Echthrodelphax tauricus Ponomarenko, 1970,

Olmi, Massimo, Copeland, Robert S. & Noort, Simon Van, 2019, Dryinidae of the Afrotropical region (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea), Zootaxa 4630 (1), pp. 1-619: 409-413

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4630.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8D375836-CCBA-473C-836F-6ABD44B4F881

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E987E2-FE37-2BD4-FF3E-D527FD0EFE0C

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Plazi

scientific name

Echthrodelphax tauricus Ponomarenko, 1970
status

 

2. Echthrodelphax tauricus Ponomarenko, 1970 

( Figs 162View FIGURE 162 DView FIGURE 162, 165View FIGURE 165 A, C, DView FIGURE 165, 166View FIGURE 166 C, DView FIGURE 166)

Echthrodelphax tauricus Ponomarenko 1970: 432  ; Olmi 2005b: 124; 2006: 44; Guglielmino & Olmi 2006: 37, 44; Olmi 2008a: 370; Azevedo et al. 2010: 894; Penati & Olmi 2011: 76; Olmi 2014: 336; Olmi et al. 2015: 364; 2016: 78.

Pterogonatopus hortusensis Abdul-Nour 1976: 276  (synonymized by Olmi 2004c, 2005b; type locality: Hortus (Hérault, France).

Echthrodelphax hortusensis (Abdul-Nour)  : Olmi 1984: 1147; Tussac 1988: 351; Olmi 1995g: 5; Guglielmino & Olmi 1997: 178–183; Olmi 1998a: 57; Tussac & Olmi 1998: 488; Olmi 1999: 221; Olmi & van Harten 2000: 263; Olmi & de Rond 2001: 116; Olmi 2005b: 124; Olmi & van Harten 2006: 328.

Echthrodelphax afer Olmi 1984: 1155  (synonymized by Olmi & van Harten 2000); type locality: Harare ( Zimbabwe); Olmi 1987a: 436; 1990b: 405; 1994a: 69; Guglielmino & Olmi 1997: 220, 221; Olmi 1998c: 62.

Echthrodelphax migratorius Benoit  : Olmi 1989b: 162 (♂); Olmi & van Harten 2000: 263; 2006: 329.

Description. ♀ ( Figs 162DView FIGURE 162, 165AView FIGURE 165). Fully winged; body length 1.9–3.1 mm. Head testaceous, occasionally except brown spot on vertex; antenna testaceous; propleuron, pronotum and mesoscutum testaceous, occasionally brownreddish; rest of mesosoma black, except distal extremity of propodeal declivity testaceous; occasionally sides of mesoscutellum and metanotum brown; occasionally metapectal-propodeal disc with brown spot; in specimen from South Africa, 25°48’S 27°34’E, mesosoma testaceous-reddish, except axillae, metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity brown; in two specimens from South Africa, 34°15’S 18°21.5’E, mesoscutum testaceous, except posterior half black; petiole black; metasoma yellow, except tergite 1 partly black and with some brown transverse bands; legs testaceous. Specimen from Mozambique, Mituque (12.IV–6.V.2008), completely testaceous, except petiole black and axillae darkened. Antenna clavate. Head shiny, unsculptured; occasionally occiput and part of vertex granulate; occipital carina absent; ocellar triangle strongly isosceles, with median keel; frontal line present; POL = 1; OL = 4; OOL = 7. Palpal formula 5/2. Pronotum crossed by strong transverse impression, with disc dull and granulate; collar and lateral regions of pronotum smooth, shiny and unsculptured; posterior edges of pronotum rounded, not produced into lobes. Mesoscutum shiny, smooth, unsculptured or slightly punctate. Notauli complete, joint at posterior margin of mesoscutum. Occasionally notauli incomplete, reaching about 0.7 × length of mesoscutum. In testaceous specimen from Mozambique, Mituque (12.IV–6.V.2008), notauli absent. Mesoscutellum shiny, unsculptured or slightly puntate. Metanotum very reduced and short. Metapectal-propodeal disc and propodeal declivity reticulate rugose, without longitudinal keels. Forewing with 1–2 more or less large dark transverse bands; occasionally dark transverse bands little distinct and hardly visible. Protrochanter approximately 4 × as long as broad. Enlarged claw ( Fig. 166DView FIGURE 166) with one large subapical tooth and one row of 4–5 lamellae. Protarsomere 5 ( Fig. 166DView FIGURE 166) with one row of 7–11 lamellae; apex with 6–11 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/0/1.

