Apenesia laevigata ( Evans, 1958 )

Alencar, Isabel D. C. C. & Azevedo, Celso O., 2020, Revision of the world Apenesia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), Zootaxa 4724 (1), pp. 1-72: 28-29

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Apenesia laevigata ( Evans, 1958 )


Apenesia laevigata ( Evans, 1958) 

( Figs 4FView FIGURE 4, 6LView FIGURE 6, 9DView FIGURE 9, 12View FIGURE 12 B–C, 14G, 22A–C)

Propristocera laevigata Evans 1958  , 59: 292–293, Figs 4–8View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8. ♀.

Apenesia laevigata ( Evans, 1958)  : Evans 1963, 130: 263, 302–303 (designation of combination), figs 44–47; Evans 1964, 132: 32; Lanes & Azevedo 2004, 679: 6; Gordh & Móczár 1990, 46: 205 (catalog).

Description. Holotype. Male. Length 2.9 mm. LFW 2.2 mm.

Colors. Head dark castaneous; antenna, clypeus and body castaneous; legs yellowish; wings hyaline, veins light castaneous.

Head. Head as long as wide, rounded. Frons polished and shining, sparsely puncticulate; frontal line absent. Vertex convex. Clypeus broad with median lobe trapezoidal, median tooth absent, apical margin smooth, median carina short in profile. Mandible with five apical teeth, teeth with similar size, upper tooth dorsad. Eye strongly bulging. Ocelli large, triangle with distal edges.

Mesosoma. Dorsal pronotal area short. Notaulus present, incomplete posteriorly, weakly converging posterad. Parapsidal signum well delimited. Mesoscutellum longer than large, posterior margin convex; mesoscutum-mesoscutellar sulcus strongly arched, without fovea on side edge, wide, shallow. Axilla subtrapezoidal, deep, large. Metanotal trough imbricate, metanotal fovea oval; median region wide, narrow, with posterior margin straight. Metapectal-propodeal complex long, posterior margin convex; metapostnotal median carina absent, metapostnotum irregularly strigate, and polished. Metapectal-propodeal complex polished. Paraspicular sulcus polished; lateral carina of metapectal-propodeal carina present; lateral surface of propodeum polished, inferior region imbricate. Propodeal declivity polished-imbricate.

Metasoma. Petiole short. Hypopygium with plate long, posterior margin almost straight, flap absent. Genitalia: paramere slightly sinuous. Basivolsella apical inner margin smooth. Basiparamere with apical dorsal projection small, apex convex. Cuspis with apical margin with two apical calli, ventral larger than other, dorsal end very short. Aedeagus with two apical lobes, ventral lobe short; dorsal lobe short; subapical membrane absent; aedeagal dorsal cover narrow.

Female. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: Holotype male: MEX[ICO], [Veracruz], Cordoba, 21.V, A. Fenyes col. ( USNM, #64114). New material: TRINIDAD, 1 ♂, 8 KM n Arima Simla Res. Sta., lower montane rain for., 260m, 24.VI– 8.VII.1993, FIT, S. & J. Peck, 93-57 ( CNCI)GoogleMaps  ; FR. GUIANA, 1 ♂, Regina Kaw Mountain , Patawa , 4°32’643”N, 52°9’153”W, Aug 2005, J. A. Cerda ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; ECUADOR, 2 ♂, Sucumbios, Rio Napo, Sacha Lodge , 0°30’S, 76°30’W, 3–16.VIII.1994, M[alaise] T [rap], P. [J.] Hibbs [col.], 225 m ( CNCI)GoogleMaps  ; BRAZIL: Amazonas: 1 ♂, 71°38’W, 4°33’S, IX.’79, Alvarenga ( AEIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, Amazonas, Manaus, Reserva Ducke, Igarapé Uberê, vi.2003, arm. Mal- aise, J. M. G. Ribeiro & J. Vidal col. ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; AM, 1 ♂, Manaus, Reserva 1208, 13.viii.1986, Malaise, B. Klein col. ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, Tonantins, Igarapé Manaquinha, 02°50’15”S, 67°46’30”W, 16–20.ix.2005, Malaise, J. Rafael & F. Xavier col. ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; Pará, Juruti, 1 ♂, Mineração Alcoa, Capiranga, 29.x.2007, arm. Malaise, O. T. Silveira & equipe col.GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, Estrada Mutum / Mauari, 07.xii.2008, arm. Malaise, O. T. Silveira & equipe col. ( MPEG).GoogleMaps 

Comments. This species is similar to A. colombela  because both have the head rounded; the clypeus trapezoidal; the mandible with five teeth; the pronotum very short; the mesoscutellum long; the metapectal-propodeal complex long with the posterior margin convex; the petiole long; the hypopygium with a long plate; the basiparamere clearly divided, aedeagus narrow with the ventral lobe very short. However, Apenesia colombela  has the clypeus with crenulate apical margin; the notaulus absent; the mesoscutum-mesoscutellar suture weakly arched and narrow, whereas A. laevigata  has the clypeus with smooth apical margin; the notaulus present; the mesoscutum-mesoscutellar suture strongly arched and wide. Further, A. laevigata  is present in the Amazon rainforest and higher places, whereas A. colombela  is recorded from the Atlantic rain forest. Here, we first report A. laevigata  from Trinidad and Tobago, French Guiana and Ecuador.

Remarks. Holotype genitalia are in bad condition and poorly mounted in the slide, making it useless to illustrate or describe them. Here the illustration of the body, genitalia and hypopygium was provided using a non type specimen in better condition.

Distribution. Neotropical ( Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, French Guiana, Ecuador, Brazil).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Kotel'nich Museum


Canadian National Collection Insects


American Museum of Natural History


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


American Entomological Institute


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Australian Museum


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi














Apenesia laevigata ( Evans, 1958 )

Alencar, Isabel D. C. C. & Azevedo, Celso O. 2020

Propristocera laevigata

Evans 1958

Apenesia laevigata (

Evans 1958