Stenoterommata crassimana (Mello-Leitão, 1923),

Bertani, Rogério, Mori, André & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2017, Spiders of the São Paulo state islands, Brazil: redescription of Stenoterommata crassimana (Mello-Leitão, 1923) n. comb. (Araneae, Nemesiidae), Zootaxa 4363 (2), pp. 237-248: 240-247

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Stenoterommata crassimana (Mello-Leitão, 1923)

n. comb.

Stenoterommata crassimana (Mello-Leitão, 1923)  n. comb.

Figs 1View FIGURE 1 ̄30

Psalistops crassimanu Mello-Leitão, 1923a: 121  ; 1923b: 4. Psalistops crassimanus: Roewer, 1942: 222  .

Diagnosis. Males resemble those of S. platense  , S. iguazu  , S. tenuistyla  and S. palmar  by having very slender and long apical portion of embolus and differ by having a strong embolus curvature close to its apex ( Figs 19View FIGURES 19–24 ̄21). Females resemble those of S. crassistyla  , S. pavesii  , S. leticiae  , S. pescador  by having spermathecae with single lobe bearing receptacles and differ by having spermathecae with an elongate lobe bearing two receptacles ( Figs 11View FIGURES 11–14 ̄14).

Type material. Syntypes male and female, H. Luederwaldt col., Ilha dos Alcatrazes , São Paulo, Brazil, should be deposited at MZUSP, not located. 

Material examined. Alcatrazes island (24°05’S, 45°41’W) 1 female, R. Bertani, August 17 ̄19 2005, IA 308 ( MZUSP 71800View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, October 26 2011, bromeliad, R. Bertani (MZUSP 71806).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL, São Paulo, Alcatrazes Archipelago, Alcatrazes Island (24°05’S, 45°41’W): 1 male, R. Bertani, August 17 ¯19 2005 ( MZUSP 71801View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, R. Martins, November 22 ¯24 2005 (MZUSP 71802); 1 female, 2 imm., R. Bertani, October 25 2011 (MZUSP 71803); 1 male, R. Bertani et al. (pit-fall trap), October 25 ¯27 2011 (MZUSP 71804); 1 male, 2 females, October 26 2011, R. Bertani (MZUSP 71805); 1 female, October 26 2011, G. Ayroza (MZUSP 71807); 1 imm., October 27 2011, G. Ayroza (MZUSP 71808); Pico do Oratório , 1 imm., S. Migliore, May 6 ¯9 2014, S3, CAN ( MZUSP 71809View Materials)  ; Queimada Grande Island (24°29’S, 46°40’W), 1 female, R. Bertani, March 1995 ( MZUSP 71810View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female, R. Bertani, December 5 1995 (MZUSP 71811); Queimada Pequena Island (24°22’S, 46°48’W), 1 female, 1 male, 3 imm., C. S. Fukushima & R. H. Nagahama, February 28 –March 1 2007 ( MZUSP 71812View Materials).GoogleMaps 

Redescription. Female. MZUSP 71800 ( Figs 6View FIGURES 6–10 ̄11). Carapace 7.7 long, 5.19 wide. Abdomen 6.65 long, 4.28 wide. Total length 14.35. Carapace: Surface smooth, with sparse setae, especially around margins, anterior striae and behind eye group. Thoracic striae faint, shallow and narrow. Fovea short, procurved. Clypeus 0.10. Eight eyes arranged on tubercle 0.35 high, 1.24 wide, 0.81 long. MOQ 0.81 wide, 0.60 long. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior row recurved. AME 0.32, ALE 0.43, PME 0.23, PLE 0.29. Eye interspaces: AME-AME 0.13, AME-ALE 0.06, ALE-ALE 0.63, PME-PLE 0.03, PME-PME 0.85, ALE-PLE 0.03. Chelicerae: 3.30 long, fine setae sparse on retrolateral side, denser patch of setae prodorsally, with eight thick teeth. Fangs light brown at base, darkening distally to blackish brown hue. Rastellum weak, distal edge with thickened setae. Labium ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 6–10): 0.67 long, 1.36 wide with dense patch of fine setae anteriorly, and fine setae sparsely distributed medially. Cuspules absent. Labiosternal groove shallow, flat, with pair of sigilla. Maxillae: 2.13 long in front, 2.64 long behind, 1.51 wide, with 127 cuspules on upper mound in inner angle. Heel rounded. Anterior lobe weak. Fine setae throughout the surface, without dense patches. Lyra absent. Sternum: 3.64 long, 3.12 wide. Fine setae over surface, without dense patches. Three pairs of sigilla, rounded, first pair close to coxa I, second pair close to coxa II, and third pair close to coxa III. All sigilla one diameter from margin. Book lungs semi-circular, with elliptical aperture; booklung combs absent.

Legs: formula IV, I, II, III. Spines: leg I: fe p0-0-1, pa 0, ti v0-0-1ap, p0-1-0, me v1 -0-1, ta 0; leg II: fe p0-0-1, pa 0, ti v1-2 -4(ap), p1-1-0, me v1-2 -2ap, ta 0; leg III fe d0-0-1, pa p1-1-1 r0-1-0, ti p1-1-0 r1-1-0 d0-1-0 v0-1-2ap, me p1-1-1 r1-1-1 d1-1-1 v2-2 -3ap, ta 0; leg IV fe r0-0-1, pa r0-1-0, ti r0-1-1 p0-1-0 v0-0-1ap, me p1-1-1 d1-1-1 v2- 2 -3ap; palp: fe p0-0-1, pa p0-0-1, ti p1-1-0 v1-2 -4ap, ta 0. Preening combs on metatarsi III ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 6–10) and IV. Claws: STC on legs ĪIII with 4 teeth in each row and IV with 6 teeth in each row. ITC on leg IV, minute. Palp claw with 5 teeth. Scopulae: undivided on tarsi of palp and legs I and II, divided by thin setae on legs III and IV.

Spermathecae: two, each with round base and two receptacles branching from them ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 11–14).

Spinnerets ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 6–10): PMS 0.80 long, 0.39 wide. Basal, middle, and apical segments of PLS, 1.69 long, 0.84 wide; 1.08 long, 0.70 wide; 0.33 long, 0.41 wide, respectively. Apical segment short, triangular. All segments covered by fine setae.

Color pattern ( Fig. 26View FIGURES25–30): Chelicerae dark brown, carapace and legs orange brown, abdomen dorsally bicolored, bearing brown areas mixed with pale areas, both scattered irregularly; ventrally bicolored, mostly pale with fewer brown spots.

Male. MZUSP 71806 ( Figs 15View FIGURES 15–18 ̄21, 25). All characters as in females except: Intercheliceral tumescence present. Carapace 6.36 long, 4.39 wide. Abdomen 5.09 long, 2.69 wide. Total length 11.45. Eight eyes on tubercle 0.19 high, 1.08 wide, 0.82 long. Clypeus 0.07. MOQ 1.08 wide, 0.56 long. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior straight. AME 0.31, ALE 0.32, PME 0.26, PLE 0.26. Eye interspaces: AME-AME 0.11, AME-ALE 0.05, ALE- ALE 0.59, PME-PLE 0.02, PME-PME 0.49, ALE-PLE 0.07. Chelicerae 1.69 long. Labium: 0.70 long, 1.37 wide, with three cuspules. Maxillae ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 15–18) 0.97 long in front, 1.19 long behind, 0.85 wide, with ca. 100 blunt cuspules on low mound in inner angle. Sternum: 3.67 long, 3.13 wide.

Legs: formula IV, I, II, III. Spines: leg I: fe p0-0-2 r0-1-2, pa p0-0-1, ti p0-1-1 v3-2 -3 (1 retrolateral megaspine) ap ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 19–24), me p1-0-1 r0-1-0 v1-2 -2ap, ta 0; leg II: fe p1-2-1 r0-1-2 pa p0-0-1, ti p0-1-1 v2-2 -2ap, me p2-0-1 r0- 1-0 v2-2 -2ap, ta 0; leg III fe p0-1-2 d2-1-1, pa p1-1-1 r0-1-1, ti p0-1-1 r0-1-1 d0-0-1 v2-2 -3(2 ap), me p2-1-1 r1-1- 1 d1-1-0 v2-2 -3ap, ta 0; leg IV fe p1-1-1 d1-0-0, r 0-1-1, pa p0-1-1 r0-1-0, ti p2-0-1 r1-0-1 v2-2 -3ap, me r0-1-0 d1- 1-1 v2-1 -4(3ap); palp: fe p0-0-1, pa 0, ti p0-0-1 r1-1-1, ta 0. Preening combs with 3 slender setae on metatarsi III and IV. Claws: STC with 6 teeth in each row on legs IĪII. STC missing on leg IV. All tarsi flexible. Scopulae of tarsus III entire.

