Endecous (Notendecous) bahiensis

Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes, 2017, Two new species of cave crickets Endecous (Notoendecous) Gorochov, 2014 (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae) from northeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 4318 (3), pp. 474-498: 485-489

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.887752

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scientific name

Endecous (Notendecous) bahiensis

n. sp.

Endecous (Notendecous) bahiensis  n. sp.

( FIgs 19–20View FIGURES 17 – 20, 40–65View FIGURES 40 – 46View FIGURES 47 – 54View FIGURES 55 – 58View FIGURES 59 – 65, 67–73View FIGURES 66 – 69View FIGURES 70 – 73 and Table 2)

http://lsId.speCIesfIle.Org/urn:lsId: OrthOptera  .speCIesfIle.Org:TaxOnName:498814

Type material. HOlOtype ♂, COde ISLA 21062, BrazIl , BahIa State, munICIpalIty Of CampO FOrmOsO, MOrrInhO Cave (10° 12′ 33.728″ S; 40° 55′ 6.532″ W), 12.vII.2008, R. L. FerreIra, leg. HOlOtype COndItIOn: head, rIght legs I, II, III, and rIght tegmen were detaChed, and maIntaIned In hOlOtype's tube. Paratypes: munICIpalIty Of CampO FOrmOsO, MOrrInhO Cave (10° 12′ 33.728″ S; 40° 55′ 6.532″ W), 12.vII.2008, 1 ♂ (ISLA 21063) and 2 ♀♀ ( ISLA 21064; 21065), R. L. FerreIra, leg.GoogleMaps  ; CampO FOrmOsO, AngICO Cave (10° 24′ 2.48″ S; 40° 30′ 15.995″ W); 09.I.2008; 1 ♂ ( ISLA 21076) and 2 ♀♀ ( ISLA 21077; 21078), R. L. Ferreira, leg.GoogleMaps  ; Campo Formoso , Calor de Cima cave (10° 8′ 26.412″ S; 40° 50′ 55.266″ W); 10.vii.2008; 2 ♂♂ ( ISLA 21069; 21070), R. L. Ferreira, leg.GoogleMaps  ; Campo Formoso , PItú Cave (10° 7′ 44.029″ S; 40° 50′ 16.66″ W); 10.vII.2008; 3 ♂♂ ( ISLA 21071; 21072; 21073) and 2 ♀♀ ( ISLA 21074; 21075), R. L. FerreIra, leg.GoogleMaps  ; munICIpalIty Of OurOlândIa, TOCa dOs OssOs Cave (10° 55′ 50.819″ S; 41° 3′ 27.472″ W); 02.I.2008; 2 ♂♂ ( ISLA 21066; 21067) and 1 ♀ ( ISLA 21068), R. L. Ferreira leg.GoogleMaps  ; municipality of Palmeiras, Ioiô cave (12° 23′ 37.399″ S; 41° 33′ 13.468″ W); 31.xii.2007; 1 ♂ ( ISLA 21079) and 2 ♀♀ ( ISLA 21080; 21081), R. L. FerreIra, leg.GoogleMaps 

Distribution. Caves In munICIpalItIes Of CampO FOrmOsO, OurOlândIa and PalmeIras ( FIg.1View FIGURE 1, C).

Etymology. The new speCIes Is named bahiensis, In  allusIOn tO the state (BahIa) where speCImens were fOund. The name Is tO be treated as a nOun In appOsItIOn.

Diagnosis. COmbInatIOn Of the fOllOwIng CharaCters: upper part Of the medIan Inner pOrtIOn Of pseudepIphallus (Ps.Im) wIth a small Curved membranOus dIlatatIOn ( FIgs 40, 43View FIGURES 40 – 46, green arrOw); pseudepIphallIC arm elOngated ( FIgs 41, 43View FIGURES 40 – 46, r.); pseudepIphallIC membranOus shIeld (Ps.ms) COverIng almOst all the eCtOphallIC apOdeme (ECt. Ap) ( FIgs 42, 44View FIGURES 40 – 46, Ps.ms); upper Central part Of eCtOphallIC arC wIthOut Curvature, lOwer part hOrIzOntally Curved ( FIg. 41View FIGURES 40 – 46, ECt.ArC).

