Apenesia azeda Alencar & Azevedo

Alencar, Isabel D. C. C. & Azevedo, Celso O., 2020, Revision of the world Apenesia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), Zootaxa 4724 (1), pp. 1-72: 11-12

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4724.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8D8CD63D-858F-44B1-9EA1-7CBB7F30D72D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FC87AE-9933-4462-07D2-FE787936FD4E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Apenesia azeda Alencar & Azevedo
status

sp. nov.

Apenesia azeda Alencar & Azevedo  , sp. nov.

( Figs 2CView FIGURE 2, 5FView FIGURE 5, 7CView FIGURE 7, 10CView FIGURE 10, 13CView FIGURE 13, 15View FIGURE 15 G–I, 24A, E, 25A)

Description. Holotype. Male. Length 4.2 mm. LFW 3.4 mm.

Colors. Body dark castaneous; mandible castaneous; legs castaneous and yellowish; wings light amber, veins castaneous.

Head. Head as long as wide, quadrate. Frons coriaceous, densely puncticulate; frontal line absent. Vertex slightly convex. Clypeus broad with median lobe subtrapezoidal, median tooth small, apical margin smooth, median carina short in profile. Mandible with four apical teeth, teeth with different size, upper tooth mesad, two upper teeth equally sized. Eye weakly bulging. Ocelli large, triangle with distal edges.

Mesosoma. Dorsal pronotal area short. Notaulus absent. Parapsidal signum weakly impressed. Mesoscutellum as long as wide, posterior margin almost straight; mesoscutum-mesoscutellar sulcus weakly arched, narrow, shallow, without fovea on side edge. Axilla subtrapezoidal, deep, large. Metanotal trough foveolate, metanotal fovea linear; median region wide, large, with posterior margin straight. Metapectal-propodeal complex long, posterior margin convex; metapostnotal median carina absent, metapostnotum row of anterior foveae, and polished. Metapectal-propodeal complex polished. Paraspicular sulcus weakly puncticulate; lateral carina of metapectal-propodeal carina absent; lateral surface of propodeum imbricate, inferior region strigulate. Propodeal declivity imbricate.

Metasoma. Petiole short. Hypopygium with plate short, posterior margin concave, flap absent. Genitalia: paramere slightly sinuous. Basivolsella apical inner margin projected mesad, large, and convex. Basiparamere with apical dorsal projection large, apex convex. Cuspis with apical margin with two apical calli, almost equally sized, dorsal end long. Aedeagus with two apical lobes, ventral lobe short; dorsal lobe short; subapical membrane absent; aedeagal dorsal cover narrow.

Description. Allotype. Female. Length 4.9 mm. Body castaneous, metasoma dark castaneous. Mandible with two apical teeth. Clypeus extending back frons, median lobe with apical margin concave, apical margin with bristles, median carina absent. Eye gray, elliptical, with about 12 facets. Malar space shorter than eye length. Frons aciculate, punctures sparse. Head elongate with sides parallel, vertex concave, 1.31 × as long as wide. Dorsal pronotal area with sides nearly parallel, anterior margin with median emargination. Maximum width of metapectal-propodeal complex 1.75 × its minimum width. Mesopleuron with longitudinal carina dividing dorsal and lateral faces. Mesotibia strongly spinose. Metasoma longer than head and mesosoma together, petiole short.

Material examined. Holotype ♂, [ JAPAN], Kurima Is., Miyako Isls. Ryukyus, 25.x.2003, Collected dead plants, H. Makihara Leucaena leucocephala  , 22–27.iv.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection ( NIAES)  . Allotype ♀, [ JAPAN], Kurima Is., Miyako Isls. Ryukyus, 25.x.2005, Collected dead plants, H. Makihara, Leucaena leucocephala  , 22–27.iv.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection ( NIAES)  . Paratypes: [ JAPAN]: Kurima Is., Miyako Isls. Ryukyus, Hirroshi Makihara Collection   , 1 ♂, 25.x.2006, Collected dead plants, H. Makihara, Leucaena leucocephala  , 27.ii– 11.iii.2004; 1 ♀, 25.x.2004, Collected dead plants, H. Makihara, Leucaena leucocephala  , 22–27.iv.2004; Tarama Is., Miyako Isls. Ryukyus , 22–23.X.2003, Collected dead plants, H. Makihara  , 1 ♀, Diospyros ferres  , 27.ii–11.iii.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 1 ♀, Diospyros ferres  , 27.ii–11.iii.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 1 ♀, Morus australis Poiret  , 6–22.iv.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 1 ♀, Leucaena leucocephala  , 6–22.iv.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; Mt. Nagodake , Okinawa Is. Ryukyus, 15.x.2003, Collected dead plants, H. Makihara  , 1 ♂, Viburnum odoratissimm var. awabuki  , 11–18.iii.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 1 ♀, Viburnum odoratissimm var. awabuki  , 27.ii–11.iii ..2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 3 ♀, Diospyros Morrisiana Hance  , 11–18.iii.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; Mt. Ooyama , Okinoerabu Is. Kagoshima Pref., H. Makihara  , 5 ♀, 12.x.2003, Collect- ed dead plants, Symplocos nakaharae  , 11–18.iii.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 1 ♀, Pinus luchuensis Mayr.  , 11–18.iii.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 1 ♀, Elaeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus  , 6–22.iv ..2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection; 19 ♀, Mt. Omotodake , Ishigakil Is. Ryukyus, 21.x.2003, Collected dead plants, H. Makihara, Machilus japonica Sleb. et Zucc.  , 27.ii–11.iii.2004, Hirroshi Makihara Collection (all NIAES)  .

Comments. Apenesia azeda  was collected manually by H. Makihara who observed contact behavior and copulation between specimens collected (personal communication). This species is similar to A. celiela  by having the notaulus absent; the pronotum short; the metapostnotum almost completely polished and the apical inner margin of the basivolsella projected and convex. Although the males of A. azeda  have the head as long as wide; the mandible with four teeth; the metanotal groove foveolate with a linear median fovea; the metapectal-propodeal complex with the posterior margin convex; the metapostnotum with a row of anterior foveae and the hypopygeal posterior margin concave, whereas males of Apenesia celiela  have the head longer than wide; the mandible with three teeth; the metanotal groove mostly imbricate; the metapectal-propodeal complex with the posterior margin almost straight; the metapostnotum with a row of striae and the hypopygeal posterior margin almost straight.

Based only on females, A. azeda  could match with A. malaitensis Brues  because the female size is similar, the mandible is bidentate and the head is elongate. Since Pristocerinae  females, including Apenesia  , seem to be cryptic, we decided to split these species until molecular data is available to test this hypothesis. For now, we were not able to analyze A. malaitensis  except by literature, which encourages us to keep both split.

Distribution. Oriental ( Japan).

NIAES

National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Bethylidae

Genus

Apenesia