Netomocera Bouček, 1954,

Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan, 2019, Revision of Netomocera Bouček (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), excluding the Oriental species, European Journal of Taxonomy 568, pp. 1-87: 5-12

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.568

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D49AB26D-7276-48A5-BE5A-958E30B81F17

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E6565B-AC4A-F56B-FD85-440D0AE4FEC9

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Netomocera Bouček, 1954
status

 

Genus Netomocera Bouček, 1954 

Netomocera Bouček, 1954: 49–50  (type species: Netomocera setifera Bouček, 1954  , by original designation and monotypy).

Diagnosis (with respect to other diparine genera)

Both sexes

Petiole transverse to quadrate, never longer than broad ( Figs 8View Figs 6–11, 19View Figs 17–22, 39View Figs 37–40, 61View Figs 59–64, 72View Figs 70–75, 83View Figs 81–86, 103View Figs 101–106, 125View Figs 123–128, 138View Figs 136–141, 151View Figs 149–154, 165View Figs 162–166, 185View Figs 183–188); clypeal margin evenly curved, always without a conspicuous median tooth ( Figs 4View Figs 1–5, 15View Figs 12–16, 26View Figs 23–27, 35View Figs 32–36, 44View Figs 41–45, 57View Figs 54–58, 68View Figs 65–69, 79View Figs 76–80, 90View Figs 87–91, 99View Figs 96–100, 110View Figs 107–111, 134View Figs 131–135, 147View Figs 144–148, 160View Figs 157–161, 170View Figs 167–171, 181View Figs 178–182).

Female

Antenna 11173, distinctly clavate, with clava moderate to large, slightly to strongly asymmetric ( Figs 5View Figs 1–5, 16View Figs 12–16, 27View Figs 23–27, 36View Figs 32–36, 58View Figs 54–58, 69View Figs 65–69, 91View Figs 87–91, 100View Figs 96–100, 111View Figs 107–111, 122View Figs 118–122, 135View Figs 131–135, 148View Figs 144–148, 171View Figs 167–171, 195View Figs 191–195).

Male

Antenna with flagellum very long and filiform, without long outstanding setae; clava not differentiated ( Figs 11View Figs 6–11, 22View Figs 17–22, 53View Figs 52–53, 64View Figs 59–64, 75View Figs 70–75, 86View Figs 81–86, 106View Figs 101–106, 117View Figs 112–117, 130View Figs 129–130, 143View Figs 142–143, 156View Figs 155–156, 161View Figs 157–161, 177View Figs 172–177, 190View Figs 189–190, 201View Figs 196–201).

Description

Female (habitus: Figs 1View Figs 1–5, 12View Figs 12–16, 23View Figs 23–27, 32View Figs 32–36, 41View Figs 41–45, 54View Figs 54–58, 65View Figs 65–69, 76View Figs 76–80, 87View Figs 87–91, 96View Figs 96–100, 107View Figs 107–111, 118View Figs 118–122, 131View Figs 131–135, 144View Figs 144–148, 167View Figs 167–171, 178View Figs 178–182, 191View Figs 191–195) COLOUR. Head from yellowish to black, sometimes with weak to strong blue, violet or green metallic reflections (e.g., Figs 13View Figs 12–16, 24View Figs 23–27, 33View Figs 32–36, 42View Figs 41–45, 179View Figs 178–182). Mesosoma yellowish to black, rarely with metallic reflections (e.g., Figs 18View Figs 17–22, 29View Figs 28–31, 38View Figs 37–40, 162View Figs 162–166). Metasoma with petiole similar to mesosoma and gaster, yellowish to black but ventrally usually paler (e.g., Figs 23View Figs 23–27, 32View Figs 32–36, 54View Figs 54–58, 65View Figs 65–69, 76View Figs 76–80, 96View Figs 96–100, 107View Figs 107–111, 118View Figs 118–122, 178View Figs 178–182). Body setation usually pale except for several large, symmetrically arranged dark brown setae (e.g., Figs 29View Figs 28–31, 38View Figs 37–40, 71View Figs 70–75, 113View Figs 112–117, 124View Figs 123–128, 197View Figs 196–201).

BODY LENGTH. 0.90–3.25 mm.