Description. ♂ ( Figs 165C, DView FIGURE 165). Fully winged; body length 1.2–1.9 mm. Head black, except mandible testa- ceous; clypeus black, occasionally testaceous; antenna brown, occasionally except scape and pedicel testaceous; mesosoma black; metasoma brown or brown-reddish; legs testaceous. Antenna filiform, with antennomere 3 four or more than 4 × as long as broad; antennomeres in following proportions: 4:5:8:8:8:7.5:7.5:7.5:7:10. Head shiny, unsculptured or granulate; frontal line absent; occipital carina very thin and complete; temple very prominent; POL = 4.5; OL = 2; OOL = 4; OPL = 1; TL = 5.5. Palpal formula 4/2 or 5/2. Mesoscutum shiny, slightly granulate. Notauli complete, posteriorly joint or separated. Specimen from Yemen (Lahj, III.2001, N. 5578) with incomplete notauli reaching approximately 0.7 × length of mesoscutum (erroneously tentatively attributed to E. migratorius  by Olmi 1989b, Olmi & van Harten 2000, 2006). Mesoscutellum and metanotum shiny, unsculptured. Metapectalpropodeal disc dull, completely reticulate rugose, without transverse posterior keel; propodeal declivity reticulate rugose, without longitudinal keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of 2r-rs&Rs vein longer than proximal part (13:6). Paramere ( Fig. 166CView FIGURE 166) with dorsal process short and lobe-shaped, without mosaic pattern. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Material examined. Types: ♀ holotype of E. tauricus  : UKRAINE: Crimea, Sevastopol, 20–23.IX.1968, N.G. Ponomarenko leg. ( ZMM)  ; ♀ holotype of P. hortusensis  : FRANCE: Hérault, Hortus , H. Abdul-Nour leg. ( MNHN)  ; ♀ holotype of E. afer  : ZIMBABWE: Harare (= Salisbury ), A. Watsham leg. ( NHMUK)  . Paratypes of P. hortusensis  : same locality label as holotype  , 1♀ ( MNHN); Héralt, Montarnaud , H. Abdul-Nour leg.  , 1♀ ( MNHN); paratypes of E. afer  : DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO: Haut-Uele (= Haut-Zaire), Garamba National Park   , 3♀♀ (1 in AMNH, 2 in MRAC); SOMALIA: Benadir, Afgoi, M. Olmi leg.  , 2♀♀ ( AMNH); SOUTH AFRICA: East- ern Cape, Katberg , 4000 ft., XII.1932, R.E. Turner leg.  , 2♀♀ ( AMNH, NHMUK); Eastern Cape, Port St. Johns , 1–11.VI.1923, R.E. Turner leg.  , 1♀ ( NHMUK). Other material: BOTSWANA: Serowe, Farmer’s Brigade  , 1♀ ( USNM); Kgatleng District, Odi, 17 km NE of Gaborone   , 1♀ ( ZIL). CAMEROON: South, near Ebolowa , Nko- emvon, 21.I–6.II.1980, cocoa plantation, D. Jackson leg.  , 1♀ ( NHMUK). CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Santiago Is- land, São Jorge dos Orgãos, A. Van Harten leg.  , 1♀ ( AMNH). CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Sangha-Mbaéré Prefecture, Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Mabéa Bai , 21.4 km 53° NE Bayanga, 3°02.01’N 16°24.57’E, 510 m, 7.V.2001, sweep, lowland rainforest, marsh clearing, S. van Noort leg.GoogleMaps  , 19♂♂ (18 in SAMC, 1 in MOLC). IVORY COAST: Bouaké  , 1♀ ( CNC); 3 km S of Katiola   , 1♀ ( DEUW). KENYA: Coast Prov., Kasigau Mtn. , 3.82667°S 38.64982°E, 1117 m, 16–30.VI.2011, indigenous forest, MT, next to spring in forest, R. Copeland leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( NMK) (new for Kenya). MADAGASCAR: Toliara, Mite Forest , 20.7 km 29° WNW Tongobory, 23°31.27’S 44°07.17’E, 75 m, 27.II–3.III.2002, MT, in gallery forest, Fisher, Griswold et al. leg., BLF 5849GoogleMaps  , 1♂ ( CAS); Toliara, Andohahela National Park, Tsimelahy , parcelle II, 24°56.21’S 46°37.60’E, 180 m, 26.I–5.II.2003, MT, transitional forest, M. Irwin, F. Parker & R. Harin’Hala leg.GoogleMaps  , MA- 02-20-14, 1♀ ( CAS); Toliara, Lake Ranobe , 23°02.22’S 43°36.37’E, 30 m, 25–28.IV.2003, MT, spiny forest thicket, MGF063, Frontier Wilderness ProjectGoogleMaps  , 1♀, 1♂ ( CAS); same locality label, 25–29.I.2003, MGF053GoogleMaps  , 2♂♂ ( CAS); Toliara, Lake Ranobe , 23°02.26’S 43°36.35’E, 30 m, 25–30.IV.2003, MT, spiny forest thicket, MGF065, Frontier Wilderness ProjectGoogleMaps  , 1♂ ( CAS). MOZAMBIQUE: Maputo Prov., Ma- puto, M. Olmi leg.  , 1♀ ( AMNH); Maputo Prov., 26 km S of Maputo along Maputo-Namaacha Road, Umbelúzi , M. Olmi leg.  , 1♀ ( AMNH); Maputo Prov., 3 km N of Umbelúzi along Maputo-Namaacha Road, M. Olmi leg.  , 1♀ ( AMNH); Maputo Prov., Ponta de Ouro , M. Olmi leg.  , 1♀ ( AMNH); Maputo Prov., 6 km N of Palmeira along Maputo-Xai Xai road, M. Olmi leg.  , 1♀ ( AMNH); Maputo Prov., Manhiça District, Manhiça, Vasco’s Farm , 1– 8.IX.1996, MT, M. Olmi leg.  , 1♀ ( MOLC); same locality label, 24.X–6.XII.1996  , 2♀♀ ( MOLC); same local- ity label, 9.IX–24.X.1995  , 4♀♀ ( MOLC); same locality label, 1–8.IX.1996  , 1♂ ( MOLC); Niassa Prov., Cuamba, Mituque , 22.VII–5.VIII.2008, MT, M. Olmi leg.  , 1♀ ( MOLC); same locality label, 12.IV–6.V.2008  , 1♀ ( MOLC); same locality label, 12.IV–6.V.2008, MT, M. Olmi leg.  , 2♂♂ ( MOLC). NIGERIA: Oyo State, Ibadan , IITA, B.R. Critchley leg.  , 1♀ ( NHMUK). OMAN: Salalah, South Dahariz   , 1♀ ( PMA); 24 km E of Salalah , 23.II.1986  , 1♀ ( CNC). SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape, Katberg , 4000 ft., XII.1932, R.E. Turner leg.  , 1♀ ( AMNH); Eastern Cape, 8 km N of Fort Beaufort, Blinkwater , 32°43’S 26°35’EGoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( ZIL); Eastern Cape, Somerset East , IX.1930, R. E. Turner leg.  , 1♂ ( NHMUK); Eastern Cape, Port St. Johns , 25-31.III.1923, 5–30.IV.1923, 1–14.V.1923, 1–11.VI.1923, R. E. Turner leg.  , 8♂♂ ( NHMUK); KwaZulu-Natal: Louwsberg, Sanyati Farm , 27°34’S 31°17.9’E, 1090 m, 1– 24.III.2006, MT, M. Mostovski leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( NMSA); Mpumalanga, Krüger National Park, Lower Sabie , 14.XII.1985  , 1♀ ( CNC); Northern Cape, Sterboom Farm , 32°36.794’S 20°44.660’E, 1599 m, 9.II–31.III.2010, MT, Succulent Karoo, S. van Noort leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( SAMC); North West, Brits district, Magaliesberg, Castle Gorge , 25°48’S 27°34’E, 9.XI.2003, sweep river course grass & forbs, regrowth after fire, M. Stiller leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( SANC); Western Cape, Cape Peninsula National Park , 34°15’S 18°21.5’E, 100 m, 14–31.XII.1999, fynbos, FIT, S. & J. Peck leg.GoogleMaps  , 99–141, 3♀♀ ( CNC); Western Cape, Ceres , III.1925, R.E. Turner leg.  , 1♂ ( NHMUK); Western Cape, West Coast Fossil Park , 4 km 270° W Langebaanweg, 32°58.444’S 18°06.731’E, 9–16.X.2002, MT, Sand plain fynbos dominated by Lebeckia, S. van Noort  legGoogleMaps  ., 1♂ ( SAMC). UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: Dubai, Nakhalai  , 1♀ ( CDAE); Wadi Maidaq , 25°18’N 56°07’E, 29.III–10.IV.2006, yellow and white water-traps, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( MOLC); al-Ajban, 24°36’N 55°01’E, 2–9.IV.2006, MT, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 2♀♀ ( MOLC); same locality label, 26.II–2.IV.2006, MT, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 6♀♀ ( MOLC); same locality label, 2–9.IV.2006, MT, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 3♀♀ ( MOLC); same locality label, 9.IV–2.V.2006, MT, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♂ ( MOLC). YEMEN: Wadi Bana , 13°21’N 45°18’E, 100 m, 20.III.1993, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( MOLC); Al-Kadan , 15°16’N 43°12’E, 200 m, 3.XII.1997 – 17.II.1998, MT, A. van Harten & H.M. Naser leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( MOLC); Near Sana’a, 15°21’N 44°13’E, 2300 m, 9.IV.1998, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( MOLC); Lahj , 13°04’N 44°53’E, 150 m, X.1998, IV.2000, V–VI.2000, I.2001, III.2001, 1.X–7.XII.2001, 17.XII.2001 – 31.I.2002, III–V.2002, MT, A. van Harten & A. Sallam leg.GoogleMaps  , 6♀♀, 3♂♂ ( MOLC); Al-Kowd , 13°05’N 45°22’E, 20 m, 01–15.I.1993, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( MOLC); Al Lahima , 15°24’N 43°32’E, 1200 m, 16.X– 31.XII.2000, A. van Harten & A.M. Hager leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( MOLC); Ja’ar , 13°13’N 45°18’E, 50 m, 15.I.2001, A. van Harten leg.GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( MOLC). ZAMBIA: Lusaka  , 1♀ ( DEUCD). ZIMBABWE: Harare (= Salisbury ), A. Watsham leg.  , 2♀♀ ( NHMUK); Harare, Chishawasha , IX.1979, A. Watsham leg.  , 1♀ ( NHMUK). Palaearctic. Known from many Palaearctic countries (Algeria, Azerbaijan, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine)  .

Hosts. Delphacidae  Delphacinae ( Guglielmino et al. 2013)  : in the Palaearctic region: in France: Ribautodelphax imitans (Ribaut)  ; in Germany: Ribautodelphax albostriata (Fieber)  ; in Italy: Falcotoya minuscula (Horváth)  , Ribautodelphax imitans (Ribaut)  , Laodelphax striatella (Fallén)  , Megadelphax sordidula (Stål)  . In the Afrotropical region: in the Cape Verde Islands: Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead)  ; in Mozambique: Nycheuma endymion (Fennah)  , Metadelphax propinqua (Fieber)  .

Natural enemies. Hymenoptera  Encyrtidae  : in Mozambique: Cheiloneurus gonatopodis R. Perkins. This Encyrtid  is one of the most common natural enemies of Dryinids in Mozambique (see also Gonatopus amoenus Olmi  , Gonatopus mossambicus Olmi  and Gonatopus incognitus Olmi  ). The reared specimens of C. gonatopodis  have the following locality labels: Mozambique, Maputo Prov., 6 km N Palmeira, parasitized planthopper col- lected on 3.IX.1995; cocoon spun on 7.IX.1995; encyrtids emergence on 25.IX.1995, 3♂♂, 1♀ ( MOLC); Mozam- bique, Maputo Prov., 3 km N Umbelúzi , parasitized planthopper collected on 11.XI.1992  ; encyrtids emergence on 26.XI.1992, 1♂, 2♀♀ ( MOLC); Mozambique, Maputo Prov., 3 km N Umbelúzi , parasitized planthopper collected on 11.XI.1992  ; encyrtids emergence on 26.XI.1992, 1♂, 2♀♀ ( MOLC)  .

Distribution. Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Oman, Somalia, South Africa, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, in addition to many Palaearctic countries.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

ZIL

Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute

SAMC

Iziko Museums of Cape Town

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

NMK

National Museums of Kenya

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

PMA

Provincial Museum of Alberta

NMSA

KwaZulu-Natal Museum

SANC

Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Dryinidae

Genus

Echthrodelphax

Loc

Echthrodelphax tauricus Ponomarenko, 1970

Olmi, Massimo, Copeland, Robert S. & Noort, Simon Van 2019
2019
Loc

Echthrodelphax tauricus

Azevedo, C. O. & Madl, M. & Olmi, M. 2010: 894
Olmi, M. 2008: 370
Guglielmino, A. & Olmi, M. 2006: 37
Olmi, M. 2005: 124
Ponomarenko, N. G. 1970: 432
Loc

Pterogonatopus hortusensis

Abdul-Nour, H. 1976: 276
Loc

Echthrodelphax hortusensis

Olmi, M. & van Harten, A. 2006: 328
Olmi, M. 2005: 124
Olmi, M. & de Rond, J. 2001: 116
Olmi, M. & van Harten, A. 2000: 263
Olmi, M. 1999: 221
Olmi, M. 1998: 57
Tussac, H. & Olmi, M. 1998: 488
Olmi, M. 1995: 5
Tussac, H. 1988: 351
Olmi, M. 1984: 1147
Loc

Echthrodelphax afer

Olmi, M. 1998: 62
Guglielmino, A. & Olmi, M. 1997: 220
Olmi, M. 1994: 69
Olmi, M. 1990: 405
Olmi, M. 1987: 436
Olmi, M. 1984: 1155
Loc

Echthrodelphax migratorius

Olmi, M. & van Harten, A. 2000: 263
Olmi, M. 1989: 162