Description, male holotype. Body color: dOrsal head, prOnOtum and rIght tegmen lIght brOwn ( FIgs 48–51View FIGURES 47 – 54), lIghter ventrally, abdOmen transluCent whItIsh yellOw, legs lIghter at the tIp, CerCI unIfOrmly whItIsh yellOw ( FIgs 51–52View FIGURES 47 – 54), Head: slIghtly pubesCent, lOnger (5.1mm) than wIde (3.9mm) at frOntal vIew vertex slIghtly marked wIth fOur strIpes reaChIng OCCIput; gena, Clypeus and labrum whItIsh, mandIbles whItIsh, dark brOwn at bOrder and apex; fIrst twO maxIllary palpOmeres whItIsh, tOgether are smaller than the thIrd palpOmere, fOurth palpOmere as lOng as thIrd, fIfth palpOmere slIghtly lOnger than fOurth, ClavIfOrm, arChed and darker at tIp; seCOnd labIal palpOmere lOnger than the fIrst and smaller than the ClavIfOrm thIrd One, whICh has Inner sIde brIstles; sCape, pedICel and antennOmeres unIfOrmly whItIsh yellOw, darker tOward the antennae tIp, and On the Inner sIde Of the sCape; COmpOund eyes blaCk, OutlIned wIth depIgmented OmmatIdIa, and wIth a small dOrsal depIgmented spOt where sCape fIts; OCellI absent ( FIgs 47–48View FIGURES 47 – 54). Thorax: prOnOtum pubesCent, lIght brOwn wIth darker OutlIne, dOrsal dIsC wIder than lOng, anterIOr and pOsterIOr margIns sub-straIght, wIth lOng brIstles, lateral lObe rOunded ( FIgs 49–51View FIGURES 47 – 54). Leg I ( FIgs 57–58View FIGURES 55 – 58): femur and tIbIa same sIze; tIbIa armed wIth twO subequal ventrO-apICal spurs, an Oval audItOry tympanum at Inner sIde; fIrst tarsOmere serrulated twICe lOnger than seCOnd and thIrd tOgether. Leg II: tIbIa wIth twO Inner and twO Outer apICal spurs, dOrsal smaller ( FIgs 57, 58View FIGURES 55 – 58, λ, µ). Leg III: femur dIlated; tIbIa serrulated, armed wIth three subapICal spurs On Inner ( FIgs 55, 56View FIGURES 55 – 58, α, β and γ) and fOur On Outer sIde ( FIgs 55, 56View FIGURES 55 – 58, w, x, y) the dIstal One the smaller ( FIgs 55View FIGURES 55 – 58, z), and fOur apICal spurs at Inner ( FIgs 55, 56View FIGURES 55 – 58, d, e, f and g) and three at Outer sIde ( FIgs 55, 56View FIGURES 55 – 58, a, b, C), the Inner lOnger than Outer; fIrst tarsOmere twICe lOnger than seCOnd and thIrd Ones tOgether, serrulated On dIstal half, wIth twO apICal spurs, the Inner lOnger ( FIgs 55, 56View FIGURES 55 – 58, δ, Θ); fIrst tarsOmere serrulated, twICe lOnger than seCOnd and thIrd tOgether, armed wIth small subapICal spurs and twO apICal spurs, Inner lOnger. Right tegmen sClerOtIzed, COverIng the fIrst three abdOmInal tergItes ( FIg. 51View FIGURES 47 – 54), mIrrOr rOunded wIth twO CrOss-veIn, and three Cells, the apICal Cell presents wIth dIagOnal veIns; harp wIth three well marked CrOss-veIn, and fOur Cells, three Of them wIth pOOr marked dIagOnal veIns; lateral fIeld pOOr marked wIth twelve aCCessOry veIns, sOme are fOrked and Irregular; basal fIeld wIth veIns 1A and 2A well-marked, veIn 2A Is furCate, last wIth One seCOndary veIns nOt COnneCted tO CU2, 3A veIn nOt furCate ( FIgs 50View FIGURES 47 – 54, 19–20View FIGURES 17 – 20); strIdulatOry fIle wIth 96 teeth. Abdomen: CerCI slender, unIfOrmly lIght brOwn, slIghtly larger than femur III (brOken In hOlOtype), but slIghtly larger In mOst paratypes; supranal plate subtrIangular, base wIth lateral prOjeCtIOns, apex rOunded ( FIg. 52View FIGURES 47 – 54); subgenItal plate rOunded at apex ( FIgs 52–53View FIGURES 47 – 54), wIth a slIghtly IndentatIOn.

Observations in Paratypes. Male phallic sclerites (paratype ISLA 21063, FIgs 40–46View FIGURES 40 – 46). PseudepIphallIC arm lOng ( FIg. 40View FIGURES 40 – 46, Ps.Arm); pseudepIphallIC dOrsal branCh thIn, straIght and slIghtly bended at tIp ( FIgs. 40, 42–43View FIGURES 40 – 46, Ps.db); pseudepIphallIC ventral branCh ( FIgs 41–43View FIGURES 40 – 46, Ps.vb) flattened, slIghtly sClerOtIzed, and COnneCted tO pseudepIphallIC paramere (Ps.P) by membranes; pseudepIphallus Inner bars reCtIlInear ( FIg. 40View FIGURES 40 – 46, Ps.Ib); pseudepIphallIC membranOus shIeld rObust ( FIgs 41–42, 44View FIGURES 40 – 46), prOtrude frOm bIfurCatIOn between ramI and pseudepIphallus Inner bars (Ps.ms); ramI develOped and dIlated at the tIp ( FIgs. 41, 43View FIGURES 40 – 46, r.); pseudepIphallIC Inner prOjeCtIOn lOng and slIghtly Curved Inwards ( FIg. 40View FIGURES 40 – 46, Ps.Im), lIttle Curved dIstally ( FIgs 40–43View FIGURES 40 – 46); pseudepIphallIC paramere 1 (Ps.P1) develOped ( FIgs 40, 43View FIGURES 40 – 46),wIth sOme membranes dIstrIbuted Over the struCture flattened, Ushaped In pOsterIOr vIew, bearIng a Inner shOrt seCOndary prOjeCtIOn ( FIgs 40, 42–43View FIGURES 40 – 46, Ps.P, Ps.PI); Ps.P2 sClerOtIzed, very shOrt and elOngated at the base, and COnneCted tO pseudepIphallIC paramere 1 (PsP1) by membranOus ( FIgs 40, 43View FIGURES 40 – 46, red arrOw), tOgether (Ps.P2 and Ps.P1) fOrms an Oval struCture; eCtOphallIC sClerIte well sClerOtIzed and develOped, Curved dOrsally, the upper Central part Is well sClerOtIzed and nOt Curved, and the lOwer part Is Curved hOrIzOntally ( FIgs 40–41View FIGURES 40 – 46, ECt.ArC), eCtOphallIC medIan prOjeCtIOn ( FIg. 40View FIGURES 40 – 46, ECt.mp) well develOped and slIghtly Curved Inwards, flattened, aCute at apex, wIth a sIde plate raIsed tOward the prOjeCtIOns ( FIg. 40View FIGURES 40 – 46, ECt.mp), eCtOphallIC medIan prOjeCtIOn are COnneCt tO membranes at Inner faCe ( FIg. 40View FIGURES 40 – 46, M.); eCtOphallIC lateral bar Curved at base, shOrter than medIan prOjeCtIOns and dO nOt reaChIng the pseudepIphallIC parameres ( FIg. 41View FIGURES 40 – 46, ECt.lb); eCtOphallIC apOdeme well develOped, flattened and sInuOus dOrsally ( FIgs 40–41View FIGURES 40 – 46, ECt.Ap); endOphallIC apOdema (anterIOr pOrtIOn) ( FIgs 44–46View FIGURES 40 – 46, End.SC.a) COnneCted by membranes tO a lOng sClerOtIzed duCt ( FIgs 41, 44, 46View FIGURES 40 – 46, End.SC.d) whICh tIp ( FIg. 41View FIGURES 40 – 46, End.SC.P) lays alOng the eCtOphallIC medIan prOjeCtIOn, COnneCtIng tO membranes ( FIg. 40View FIGURES 40 – 46, M.).

Variations in phallic sclerites (paratypes, n=10): phallIC COmplex wIth varIable sIze, prOpOrtIOn Of struCtures maIntaIned; dOrsal prOjeCtIOn Of pseudepIphallus (Ps.db) wIth varIable slOpe degree, always InClIned tO the Outer part Of sClerIte; Inner bars Of pseudepIphallus (Ps.Ib) may present small varIatIOn In the InClInatIOn degree (frOm a dIstended “V” tO a lIne)

