, a very small third cusp and a vestigial fourth.

PENIS ( Fig. 14View Fig H–I). Shaft more or less cylindrical, slightly flattened, with prominent annular rugae, distal end smooth, intromittent organ short.

Distribution and habitat

Throughout the Amathole Mountains and extending eastwards towards the Kei River in isolated forest patches; also recorded at Beggars’ Bush near Grahamstown and at Kap River Nature Reserve near the mouth of the Great Fish River ( Fig. 9View Fig).

Amathole Mistbelt forest (Southern Mistbelt Forest group) ( von Maltitz et al. 2003) and Great Fish Thicket (Kap River) ( Hoare et al. 2006); in leaf-litter.

Remarks

The operculum of Chondrocyclus amathole  sp. nov. is unique among all other Chondrocyclus  species in its flatness, its long terminal fringe and relatively long secondary fringe below it and the low height of the multispiral lamellar blade. Chondrocyclus amathole  sp. nov. was sister to C. alabastris  and formed a well-supported clade (the Southern-Eastern Cape clade) with C. herberti  sp. nov. and C. silvicolus  sp. nov. ( Fig. 1View Fig). The periostracal flanges of C. amathole  sp. nov. were broad and quadrangular while in the other three species in its clade, the flanges were pointed. In this feature, C. amathole  sp. nov. resembled species in the Eastern Clade, but differed from species in the latter clade in all other diagnostic morphological features, i.e., single row of flanges at periphery, unique operculum, radula with two large cusps on second lateral tooth, cyclindrical penis ( Cole et al. 2019).

The Amathole Range is an outlier of the southern end of the Drakensberg, isolated by the valleys of the Great Fish and Great Kei Rivers ( Stuckenberg 1962) and is known for endemicity of many low-vagility forest-dependent taxa, including molluscs ( Connolly 1939; Herbert & Moussalli 2010; unpublished data), forest-floor spiders ( Griswold 1985), velvet worms ( Daniels & Ruhberg 2010), harvestmen ( de Bivort & Giribet 2010) and two frogs. Furthermore, populations of velvet worms in close geographic proximity are genetically discrete, suggesting that the historic contractions and expansions of forests in this region left a significant and complex impact on the phylogeography of low-vagility organisms ( Daniels et al. 2017).

Chondrocyclus amathole  sp. nov. has been recorded in two localities geographically separated from the mistbelt forests of the Amatholes, indicative of past vegetation shifts. The population of C. amathole  sp. nov. in the outlying forest patch, Beggars’ Bush near Grahamstown, was separated from populations of the sister species, C. alabastris  on the opposite ridge, by a dry intervening valley. Beggars’ Bush is currently separated from the Amathole mountains by the dry Great Fish River basin although both regions are designated Amathole Mistbelt in certain classification systems and distinguished from other Southern Mistbelt forests ( von Maltitz et al. 2003). The presence of C. amathole  sp. nov. near the mouth of the Great Fish River suggests a link between the coast and the Amathole Mountains, a pattern also demonstrated in other taxa (e.g., Streptocarpus ( Hughes et al. 2005))  . The Great Fish River basin has been identified as an area of persistence of thicket during the contractions of the LGM ( Potts et al. 2012). The distribution pattern in this eastern subclade of the Southern-Eastern Cape clade (i.e., C. alabastris  and C. amathole  sp. nov.) is mirrored by rhytidid snails ( Herbert & Moussalli 2010, 2016).

NMSA

KwaZulu-Natal Museum

ELM

East London Museum

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Architaenioglossa

Family

Cyclophoridae

Genus

Chondrocyclus

Loc

Chondrocyclus amathole

Cole, Mary L. 2019
2019
Loc

Chondrocyclus alabastris – Connolly 1939: 539

Connolly M. 1939: 539
1939