Apenesia Westwood, 1874

Alencar, Isabel D. C. C. & Azevedo, Celso O., 2020, Revision of the world Apenesia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), Zootaxa 4724 (1), pp. 1-72: 6-7

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Apenesia Westwood, 1874


The genus Apenesia Westwood, 1874 

Apenesia Westwood 1874: 170  . Type-species: Apenesia amazonica Westwood  , by subsequent designation in Westwood 1881: 130.

Aeluroides Tullgren 1904: 429–428  . Type-species: Aeluroides sjostedti Tullgren  , by monotypy. Synonymy by Kieffer 1914, 41: 391.

Neoapenesia Terayama 1995a: 886  . Type-species: Neoapenesia leytensis Terayama  , by monotypy. Synonymy by Alencar et al. (2018).

Archaeopristocera Terayama 2004  , 27: 44. Type-species: Archaeopristocera miki Terayama  , by monotypy. Synonymy by Azevedo et al. (2018).

Diagnosis. Male. Head usually wider than long. Maxillar palp short; palpal formula 4:3 ( Fig. 1.AView FIGURE 1). Clypeus broad, projected medially and with median acute tooth. Antenna short, never surpassing mesoscutum; flagellomere equally sized and short. Thorax very high in profile. Dorsal pronotal area short ( Fig. 1.BView FIGURE 1). Pronotal collar short laterally; propleuron easily seen in dorsal view. Propleuron aligned to pronotum in ventral view. Mesoscutum gibbous and wide. Forewing without poststigmal abscissa of radial 1 vein; Cu vein spectral anteriorly, and nebulose posteriorly; m-cu nebulose; medial flexion line deeply divided ( Fig. 1.CView FIGURE 1). Hypopygium short, with three stalks; median stalk very long; anterior corner stalk-shaped. Genitalia with paramere narrow and long, surface wholly setose ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1.E–F); cuspis developed dorsad ( Fig. 1.EView FIGURE 1), its base articulate in basivolella; basiparamere subdivided ventrally; apical projection on basiparamere apex in dorsal view; aedeagus with ventral apical lobe with warts and dorsal cover long and narrow. Female. Head distinctly wider than pronotal width, usually square ( Fig. 26View FIGURE 26). Mandible long and narrow ( Fig. 24View FIGURE 24 E–H). Palpal formula 4:3. Clypeus with basal margin surpassing posterior margin of torulus. Antenna short, not reaching posterior margin of head. Pronotum with a short and shallow depression at anterior median margin. Mesopleuron with concave surface in frontal view. Metapectal-propodeal complex with strong anterior constriction ( Fig. 25View FIGURE 25). Anterior region of metapectal-propodeal complex with lateral margin bulging ( Fig. 25View FIGURE 25).

Species included. A. amazonica Westwood, 1874  ; A. amenula  sp. nov.; A. amoena Evans, 1963  ; A. aniela  sp. nov.; A. azeda  sp. nov.; A. beliella  sp. nov.; A. berela  sp. nov.; A. bicolor Vargas & Terayama, 2002  ; A. bifiela  sp. nov.; A. celiela  sp. nov.; A. chandela  sp. nov.; A. chontalica Westwood, 1881  ; A. cila  sp. nov.; A. colombela  sp. nov.; A. conradti Kieffer, 1910  ; A. delicata Evans, 1963  ; A. dominica Evans, 1963  ; A. elela  sp. nov.; A. esila  sp. nov.; A. eura  sp. nov.; A. farela  sp. nov.; A. flavipes Cameron, 1888  ; A. formosa Vargas & Terayama, 2002  ; A. gabela  sp. nov.; A. girena  sp. nov.; A. goela  sp. nov.; A. itoiela  sp. nov.; A. joela  sp. nov.; A. juliela  sp. nov.; A. kelsiela  sp. nov.; A. laevigata ( Evans, 1958)  ; A. levis Kieffer, 1904  ; A. leytensis (Terayama, 1995)  ; A. makiharai ( Sawada, Terayama & Mita, 2014)  ; A. malaitensis Brues, 1918  ; A. miki ( Terayama, 2004)  , A. modesta ( Smith, 1864)  ; A. nigra Kieffer, 1904  ; A. parasitica ( Smith, 1865)  ; A. perlonga Corrêa & Azevedo, 2006  ; A. proxima Kieffer, 1904  ; A. punctata Kieffer, 1904  ; A. sahyadrica Azevedo & Waichert, 2006  ; A. singularis Lanes & Azevedo, 2004  ; A. sjostedti ( Tullgren, 1904)  ; A. substriata Kieffer, 1904  ; A. unicolor Kieffer, 1904  and A. vaurieorum Evans, 1969  .

Remarks. In Apenesia  , the typically broad male clypeus that is projected medially and with a median acute tooth resembles species of Dissomphalus  and some of Pristonesia Alencar & Azevedo as discussed in Alencar et al. (2018). Apenesia laevigata  and A. colombela  , however, present a trapezoidal clypeus without a median acute tooth, which is similar to typical males of Pseudisobrachium Kieffer, 1904  . Despite the difficulty in counting the number of labial and maxillar palps, the palpal formula in Apenesia  is an exclusive diagnostic feature for both male and female specimens.

Distribution. Cosmopolitan.












Apenesia Westwood, 1874

Alencar, Isabel D. C. C. & Azevedo, Celso O. 2020


Westwood, J. O. 1881: 130
Westwood, J. O. 1874: 170


Tullgren, A. 1904: 429


Terayama, M. 1995: 886