Male right tegmen ( FIgs 70–73View FIGURES 70 – 73). StrIdulatOry fIle: 96 ± 13.4 (73–112, n=10); mirror: fOur ( FIgs 70, 72–73View FIGURES 70 – 73) Or fIve ( FIg.71View FIGURES 70 – 73) Cells; pOsterIOr Cell slIghtly marked wIth dIagOnal veIns; One tO three small Cells wIthIn the Caudal Cell; seCOnd Caudal Cell may present One CrOss-veIn bIfurCate tO the rIght ( FIg. 70View FIGURES 70 – 73); harp: several pOOrly marked dIagOnal veIns may be present amOng Cells Or ramIfyIng frOm the maIn CrOss-veIn ( FIgs 70–71View FIGURES 70 – 73); fIve, sIx ( FIg. 73View FIGURES 70 – 73) Or seven Cells ( FIg. 70View FIGURES 70 – 73) may OCCur Instead Of fOur ( FIg. 71View FIGURES 70 – 73); basal field: veIn 1A may present One tO three seCOndary veIns COnneCted tO CU2 fOrmIng small Cells ( FIgs 70–72View FIGURES 70 – 73); veIn 1A may nOt present branChes, a small Cell may be present In the apICal part Of thIs veIn; lateral field: varIatIOns may OCCur regardIng the number Of aCCessOry veIns (11 Or mOre) ( FIgs 70–73View FIGURES 70 – 73), sOme Of them may be bIfurCate ( FIgs 72–73View FIGURES 70 – 73) Or sIngular ( FIgs 70–71View FIGURES 70 – 73).

Female: bOdy slIghtly larger than males (µ=21.759 ± 1.735mm; n=10); same COlOr and mOrphOlOgy than males; apterOus; supranal plate whItIsh yellOw, slIghtly elOngated wIth sOme apICal seta and twO small lateral prOjeCtIOns ( FIg. 26View FIGURES 25 – 31); subgenItal plate pale brOwn and shOrt wIth a slIght IndentatIOn ( FIg. 59View FIGURES 59 – 65); OvIpOsItOr elOngated swOrd-lIke wIth aCumInate apex (µ=15.115 ± 1.168; n=10) ( FIgs 61–65View FIGURES 59 – 65) slIghtly lOnger than tIbIa III (13.33 ± 0.735; n=10).

Male and Female measurments. Tab.2

Ecological remarks. ThIs speCIes presents a wIde dIstrIbutIOn, OCCurrIng In twO dIstInCt geOlOgICal grOups (Una and CaatInga geOlOgICal grOups). AlthOugh the maIn bIOme Of OCCurrenCe Is the CaatInga (BrazIlIan semI-arId bIOme), sOme fOrest fragments Can be Observed alOng the speCIes dIstrIbutIOnal area, espeCIally In the Central area Of BahIa state (Chapada DIamantIna regIOn). It Is quIte plausIble tO assume that the speCIes Is prOne tO mIgrate, at least between sOme areas, by thOse fOrest enClaves. FurthermOre, althOugh the speCIes was fOund In Caves frOm dIstInCt geOlOgICal grOups, suCh fOrmatIOns are COntIguOus, favOrIng In-between mOvements. POpulatIOns’ sIze are quIte varIable, althOugh In sOme Cases, huge densItIes Can be Observed, as In MOrrInhO Cave (CampO FOrmOsO, BahIa state—FIg.69). Huge pOpulatIOns were maInly Observed In Caves wIth a rICh supply Of bat guanO, sInCe the speCImens seems tO preferably feed On thIs resOurCe (espeCIally frOm frugIvOrOus—e.g. Artibeus planirostris (SpIx, 1823)  —and hematOphagOus— Desmodus rotundus  (E. GeOffrOy, 1810)—bats). As fOr Other speCIes Of Endecous  , they are alsO generalIst and OppOrtunIstIC feeders, alsO COnsumIng CarCasses and Other OrganIC resOurCes. As fOr E. (N.) potiguar  n. sp., predatOrs InClude AmblypygI  (Thichodamon froesi MellO-LeItãO, 1940 and Heterophrinus longicornis (Butler, 1873))  , whICh prey upOn adult speCImens and spIders (e.g. Loxosceles  , Sicarius  and Isoctenus  spp.), whICh feed upOn theIr nymphs. The speCIes seems tO be hIghly tOlerant tO sOme dIsturbs (at least In sOme Cases), as lImestOne extraCtIOn. A COnsIderably bIg pOpulatIOn was Observed In sOme COnduIts Of TOCa dOs OssOs Cave (OurOlândIa, BahIa state), Over whICh COntInuOus extraCtIOn Of lImestOne OCCurs thrOugh daIly detOnatIOns, CausIng multIple events Of Intense nOIse and strOng vIbratIOn InsIde the Cave. DurIng suCh events, the IndIvIduals remaIned ImmObIle, but returned ImmedIately tO aCtIvIty after the dIsturbanCe had Ceased. HOwever, It Is ImpOrtant tO hIghlIght that thIs regIOn Of the Cave presents huge bat guanO pIles (whIle mOst part Of the Cave Is hIghly OlIgOtrOphIC). Thus, the guanO seems tO be mOre attraCtIve than the repulsIOn-effeCt Of the nOIse and vIbratIOns.