Palp ( Figs 19View FIGURES 19–24 ̄20): bulb piriform with duct tapering. Embolus short, sinuous, with hook-like apical portion. Nine parallel keels on prolateral face of bulb and nine on retrolateral face; two thicker, with fine membranes.

Spinnerets ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 15–18): PMS 0.6 long, 0.28 wide. Basal, middle, and apical segments of PLS 1.27 long, 0.60 wide; 0.80 long, 0.47 wide; 0.30 long, 0.32 wide, respectively.

Note. STC of specimen MZUSP 71804 were examined for leg IV and they have 6 teeth in each row.

Distribution. Known from three islands on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Alcatrazes, Queimada Grande and Queimada Pequena ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 ̄5).

Discussion. Mello-Leitão (1923) described a male and female of Psalistops crassimanus  ( Barychelidae, Trichopelmatinae  ) based on specimens collected by Luederwaldt and Fonseca during the expedition to the Alcatrazes Archipelago in 1920 ( Luederwaldt & Fonseca 1923). The types, which should be deposited at the MZUSP, were not found and are, herein, considered lost. More recent expeditions to the Alcatrazes Archipelago as well as to the Queimada Grande and Queimada Pequena islands resulted in a better knowledge of their invertebrate faunas, mainly of spiders, which were collected more intensively. Thus, the mygalomoph fauna is now better known on these islands. Alcatrazes island has (unpublished records in prep.) five mygalomorph species, two theraphosids, an idiopid, a barychelid and a nemesiid. The two theraphosid species and the idiopid do not fit the P. crassimanus  description in some aspects, such as the two branched spur on tibia I in theraphosid males and the distinct eye arrangement in Idiops Perty, 1833  , with two eyes on the carapace edge. The single specimen of barychelid collected is an immature sasonine male. However, this specimen has a very conspicuous color pattern, black carapace bordered with golden setae, dorsal abdomen mottled with black and golden setae and legs with black femora dorsally; patellae, tibiae, and metatarsi covered with golden setae with black broad rings. This pattern is distinct from the somewhat homogeneous dark brown with brown setae present in P. crassimanus  according to Mello-Leitão (1923a). The barychelid also has a row of three long conspicuous spines retrolaterally on tibiae ĪII and prolaterally on palpal tibia, which are not present on specimens of P. crassimanus  according to the original description. Thus, the only other species from the island that could fit the P. crassimanus  description is the nemesiid. The specimens collected at Alcatrazes island are compatible with the measurements given by Mello- Leitão (1923a); the color pattern is the same, the male has the tibia I slightly incrassated and bearing a slightly curved apical megaspine retrolaterally ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 19–24). Furthermore, the nemesiid is common in Alcatrazes whereas the barychelid is very rare.

The family Barychelidae  was poorly diagnosed and understood at the time Mello-Leitão published his work (1923a), and some genera presently recognized as belonging to Nemesiidae  were included in that familiy by this author, e. g., Diplothelopsis Tullgren, 1905  ( Mello-Leitão 1923a), Androthelopsis Mello-Leitão, 1934  (now Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917  ), and Psalistopoides Mello-Leitão, 1934  . Therefore, it is perfectly possible that Mello-Leitão described a nemesiid in a barychelid genus.

Natural history. In Alcatrazes, some specimens were found inside open burrows having the walls covered with silk. Wandering specimens, including male, female and immatures were found in April, August and October in the leaf litter. In Queimada Grande Island, the specimens of this species were hard to find. The two females were collected inside their retreats built between two large stones. The burrows are similar to those found in Alcatrazes. In Queimada Pequena Island, they were found under rocks or wandering during the night.


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Stenoterommata crassimana (Mello-Leitão, 1923)

Bertani, Rogério, Mori, André & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri 2017

Psalistops crassimanu Mello-Leitão, 1923a : 121

Roewer 1942: 222
Mello-Leitao 1923: 121