Alpaida marista

Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, Castanheira, Pedro De Souza & Prado, André Wanderley Do, 2018, Notes on the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) with description of four new species from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Zootaxa 4407 (3), pp. 321-345: 329-331

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Alpaida marista

new species

Alpaida marista  new species

( Figs. 5–6View FIGURES 5View FIGURES6, Map 1)

Type-material. Holotype ♂. BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro  : Mendes: Fazenda Arvoredo ( Porteira ) 22° 30’ 10.3” S, 043° 45’ 14.5” W, 537 m, 30.VIII.2014, looking down, R. Baptista coll. ( MNRJ 7472View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro  : Mendes: Fazenda Arvoredo ( Encruzilhada ) 22° 30’ 16.8” S, 043° 45’ 34.6” W, 510 m, 31.VIII.2014, looking down, A. do Prado coll., 1 ♀ ( UFRJ 1423View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; idem, Centro Marista São José das Paineiras ( Sede ) 22° 30’ 35.1” S, 043° 45’ 16.5” W, 551 m, 27.IV.2011, P. Castanheira & R. Baptista coll., 1 ♀ ( UFRJ 1424View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Pinheiral , XI.1988, R. Baptista coll., 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNRJ 1776View Materials)  .

Additional material examined. None.

Etymology. The specific epithet “ marista  ” is a Portuguese word, used in apposition. It is a reference to the Marist Brothers of the Schools, an international Catholic community who maintains the Centro Marista São José das Paineiras. Besides being one of the type-localities, the Centro Marista has personnel which were very helpful during field work.

Diagnosis. Alpaida marista  new species seems most similar to Alpaida scriba ( Mello-Leitão, 1940)  and Alpaida venger Castanheira & Baptista, 2015  , based on the smooth shoulder humps and similar series of dorsal abdominal black marks, long scape and long, canoe-shaped, medially excavated median apophysis ( Levi 1988, fig. 188–190, Buckup & Meyer 1993, fig. 1–3, Castanheira & Baptista 2015, fig. 1–9). However, Alpaida marista  new species may be easily diagnosed by the orange red colour, the black ringed legs, the brown patch on the middle of sternum and the absence of V-shaped median patch on the male carapace ( Fig. 5A –BView FIGURES 5, 6A –BView FIGURES6). Males of Alpaida marista  new species have smaller terminal apophysis, with rounded, massive distal lobe, projected well beyond margin of the small, curved basal prong, a longer and curved embolus, a small and less projected tegular lobe and median apophysis widely excavated at its middle portion and with both tips obtuse and not very elongated, bearing an outstanding finger-like knob at external side of its apical third ( Fig. 5C –EView FIGURES 5). Epigynum has depressed sides, rebordered lips and rounded and not so elongated scape, with notch fused to tip of scape, forming an apical pouch ( Fig. 6CView FIGURES6). In posterior view, epigynum is only around 1/3 wider than long, with a S-shaped rim, not projected basally over posterior plate and with a stout stalk at basis of scape ( Fig. 6EView FIGURES6).

Description. Male (holotype). Carapace, endites and chelicerae orange, with cephalic area lighter, separated from thoracic area by a large reddish orange V-shaped stripe of same hue as fovea and sulci. Carapace tapering towards eyes ( Fig. 5AView FIGURES 5). Sternum reddish orange, with brown patch in center. Eyes ringed in black, AME-PME and ALE-PLE touching ( Fig. 5AView FIGURES 5). Fangs of chelicerae black. Legs yellow with dark brown rings or patches on all articles, darker on articulations ( Figs. 5A –BView FIGURES 5). Abdomen cylindrical, slightly elevated, longer than wide, with one anterior and one posterior median hump in lateral view (not shown), ending in a large rounded, protruding bulge ( Fig. 5A –BView FIGURES 5). Dorsum of abdomen pale copper, its first third with three irregular black patches, the median one elongated, extending from anterior border to cardiac area, where it is interrupted, median third with two parallel trios of irregular black patches and posterior third covered by big black patch ( Fig. 5AView FIGURES 5). Sides pale copper with an uneven black stripe beginning at its second third and contouring posterior bulge ( Fig. 5BView FIGURES 5). Venter evenly orange, darker in the middle, spinnerets black with yellow tip and anal tubercle yellow ( Figs. 5BView FIGURES 5). Palp with terminal apophysis oval, massive, very sclerotized, with subdivided distal lobe projected well beyond margin of the small, curved basal prong ( Figs. 5CView FIGURES 5); embolus elongated, flattened, curved and tapering towards apex ( Figs. 5CView FIGURES 5); median apophysis long, canoe-shaped, deeply excavated at median line, projected frontward, with tip bending inwards, and a prominent finger-like knob at its edge ( Figs. 5C –EView FIGURES 5); tegular lobe conical, small, slightly projecting on edge of tegulum ( Figs. 5C –EView FIGURES 5). Paracymbium elongated, hooked-like ( Figs. 5C –DView FIGURES 5). Total length: 7.28. Carapace: 3.61 long, 2.94 wide. Leg I: femur 3.58, patella 1.41, tibia 2.86, metatarsus 2.72 and tarsus 1.31. Patella + tibia II 3.37; III 2.48; IV 3.79.

Female (paratype UFRJ 1423). Carapace colour, endites, fovea, eyes, chelicerae, sternum and legs and as in male ( Figs. 6A –BView FIGURES6). Carapace slightly tapering towards anterior part, but not as narrow as in male. V-shaped reddish orange stripe around fovea not so marked as in male ( Fig. 6AView FIGURES6). Abdomen with colour pattern and shape similar to male, but wider ( Fig. 6AView FIGURES6), and with slightly prominent anterior lateral humps. Epigynum triangular, as wide as long, with reddish rounded lips, rebordered in ventral view. Scape bulky, elongated, slightly tapering towards rounded blunt tip, placed over stout stalk on posterior plate ( Fig. 6C –EView FIGURES6). Notch small, fused to tip of scape, forming an apical pouch ( Fig. 6C –EView FIGURES6). Posterior plate only around 1/3 wider than long, depressed in both sides and with Sshaped rim, not projected over it at sides or basis ( Fig. 6EView FIGURES6). Total length: 8.35. Carapace: 3.89 long, 3.10 wide. Leg I: femur 3.63, patella 1.33, tibia 2.91, metatarsus 2.99 and tarsus 1.31. Patella + tibia II 3.91; III 2.75; IV 4.08.

Variation. Males (n = 2): total length, 7.28–6.79; females (n = 3): total length, 9.28–8.05. One female paratype ( UFRJ 1424) has a more vivid, coppery colour on abdomen, with white guanine patches covering cardiac area. The male paratype has a plumper abdomen than holotype, without clearly perceptible anterior and posterior humps.

Natural History. Alpaida marista  new species was collected near ground by sieving litter and looking down sampling techniques. Webs were vertical, placed very close and parallel to tree trunks, in a manner similar to the webs of Alpaida alticeps ( Keyserling, 1879)  . Some specimens were collected in a small orchard, near forest, hiding under loosen bark on logs of common Malay apple (iamb) trees during the day.

Distribution. Only know from Mendes and Pinheiral, two cities approximately 50 Km apart at centralsouthern Rio de Janeiro  state (Map 1).


Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro