Pachycondyla F. Smith, 1858

Dlussky, G. M., Rasnitsyn, A. P. & Perfilieva, K. S., 2015, The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bol’shaya Svetlovodnaya (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East), Caucasian Entomological Bulletin 11 (1), pp. 131-152: 141

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scientific name

Pachycondyla F. Smith, 1858
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Genus Pachycondyla F. Smith, 1858 

Type species Formica crassinoda Latreille, 1802  , by subsequent designation of Emery, 1901:42.

Diagnosis (for impression fossils). Waist of 1segment (petiole) of different shape narrowly attached to 1st gastral (abdominal III) segment, with a distinctly descending posterior face. Gaster usually with constriction between 1st and 2nd gastral (abdominal III and IV) segments. Helcium projects from very low down on the anterior face of 1st gastral segment, the latter usually with a high vertical anterior face above the helcium. Head less than 1.7 times shorter than mesosoma. Antennal sockets closely approximated. Frons of gyne and worker width less than 25% of head width. Mandible of gyne and worker subtriangular with dentate masticatory margin, less than 65% of head length. Male with very reduced and not opposable mandibles. Middle and hind tibiae each with a large pectinate spur and a small simple spur. Pretarsal claws simple. Petiole with thick scale or high node. Pygidium of male with distinct terminal spine. Forewing usually with closed cells 1+2r, 3r, rm and mcu. Crossvein cu-a meet M+Cu near distal angle of mcu: Icu<1.45.

Species included. The genus includes 261extant valid species [www.antweb.org, accessed 1 January 2013]. Also 12 described fossil species can be placed with confidence in Pachycondyla  : P. labandeirai Dlussky et Rasnitsyn, 2003  (Green River Formation, USA, Middle Eocene); P. succinea Mayr, 1868  , P. gracilicornis Mayr, 1868  and P. baltica Dlussky, 2003  (Baltic amber, Late Eocene); P. conservata Dlussky, 2009  (Rovno amber, Late Eocene); P. tristis Dlussky, 2009  (Bitterfeld amber, Late Eocene), P.ecocenica Dlussky et Wedmann, 2012  , P.lutzi Dlussky et Wedmann, 2012  , P.messeliana Dlussky et Wedmann, 2012  , P. par v ul a nom. n. (= P. minuta Dlussky et Wedmann, 2012  , non MacKay et MacKay, 2010 [ MacKay, MacKay, 2010]), P. petiolosa Dlussky et Wedmann, 2012  , and P. petrosa Dlussky et Wedmann, 2012  (Grube Messel, Germany, Middle Eocene). Two new species are described below. Besides, there is a specimen PIN 3429/112, a male or female without head, wings and metasomal apex, which probably represent the third congener, which is left unnamed because of insufficient preservation. It differs in size (AL=3.4mm) and in lower petiolar node.