HEAD. Clypeal margin slightly to distinctly produced (e.g., Figs 4View Figs 1–5, 15View Figs 12–16, 35View Figs 32–36, 79View Figs 76–80, 110View Figs 107–111, 147View Figs 144–148, 170View Figs 167–171) or slightly to distinctly emarginate (e.g., Figs 44View Figs 41–45, 90View Figs 87–91, 121View Figs 118–122, 134View Figs 131–135, 194View Figs 191–195), rarely virtually straight (e.g., Fig. 57View Figs 54–58). Clypeal region virtually smooth to coriaceous. Lower face coriaceous to shallowly reticulate, piliferous punctures distinct or not (e.g., Figs 4View Figs 1–5, 15View Figs 12–16, 26View Figs 23–27, 35View Figs 32–36, 57View Figs 54–58, 68View Figs 65–69, 79View Figs 76–80, 90View Figs 87–91, 99View Figs 96–100, 110View Figs 107–111, 134View Figs 131–135, 147View Figs 144–148, 160View Figs 157–161). Upper face including vertex reticulate (e.g., Figs 14View Figs 12–16, 34View Figs 32–36, 56View Figs 54–58, 98View Figs 96–100, 146View Figs 144–148, 169View Figs 167–171) or coriaceous (e.g., Figs 67View Figs 65–69, 109View Figs 107–111); scrobes deep, reticulate (e.g., Figs 66View Figs 65–69, 97View Figs 96–100, 108View Figs 107–111, 179View Figs 178–182) or smooth ( Figs 77View Figs 76–80, 168View Figs 167–171); parascrobal region with elongated (e.g., Fig. 108View Figs 107–111) or isodiametric cells (e.g., Fig. 33View Figs 32–36). Occiput virtually smooth or coriaceous-alutaceous; margin blunt (e.g., Figs 25View Figs 23–27, 89View Figs 87–91, 120View Figs 118–122, 133View Figs 131–135, 159View Figs 157–161, 180View Figs 178–182, 193View Figs 191–195) or sharply defined (e.g., Figs 14View Figs 12–16, 34View Figs 32–36, 43View Figs 41–45, 56View Figs 54–58, 67View Figs 65–69, 98View Figs 96–100, 109View Figs 107–111). Toruli with lower margins usually slightly to distinctly below lower margins of eyes (e.g., Figs 2View Figs 1–5, 24View Figs 23–27, 33View Figs 32–36, 66View Figs 65–69, 77View Figs 76–80, 88View Figs 87–91, 179View Figs 178–182), rarely above (e.g., Fig. 13View Figs 12–16); face protruding (e.g., Figs 1View Figs 1–5, 12View Figs 12–16, 167View Figs 167–171) or not (e.g., Figs 32View Figs 32–36, 54View Figs 54–58, 144View Figs 144–148) at toruli level. Funicle moderately (e.g., Figs 27View Figs 23–27, 91View Figs 87–91, 122View Figs 118–122, 171View Figs 167–171, 182View Figs 178–182) to strongly widening (e.g., Figs 5View Figs 1–5, 16View Figs 12–16, 36View Figs 32–36, 80View Figs 76–80, 100View Figs 96–100, 148View Figs 144–148) towards clava; clava more or less asymmetric. Upper face and vertex usually with eight large setae (e.g., Figs 67View Figs 65–69, 133View Figs 131–135): one between each posterior ocellus and corresponding eye, closer to eye; two between posterior ocelli, closer to the latter than to each other; one posterior to each eye; one behind each posterior ocellus. In a few species, one or two additional pairs of setae present next to inner margins of eyes, hence the total number of head setae is 10–12 (e.g., Figs 25View Figs 23–27, 89View Figs 87–91, 120View Figs 118–122).

MESOSOMA. Moderately (e.g., Figs 29View Figs 28–31, 113View Figs 112–117, 137View Figs 136–141) to densely setose (e.g., Fig. 71View Figs 70–75) dorsally. Pronotal collar usually distinctly narrower than mesoscutum (e.g., Figs 18View Figs 17–22, 60View Figs 59–64, 71View Figs 70–75, 113View Figs 112–117), rarely almost as wide as mesoscutum (e.g., Figs 82View Figs 81–86, 184View Figs 183–188), with 6–10 large setae arranged in one row (e.g., Figs 93View Figs 92–95, 137View Figs 136–141, 173View Figs 172–177, 184View Figs 183–188). Mesoscutum and axillae with shallow (e.g., Figs 47View Figs 46–51, 82View Figs 81–86, 113View Figs 112–117, 137View Figs 136–141, 184View Figs 183–188) to deep (e.g., Figs 7View Figs 6–11, 18View Figs 17–22, 60View Figs 59–64) reticulation. Mesoscutum with one central pair of large setae on median lobe and each lateral lobe with one large seta above fore wing articulation (e.g., Figs 124View Figs 123–128, 137View Figs 136–141, 150View Figs 149–154, 173View Figs 172–177, 184View Figs 183–188). Scutellar disc with similar sculpture as mesoscutum; frenal line absent, but frenal area usually defined by at least slightly different sculpture, either less strong or longitudinally striate-reticulate (e.g., Figs 19View Figs 17–22, 83View Figs 81–86, 114View Figs 112–117). Scutellum with two pairs of large setae, one anteriorly, the other on the virtual frenal line, the latter setae more widely apart than the anterior setae (e.g., Figs 29View Figs 28–31, 150View Figs 149–154, 184View Figs 183–188). Mesepisternum usually densely reticulate. Mesepimeron usually mainly smooth; mesepimeral sulcus ( Fig. 17View Figs 17–22) almost absent (e.g., Figs 92View Figs 92–95, 112View Figs 112–117, 123View Figs 123–128, 136View Figs 136–141, 183View Figs 183–188) to very distinct (e.g., Figs 6View Figs 6–11, 17View Figs 17–22, 46View Figs 46–51, 59View Figs 59–64). Metanotum with lateral panels and dorsellum mainly smooth except for a few fine costulae (e.g., Figs 19View Figs 17–22, 30View Figs 28–31, 39View Figs 37–40, 48View Figs 46–51, 83View Figs 81–86, 94View Figs 92–95, 114View Figs 112–117, 151View Figs 149–154, 185View Figs 183–188), rarely with more complex sculpture ( Fig. 165View Figs 162–166). Propodeum mainly smooth, with intricate pattern of carinae, interspaces smooth to slightly wrinkled (e.g., Figs 8View Figs 6–11, 19View Figs 17–22, 30View Figs 28–31, 39View Figs 37–40, 72View Figs 70–75, 83View Figs 81–86, 94View Figs 92–95, 114View Figs 112–117, 138View Figs 136–141, 151View Figs 149–154, 185View Figs 183–188). Brachypterous (e.g., Figs 65View Figs 65–69, 118View Figs 118–122, 131View Figs 131–135, 167View Figs 167–171, 187View Figs 183–188), submacropterous (e.g., Fig. 178View Figs 178–182) or macropterous (e.g., Figs 1View Figs 1–5, 12View Figs 12–16, 32View Figs 32–36, 41View Figs 41–45, 54View Figs 54–58, 96View Figs 96–100). Macropterous and submacropterous forms with fore wing usually uniformly and densely setose except for small, elongate bare region similar to linea calva some distance beyond parastigma and basal half of marginal vein (e.g., Figs 9View Figs 6–11, 20View Figs 17–22, 62View Figs 59–64, 104View Figs 101–106, 186View Figs 183–188); occasionally fore wing extensively bare basally ( Fig. 141View Figs 136–141, 199View Figs 196–201) or with bare region larger ( Fig. 31View Figs 28–31); submarginal, marginal and postmarginal veins with several large setae; several long, thin admarginal setae on ventral side of wing close to marginal vein, but hard to see because of dense setation on dorsal side of wing (e.g., Fig. 84View Figs 81–86). Brachypterous form with fore and hind wings represented by stumps; fore wing with rounded or truncate apex well surpassing posterior margin of propodeum, usually with complete submarginal, reduced marginal and very short postmarginal and stigmal veins, and submarginal, marginal and postmarginal veins with several large setae (e.g., Figs 73View Figs 70–75, 126View Figs 123–128, 139View Figs 136–141, 154View Figs 149–154, 175View Figs 172–177, 188View Figs 183–188); setation similar to that of macropterous form.

METASOMA. Petiole either barely visible, transverse and smooth except for a few superficial longitudinal striae (e.g., Figs 39View Figs 37–40, 61View Figs 59–64, 72View Figs 70–75, 83View Figs 81–86, 103View Figs 101–106, 114View Figs 112–117, 125View Figs 123–128, 138View Figs 136–141, 151View Figs 149–154, 185View Figs 183–188, 198View Figs 196–201) or quadrate, with a few conspicuous longitudinal carinae (e.g., Figs 8View Figs 6–11, 19View Figs 17–22). Gaster (e.g., Figs 1View Figs 1–5, 23View Figs 23–27, 32View Figs 32–36, 54View Figs 54–58, 65View Figs 65–69, 76View Figs 76–80, 87View Figs 87–91, 118View Figs 118–122, 144View Figs 144–148, 178View Figs 178–182, 191View Figs 191–195) usually short-ovate to long-acuminate, with gt1 the longest and with hind margin produced or emarginate; gt2–6 short, more or less retracted; syntergum acutely pointed. Ovipositor sheaths slightly to distinctly protruding beyond apex of gaster. Cercal setae long, may surpass the apex of gaster.

Male (habitus: Figs 10View Figs 6–11, 21View Figs 17–22, 52View Figs 52–53, 63View Figs 59–64, 74View Figs 70–75, 85View Figs 81–86, 105View Figs 101–106, 116View Figs 112–117, 129View Figs 129–130, 142View Figs 142–143, 155View Figs 155–156, 157View Figs 157–161, 176View Figs 172–177, 189View Figs 189–190, 200View Figs 196–201)

Differs from female mainly as follows. Body length: in average smaller than for female (0.75–2.50 mm). Always macropterous (e.g., Figs 21View Figs 17–22, 52View Figs 52–53, 74View Figs 70–75, 85View Figs 81–86, 129View Figs 129–130, 142View Figs 142–143, 157View Figs 157–161, 189View Figs 189–190). Eyes smaller, hence malar space greater (e.g., Fig. 158View Figs 157–161). Toruli with lower margins usually above lower margins of eyes, rarely at same level (e.g., Fig. 158View Figs 157–161). Flagellum very long, without differentiated clava, funicular segments subequal in length to fu1, except fu10, which is longest (e.g., Figs 11View Figs 6–11, 22View Figs 17–22, 53View Figs 52–53, 64View Figs 59–64, 75View Figs 70–75, 86View Figs 81–86, 106View Figs 101–106, 117View Figs 112–117, 130View Figs 129–130, 143View Figs 142–143, 156View Figs 155–156, 177View Figs 172–177, 190View Figs 189–190, 201View Figs 196–201). Basal funicular segments sometimes slightly wider than apical segments (e.g., Figs 75View Figs 70–75, 143View Figs 142–143, 177View Figs 172–177, 190View Figs 189–190). Gaster (especially when collapsed) shorter than mesosoma, in air-dried specimens usually with only gt1 visible (e.g., Figs 10View Figs 6–11, 52View Figs 52–53, 74View Figs 70–75).

Distribution

Cosmopolitan.

Hosts

Unknown.

Remarks

Desjardins (2007) provided the latest revision of Diparinae  , including a key to world genera. Females of Netomocera  are prone to be confused mostly with females of Lelaps Walker, 1843  , but differ from those mainly in the shape of the clypeal margin, without any teeth (with a small median tooth in Lelaps  ), and in the clavate antennae, with the clava being at least slightly asymmetric (e.g., Figs 16View Figs 12–16, 45View Figs 41–45, 58View Figs 54–58, 135View Figs 131–135, 148View Figs 144–148) due to the presence of a microsetation area (antennae filiform in Lelaps  , clava symmetric, without a conspicuous microsetation area). They are also somewhat similar to females of Chimaerolelaps Desjardins, 2007  , but those have a long petiole (at least twice as long as broad) and three pairs of large scutellar setae, while in Netomocera  the petiole is at most quadrate (e.g., Figs 8View Figs 6–11, 19View Figs 17–22) and the scutellum has only two pairs of large setae (e.g., Figs 29View Figs 28–31, 150View Figs 149–154, 184View Figs 183–188).

Males of Netomocera  can be confused especially with males of Dipara Walker, 1833  and Lelaps  . They differ from males of both these genera in having a much shorter petiole (at most quadrate as opposed to more than twice as long as broad) and funicular segments with shorter setae (funicular segments with whorls of long setae in the mentioned genera); additionally, males of Netomocera  differ from those of Lelaps  in having the clypeal margin emarginate or evenly produced, without a median tooth.

Key to world species of Netomocera  , excluding the Oriental species

Note

Females of N. rufa  are unknown; males of many species are unknown.

1. Female: antenna short-clavate, clava more or less asymmetric, with large microsetation area (e.g., Figs 16View Figs 12–16, 45View Figs 41–45, 58View Figs 54–58, 135View Figs 131–135, 148View Figs 144–148); brachypterous (e.g., Figs 65View Figs 65–69, 118View Figs 118–122, 131View Figs 131–135, 167View Figs 167–171, 187View Figs 183–188) or macropterous (e.g., Figs 1View Figs 1–5, 12View Figs 12–16, 32View Figs 32–36, 41View Figs 41–45, 54View Figs 54–58, 96View Figs 96–100) .................................................................................................................. 2

– Male: antenna very long, filiform (e.g., Figs 11View Figs 6–11, 53View Figs 52–53, 86View Figs 81–86, 106View Figs 101–106, 143View Figs 142–143, 177View Figs 172–177, 201View Figs 196–201); macropterous (e.g., Figs 21View Figs 17–22, 52View Figs 52–53, 74View Figs 70–75, 85View Figs 81–86, 129View Figs 129–130, 142View Figs 142–143, 157View Figs 157–161, 189View Figs 189–190) .......................................................................................... 18

2. Visible part of petiole very short, distinctly transverse, with more or less obliterate sculpture (e.g., Figs 39View Figs 37–40, 61View Figs 59–64, 72View Figs 70–75, 83View Figs 81–86, 103View Figs 101–106, 114View Figs 112–117, 125View Figs 123–128, 138View Figs 136–141, 151View Figs 149–154, 185View Figs 183–188, 198View Figs 196–201); propodeum (e.g., Figs 30View Figs 28–31, 39View Figs 37–40, 72View Figs 70–75, 83View Figs 81–86, 94View Figs 92–95, 114View Figs 112–117, 138View Figs 136–141, 151View Figs 149–154) usually without a well-defined V-shaped area basally (except N. setifera  , Fig. 185View Figs 183–188); mesepimeral sulcus conspicuous (e.g., Figs 46View Figs 46–51, 59View Figs 59–64) or not (e.g., Figs 92View Figs 92–95, 112View Figs 112–117, 123View Figs 123–128, 136View Figs 136–141, 183View Figs 183–188); macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous [various biogeographic distribution].................. 3

– Visible part of petiole longer, usually quadrate, with a few conspicuous longitudinal carinae ( Figs 8View Figs 6–11, 19View Figs 17–22); propodeum ( Figs 8View Figs 6–11, 19View Figs 17–22) always with a well-defined V-shaped area basally; mesepimeral sulcus conspicuous ( Figs 6View Figs 6–11, 17View Figs 17–22); macropterous [Afrotropical]................................................................... 17

3. Head yellowish ( Figs 24View Figs 23–27, 88View Figs 87–91, 118View Figs 118–122, 132View Figs 131–135, 192View Figs 191–195); clypeal margin shallowly to conspicuously emarginate ( Figs 26View Figs 23–27, 90View Figs 87–91, 121View Figs 118–122, 134View Figs 131–135, 194View Figs 191–195); occiput margin blunt ( Figs 25View Figs 23–27, 120View Figs 118–122, 133View Figs 131–135, 193View Figs 191–195) or rarely abrupt ( Fig. 89View Figs 87–91), but never sharply margined; mesepimeral sulcus inconspicuous, although some transverse costulae usually present ( Figs 92View Figs 92–95, 123View Figs 123–128, 136View Figs 136–141, 196View Figs 196–201); usually macropterous, rarely brachypterous; fore wing always with at least some brownish spots ( Figs 31View Figs 28–31, 95View Figs 92–95, 126, 128View Figs 123–128, 139, 141View Figs 136–141, 199View Figs 196–201); upper face and vertex usually with ten large setae ( Figs 25View Figs 23–27, 89View Figs 87–91, 120View Figs 118–122, 193View Figs 191–195), rarely with eight setae ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135) [New World] ................................................................................................................................................ 4

– Head brown to black (e.g., Figs 33View Figs 32–36, 55View Figs 54–58, 66View Figs 65–69, 77View Figs 76–80, 108View Figs 107–111, 168View Figs 167–171), sometimes with blue-violet, green or bronze metallic reflections (e.g., Figs 42, 43View Figs 41–45, 98View Figs 96–100, 179, 180View Figs 178–182); clypeal margin usually slightly produced or straight (e.g., Figs 33View Figs 32–36, 57View Figs 54–58, 68View Figs 65–69, 79View Figs 76–80, 110View Figs 107–111, 147View Figs 144–148, 170View Figs 167–171), but rarely shallowly emarginate ( Figs 44View Figs 41–45, 99View Figs 96–100); occiput margin rarely blunt ( Fig. 180View Figs 178–182), usually sharply defined (e.g., Figs 34View Figs 32–36, 43View Figs 41–45, 67View Figs 65–69, 98View Figs 96–100, 109View Figs 107–111); mesepimeral sulcus conspicuous (e.g., Figs 46View Figs 46–51, 59View Figs 59–64, 101View Figs 101–106, 172View Figs 172–177) or not (e.g., Fig. 183View Figs 183–188); macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous; fore wing hyaline or subhyaline (e.g., Figs 51View Figs 46–51, 104View Figs 101–106, 152View Figs 149–154), or with brownish spots (e.g., Figs 49View Figs 46–51, 186View Figs 183–188); upper face and vertex usually with eight large setae (e.g., Figs 56View Figs 54–58, 67View Figs 65–69), rarely with 12 setae ( Fig. 169View Figs 167–171) [various biogeographic distribution]........................... 8

4. Macropterous, fore wing mainly brownish, except for one bare region, swollen and shining violetblue when examined under some angles of light and with four hyaline areas covered with white setae ( Fig. 31View Figs 28–31): one apically in basal cell, a U-shaped region behind bare region and two subapical spots; flagellum with basal half yellow, the rest brownish ( Fig. 27View Figs 23–27); propodeum with median area almost without carinae ( Fig. 30View Figs 28–31) [Neotropical]............................................................. N. amethysta  sp. nov.

– Brachypterous or if macropterous fore wing with different colour pattern, never mainly brownish ( Figs 95View Figs 92–95, 128View Figs 123–128, 141View Figs 136–141, 199View Figs 196–201); flagellum with different colour pattern ( Figs 91View Figs 87–91, 122View Figs 118–122, 135View Figs 131–135, 195View Figs 191–195); propodeum with median area more carinate ( Figs 94View Figs 92–95, 125View Figs 123–128, 138View Figs 136–141, 198View Figs 196–201) [Neotropical, Nearctic] ........................... 5

5. Macropterous, fore wing with intricate brownish pattern of bands and spots covering more than half of wing surface ( Fig. 95View Figs 92–95); propodeum with large smooth areas among carinae ( Fig. 94View Figs 92–95); antenna with funicle brown and clava whitish ( Fig. 91View Figs 87–91) [Neotropical] ................................. N. irregularis  sp. nov.

– Brachypterous or if macropterous fore wing with two or three brownish bands or spots separated from each other by large hyaline areas ( Figs 126, 128View Figs 123–128, 139, 141View Figs 136–141, 199View Figs 196–201); propodeum with smaller smooth areas among carinae ( Figs 125View Figs 123–128, 138View Figs 136–141, 198View Figs 196–201); antenna with different colour pattern ( Figs 122View Figs 118–122, 135View Figs 131–135, 195View Figs 191–195) [Neotropical, Nearctic]...................................................................................................... 6

6. Antenna with basal funicular segments and clava pale yellow ( Fig. 195View Figs 191–195); fore wing with three transverse brownish bands, the first apically in basal cell, the second behind parastigma and the third behind stigma ( Fig. 199View Figs 196–201); head with ten large setae on upper face and vertex ( Fig. 193View Figs 191–195); macropterous [Neotropical]........................................................................................................... N. virgata  sp. nov.

– Antenna with pale areas of flagellum, if present, much more reduced ( Figs 122View Figs 118–122, 135View Figs 131–135); fore wing with two transverse brownish bands, one behind MV basally and the second behind stigma or occasionally with a third spot between the second band and the apical wing margin ( Figs 126, 128View Figs 123–128, 139, 141View Figs 136–141); head with eight ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135) or ten ( Fig. 120View Figs 118–122) large setae on upper face and vertex; brachypterous or macropterous [Nearctic] .................................................................................................................... 7

7. Mesoscutum very shallowly reticulate ( Fig. 137View Figs 136–141); scutellum medially longitudinally striate and laterally reticulate and frenal area striate-reticulate ( Fig. 137View Figs 136–141); propodeum uniformly and densely reticulate except for small triangular area anteriorly; nucha large, with lateral margins parallel ( Fig. 138View Figs 136–141); upper face and vertex usually with eight large setae ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135); antenna ( Fig. 135View Figs 131–135) strongly clavate, fu7 width 1.7–1.9 × length; clava length 1.6–1.7× width; head width equal to combined length of pedicel and flagellum; mesosoma length 1.7–2.0× height; mesoscutum width 2.5–2.9× length ................................................................................................... N. nearctica Yoshimoto, 1977 

– Mesoscutum more strongly reticulate ( Fig. 124View Figs 123–128); scutellum, including frenal area, reticulate ( Fig. 124View Figs 123–128); propodeum with several strong carinae, the interspaces virtually smooth; nucha smaller, with lateral margins converging posteriorly ( Fig. 125View Figs 123–128); upper face and vertex usually with ten large setae ( Fig. 120View Figs 118–122); antenna ( Fig. 122View Figs 118–122) moderately clavate, fu7 width 1.2–1.4 × length; clava length 2.1–2.4 × width; head width slightly less than combined length of pedicel and flagellum; mesosoma length 1.5–1.6 × height; mesoscutum width 2.1–2.5× length........................ N. meridionalis  sp. nov.

8. Pronotal collar long, 0.55–0.60× as long as mesoscutum and wide, 0.85–0.95 × as wide as mesoscutum ( Figs 183–184View Figs 183–188); fore wing in macropterous and submacropterous forms with two more or less distinct brownish spots, a large one beneath MV and a smaller one a short distance beyond SV towards apical wing margin ( Fig. 186View Figs 183–188); propodeum basally with densely sculptured triangular area surrounded by shallowly sculptured areas ( Fig. 185View Figs 183–188); occiput margin blunt ( Fig. 180View Figs 178–182) [West Palaearctic] ................................................................................................. N. setifera Bouček, 1954 

– Pronotal collar usually less long or wide (e.g., Figs 38View Figs 37–40, 47View Figs 46–51, 60View Figs 59–64, 71View Figs 70–75, 93View Figs 92–95), but if rarely as long as above then at most 0.8 × as wide as mesoscutum or if as wide as above then at most 0.45 × as long as mesoscutum; fore wing in macropterous form hyaline or subhyaline (e.g., Figs 40View Figs 37–40, 62View Figs 59–64, 104View Figs 101–106, 115View Figs 112–117, 152View Figs 149–154), if rarely with brownish pattern, this different from above ( Fig. 49View Figs 46–51); propodeum with uniform, more or less dense sculpture (e.g., Figs 39View Figs 37–40, 48View Figs 46–51, 61View Figs 59–64, 72View Figs 70–75, 83View Figs 81–86, 103View Figs 101–106, 151View Figs 149–154); occiput margin usually sharply defined (e.g., Figs 34View Figs 32–36, 43View Figs 41–45, 67View Figs 65–69, 98View Figs 96–100, 109View Figs 107–111) [various biogeographic distribution] ................................... 9

9. Scrobes deep and smooth ( Figs 77View Figs 76–80, 168View Figs 167–171); occiput margin blunt ( Figs 78View Figs 76–80, 169View Figs 167–171); fore wing of macropterous form with basal third extensively bare, except for several setae across basal cell ( Fig. 84View Figs 81–86) [Australasian].................................................................................................................... 10

– Scrobes shallower and finely reticulate or reticulate-striate (e.g., Figs 66View Figs 65–69, 97View Figs 96–100, 145View Figs 144–148); occiput margin sharply defined (e.g., Figs 34View Figs 32–36, 43View Figs 41–45, 67View Figs 65–69, 98View Figs 96–100, 109View Figs 107–111); fore wing of macropterous form with basal third extensively setose, except for narrow bare region (e.g., Figs 49View Figs 46–51, 62View Figs 59–64, 104View Figs 101–106, 152View Figs 149–154) [various biogeographic distribution].......................................................................................................................................11

10. Head with 12 large setae ( Fig. 169View Figs 167–171); toruli only slightly below lower margins of eyes ( Fig. 168View Figs 167–171); antenna uniformly reddish or yellowish, moderately clavate, with clava slightly asymmetric; fu1 and fu7 moderately transverse ( Fig. 171View Figs 167–171); face with piliferous punctures barely visible; mesoscutum width 2.8–3.1 × length; brachypterous ( Fig. 167View Figs 167–171)..................................... N. sedlaceki Bouček, 1988 

– Head with eight large setae ( Fig. 78View Figs 76–80); toruli distinctly below lower margins of eyes ( Fig. 77View Figs 76–80); antenna with funicle gradually becoming brown towards clava, more strongly clavate,with clava conspicuously asymmetric; fu1 and fu7 more strongly transverse ( Fig. 80View Figs 76–80); face with piliferous punctures more obvious; mesoscutum width about 2.6 × length; macropterous ( Fig. 76View Figs 76–80)............. N. gloriosa  sp. nov.

11. Clypeal margin shallowly emarginate ( Fig. 99View Figs 96–100); POL about 4.1 × OOL; MV about 5.3× SV; vertex with slight dark green reflections ( Fig. 98View Figs 96–100); macropterous, fore wing hyaline ( Fig. 104View Figs 101–106) [Neotropical]......................................................................................................... N. masneri  sp. nov.

– Clypeal margin usually produced or straight (e.g., Figs 35View Figs 32–36, 57View Figs 54–58, 110View Figs 107–111, 147View Figs 144–148) or if slightly emarginate then vertex with violet metallic reflections ( Fig. 43View Figs 41–45); POL usually at most 3.75 × OOL, rarely up to 5.5 ×; MV usually 3.5–5.0× SV, rarely more; macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous, fore wing sometimes with brown spots ( Fig. 49View Figs 46–51) [various biogeographic distribution]......................... 12

12. Mesoscutum, scutellum and axillae densely reticulate, appearing dull under setation ( Fig. 60View Figs 59–64); scutoscutellar sutures superficial, hardly visible ( Fig. 60View Figs 59–64); frenal area not distinct, sculpture not different from that of rest of scutellum ( Fig. 60View Figs 59–64); mesosoma with setation dense and pale brown, not conspicuous ( Fig. 60View Figs 59–64); macropterous [Afrotropical] .......................................... N. desaegeri  sp. nov.

– Mesoscutum, scutellum and axillae less densely reticulate, appearing shinier under setation (e.g., Figs 38View Figs 37–40, 47View Figs 46–51, 71View Figs 70–75, 113View Figs 112–117, 150View Figs 149–154); scutoscutellar sutures deeper, more distinct (e.g., Figs 38View Figs 37–40, 47View Figs 46–51, 71View Figs 70–75, 150View Figs 149–154); frenal area distinct, sculpture at least slightly different than that of rest of scutellum (e.g., Figs 39View Figs 37–40, 48View Figs 46–51, 72View Figs 70–75, 114View Figs 112–117, 151View Figs 149–154); mesosoma with setation, if dense, whitish and conspicuous ( Fig. 71View Figs 70–75); macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous [various biogeographic distribution] ....................................... 13

13. Mesosoma with unusually dense and conspicuous whitish setation dorsally ( Fig. 71View Figs 70–75); eye height 2.25–2.35× malar space; brachypterous, rarely submacropterous [Neotropical]................................ ..................................................................................................................... N. formiciformis  sp. nov.

– Mesosoma with less dense and less conspicuous setation dorsally ( Figs 38View Figs 37–40, 47View Figs 46–51, 113View Figs 112–117, 150View Figs 149–154); eye height usually 2.5–2.8 × malar space, rarely 2.3–2.4×; macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous [various biogeographic distribution]................................................................................................ 14

14. Head with strong blue-violet reflections ( Figs 42–43View Figs 41–45); clypeal margin very shallowly emarginate, almost straight ( Fig. 44View Figs 41–45); macropterous, fore wing usually with two brownish regions ( Figs 49–50View Figs 46–51), sometimes hyaline ( Fig. 51View Figs 46–51) [Australasian]................................................. N. cyanocephala  sp. nov.

– Head brown or black, without metallic reflections ( Figs 34View Figs 32–36, 109View Figs 107–111, 146View Figs 144–148); clypeal margin at least slightly produced ( Figs 35View Figs 32–36, 110View Figs 107–111, 147View Figs 144–148); macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous, fore wing always hyaline ( Figs 40View Figs 37–40, 115View Figs 112–117, 152View Figs 149–154) [various biogeographic distribution] ................................................... 15

15. Antenna moderately clavate, fu7 width about 1.3× length ( Fig. 111View Figs 107–111); head and mesosoma black ( Figs 108View Figs 107–111, 113View Figs 112–117); fu7 and clava dark, contrasting with rest of funicle ( Fig. 111View Figs 107–111); macropterous [Neotropical]........................................................................................................... N. merida  sp. nov.

– Antenna more strongly clavate, fu7 width 1.70–1.85 × length ( Figs 36View Figs 32–36, 148View Figs 144–148); at least mesosoma lighter ( Figs 38View Figs 37–40, 150View Figs 149–154); flagellum yellowish to brown, clava occasionally darkening towards apex ( Figs 36View Figs 32–36, 148View Figs 144–148); macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous [various biogeographic distribution] ...... 16

16. POL about 5.5× OOL; clypeus wider than high ( Fig. 35View Figs 32–36); head and mesosoma brown ( Figs 33View Figs 32–36, 38View Figs 37–40); flagellum pale yellow, clava darkening towards apex ( Fig. 36View Figs 32–36); macropterous [Australasian].................................................................................................... N. celebensis  sp. nov.

– POL 3.3–3.5 × OOL; clypeus about as wide as high ( Fig. 147View Figs 144–148); head black, mesosoma reddish-brown ( Figs 145View Figs 144–148, 150View Figs 149–154); flagellum brown, gradually becoming darker towards clava ( Fig. 148View Figs 144–148); macropterous, submacropterous or brachypterous [East Palaearctic, Oriental]..... N. ramakrishnai Sureshan, 1910 

17. Toruli with lower margins above lower eye margins ( Fig. 13View Figs 12–16); scape 0.7–0.8 × as long as eye height; eye more elongate, height 1.60–1.75× length; occiput margin sharp ( Fig. 14View Figs 12–16) ............................................................................................... N. alboscapus Hedqvist, 1971 

– Toruli with lower margins from slightly below to about the same level as lower eye margins ( Fig. 2View Figs 1–5); scape from very slightly shorter to as long as eye height; eye less elongate, height 1.35–1.50 × length; occiput margin blunt ( Fig. 3View Figs 1–5)....................................................... N. africana Hedqvist, 1971 

18. Visible part of petiole short-transverse and smooth or almost smooth, with at most some superficial longitudinal striae (cf. Figs 39View Figs 37–40, 61View Figs 59–64, 72View Figs 70–75, 83View Figs 81–86, 103View Figs 101–106, 114View Figs 112–117, 125View Figs 123–128, 138View Figs 136–141, 151View Figs 149–154, 185View Figs 183–188, 198View Figs 196–201) or if rarely quadrate then without distinct longitudinal rugae ( Fig. 165View Figs 162–166) [various biogeographic distribution] .............. 19

– Visible part of petiole longer, usually quadrate and with more or less regular and strong longitudinal carinae (cf. Figs 8View Figs 6–11, 19View Figs 17–22) [Afrotropical].............................................................................................. 31

19. Clypeal margin slightly to conspicuously emarginate (cf. Figs 99View Figs 96–100, 121View Figs 118–122, 134View Figs 131–135, 194View Figs 191–195) [New World] .. 20

– Clypeal margin virtually straight or slightly to conspicuously produced ( Fig. 160View Figs 157–161; cf. Figs 57View Figs 54–58, 68View Figs 65–69, 79View Figs 76–80, 110View Figs 107–111, 147View Figs 144–148, 170View Figs 167–171, 181View Figs 178–182) [various biogeographic distribution] ............................................................... 23

20. Fore wing without brownish spots (cf. Fig. 104View Figs 101–106); body colour mainly dark brown ( Fig. 105View Figs 101–106) [Neotropical]......................................................................................................... N. masneri  sp. nov.

– Fore wing with at least one brownish spot behind basal end of MV, usually with two or three ( Figs 129View Figs 129–130, 142View Figs 142–143, 200View Figs 196–201; cf. Figs 128View Figs 123–128, 141View Figs 136–141, 199View Figs 196–201); body colour usually lighter, mainly yellowish to brownish ( Figs 129View Figs 129–130, 142View Figs 142–143, 200View Figs 196–201) [Neotropical, Nearctic]................................................................... 21

21. Basal cell densely setose apically (cf. Fig. 199View Figs 196–201); head usually yellowish ( Fig. 200View Figs 196–201); funicle with fu1 and fu10 (occasionally also fu9) usually at least slightly lighter than intermediate funiculars ( Fig. 201View Figs 196–201) [Neotropical].......................................................................................... N. virgata  sp. nov.

– Basal cell mainly bare apically (cf. Figs 128View Figs 123–128, 141View Figs 136–141), with at most some scattered setae ( Fig. 142View Figs 142–143); head usually brownish ( Figs 129View Figs 129–130, 142View Figs 142–143); funicle of uniform colour or sometimes fu1 lighter ( Figs 130View Figs 129–130, 143View Figs 142–143 [Nearctic]...................................................................................................................................................22

22. MV 4.0–4.2 × SV; fu1 length 1.3–1.5× width; scutellum with at least a small shiny area with superficial sculpture in posterior third to half, usually including central part of frenal area, the latter at least laterally striate in large specimens (cf. Fig. 137View Figs 136–141) .................... N. nearctica Yoshimoto, 1977 

– MV 5.0–5.5× SV; fu1 length 1.7–2.5 × width; scutellum uniformly reticulate, cells isodiametric to slightly elongated (cf. Fig. 124View Figs 123–128)..................................................................... N. meridionalis  sp. nov.

23. Pronotal collar long, 0.55–0.80× as long as mesoscutum and wide, 0.80–0.95 × as wide as mesoscutum ( Figs 162, 164View Figs 162–166, 189View Figs 189–190; cf. Fig. 184View Figs 183–188) ............................................................................... 24

– Pronotal collar either shorter or/and narrower (cf. Figs 47View Figs 46–51, 60View Figs 59–64, 71View Figs 70–75, 82View Figs 81–86, 113View Figs 112–117, 150View Figs 149–154, 173View Figs 172–177) .................. 25

24. Head and mesosoma black, without metallic reflections ( Fig. 189View Figs 189–190) or head distinctly greenish and mesosoma brownish, the latter without metallic reflections; MV 3.0–3.2 × SV [West Palaearctic] .................................................................................................. N. setifera Bouček, 1954 

– Head orange and mesosoma dark brown, without metallic reflections ( Figs 157, 158View Figs 157–161) or both orange with distinct greenish metallic reflections dorsally ( Figs 159View Figs 157–161, 162View Figs 162–166); MV 2.7–2.9 × SV [Afrotropical] .................................................................................................. N. rufa Hedqvist, 1971 

25. Mesosoma dorsally with dense reticulation, alveolae deep (cf. Fig. 60View Figs 59–64); mesepimeral sulcus well impressed (cf. Fig. 59View Figs 59–64) [Afrotropical]................................................................. N. desaegeri  sp. nov.

– Mesosoma dorsally with less dense reticulation, alveolae shallower (cf. Figs 47View Figs 46–51, 71View Figs 70–75, 82View Figs 81–86, 113View Figs 112–117, 150View Figs 149–154, 173View Figs 172–177); mesepimeral sulcus sometimes shallow (cf. Figs 112View Figs 112–117, 149View Figs 149–154) [various biogeographic distribution]..... 26

26. Scrobes deep and smooth (cf. Figs 77View Figs 76–80, 168View Figs 167–171); occiput margin blunt (cf. Figs 78View Figs 76–80, 169View Figs 167–171) [Australasian] .................................................................................................................................. 27

– Scrobes shallower and reticulate (cf. Figs 66View Figs 65–69, 108View Figs 107–111, 145View Figs 144–148); occiput margin sharply defined (cf. Figs 43View Figs 41–45, 67View Figs 65–69, 109View Figs 107–111, 146View Figs 144–148) [various biogeographic distribution] ......................................................................... 28

27. Funicular segments thick and short, fu1 wider than pedicel, length 1.6–2.0× width ( Fig. 177View Figs 172–177); body length 0.8–1.2 mm .................................................................................... N. sedlaceki Bouček, 1988 

– Funicular segments slender and longer, fu1 not wider than pedicel, length 2.0–2.1 × width ( Fig. 86View Figs 81–86); body length 1.2–1.5 mm ....................................................................................... N. gloriosa  sp. nov.

28. Mesosoma usually at least partially reddish ( Fig. 155View Figs 155–156); head without violet reflections on vertex (cf. Fig. 146View Figs 144–148) [Oriental, East Palaearctic] ............................................. N. ramakrishnai Sureshan, 2010 

- Mesosoma uniformly dark brown to black ( Figs 52View Figs 52–53, 74View Figs 70–75, 116View Figs 112–117); head sometimes with violet reflections on vertex (cf. Fig. 43View Figs 41–45) [Australasian or Neotropical] ...................................................................... 29

29. Head with more or less conspicuous violet reflections on vertex (cf. Fig. 43View Figs 41–45) [Australasian]............................................................................................... N. cyanocephala  sp. nov.

– Head without any violet reflections on vertex (cf. Figs 67View Figs 65–69, 109View Figs 107–111) [Neotropical].............................. 30

30. Fu1 length 2.4–2.6 × width; length of pedicel plus flagellum 2.40–2.75 × head width; MV 3.2–4.1 × SV ........................................................................................................................... N. merida  sp. nov.

– Fu1 length 1.9–2.2× width; length of pedicel plus flagellum 2.8–3.0 × head width; MV about 4.5× SV ................................................................................................................ N. formiciformis  sp. nov.

31. Toruli with lower margins distinctly above lower margins of eyes..... N. alboscapus Hedqvist, 1971 

– Toruli with lower margins at about same level as lower margins of eyes .......................................... ................................................................................................................. N. africana Hedqvist, 1971 

Descriptive taxonomy

N

Nanjing University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Pteromalidae

Loc

Netomocera Bouček, 1954

Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan 2019
2019
Loc

Netomocera Bouček, 1954: 49–50

, det. Z. Boucek 1991: 49
1991
Loc

Netomocera

, det. Z. Boucek 1991
1991
Loc

Netomocera setifera Bouček, 1954

Bck., Z. Boucek 1954
1954