Surazomus algodoal, Ruiz & Valente, 2017

Ruiz, Gustavo R. S. & Valente, Roberta M., 2017, The first schizomid from a dry forest in South America (Arachnida: Schizomida), Zootaxa 4311 (1), pp. 81-95: 82-89

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Surazomus algodoal

sp. nov.

Surazomus algodoal   sp. nov.

( FigS 1–13 View FIGURES 1 – 4 View FIGURES 5 – 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURES 9 – 10 View FIGURES 11 – 13 )

Type material. Holotype: male from Algodoal ISland (0.580361°S, 47.582594°W), MaraCanã, Pará, Brazil, 13– 15.VIII.2016, F.A.B. SilVa, R.M. Valente & G.R.S. Ruiz, pitfall trap ( MPEG SCZ 0038 View Materials ). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. The general Shape of the trilobate male flagellum of S. algodoal   sp. nov. iS Similar to that of SeVeral SpeCieS of Surazomus   , namely S. brasiliensis   , S. cuenca   , Surazomus mirim Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000   , Surazomus brus   ArmaS, Villarreal & Víquez, 2010, Surazomus inexpectatus   ArmaS, Villarreal & Víquez, 2010, Surazomus selva   ArmaS, Villarreal & Víquez, 2010, Surazomus nara   ArmaS & Víquez, 2011, Surazomus antonioi   ArmaS & Víquez, 2014, Surazomus kitu Villarreal   , Miranda & Giupponi, 2016, and Surazomus palenque Villarreal   , Miranda & Giupponi, 2016. HoweVer, all theSe SpeCieS haVe a joined pair of depreSSionS on the dorSum of the flagellum, while S. algodoal   sp. nov. haS a Single, median, elliptiCal, dorSal depreSSion on itS poSterior half ( FigS 1 View FIGURES 1 – 4 , 9 View FIGURES 9 – 10 , 11 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ), Similar to thoSe Seen in maleS of SpeCieS with pentagonal flagelli, SuCh aS Surazomus arboreus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000   , Surazomus manaus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000   , and Surazomus paitit Bonaldo & Pinto-da-RoCha, 2007   . Surazomus algodoal   sp. nov. iS the only SpeCieS of the genuS with a pair of CaVitieS on the anterior portion of the flagellum faCing anteriorly ( FigS 9–13 View FIGURES 9 – 10 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ). AlSo, the poStero-dorSal proCeSS iS triangular in thiS SpeCieS ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 9 – 10 ) (other SpeCieS in the genuS haVe either a wide proCeSS with no projeCtion, a median, longer projeCtion or a pair of Short projeCtionS). Female iS unknown.

Etymology. The epithet iS a noun in appoSition taken from the type loCality.

Description. Male holotype. Total length: 2.55 (not inCluding the flagellum). Integument finely retiCulated ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). Coloration ( FigS 1–4 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ): SClerotized areaS light greeniSh brown, exCept for the reddiSh brown CheliCerae ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ) and proximally and diStally pedipalpS ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). MembranouS areaS pale. Body Setae reddiSh brown.

Prosoma ( FigS 1–2 View FIGURES 1 – 4 , 5 View FIGURES 5 – 7 ). Length: 1.18. Propeltidium: 0.88 long, with 2 Setae on anterior proCeSS (one behind the other); 3 pairS of dorSal Setae; white eyeSpot elongate; metapeltidium diVided. Anterior Sternum with four tranSVerSe lineS of Setae (5+5+2+1) and poSterior Sternum with three pairS of Setae.

Chelicerae ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 ). MoVable finger with guard tooth ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 , red, behind Serrula), Serrula with 14 hyaline teeth, and a row of 14 plumoSe and 2 Smooth, diStal Setae. Fixed finger with a bifid baSal tooth, followed by fiVe Small teeth and a larger, reCurVed tooth, with an aCute apex. Setation: G1 with 3 Spatulate Setae, pedunCle without SpiCuleS; G2 CompoSed of 5 Subequal feathered Setae, aS long aS moVable finger; G3 with 4 Setae; G4 ConSiSting of 3 Smooth, Short and thiCk Setae with thin apex; G5 (A) with 7 Similar-Sized feathered Setae aS long aS diStal tooth; G5 (B) with 6 Setae along the Ventral edge and another 2 ariSing more meSally (eCtal Setae not Counted), all Setae long, Smooth and Straight; G6 with one Seta of Smooth SurfaCe, longer than half the length of the moVable finger; G7 with 6 Setae equal in Size. Setal group formula: 3-5-4-3-(7+8)-1-6.

Pedipalp ( FigS 3 View FIGURES 1 – 4 , 7 View FIGURES 5 – 7 ). Stout, with SeVeral Setae. TroChanter: with a trapezoid Shape in lateral View, with Ventral, large Setae and a triangular, aCute anterior proCeSS, bearing a diStal Seta. Femur: SubgloboSe, 1.7 timeS longer than high, dorSal edge oVer 4 timeS longer than Ventral edge; Ventrally with a poorly deVeloped bump bearing a Spine. Patella: CylindriCal, Straight, twiCe longer than high, with Ventromedial expanSion. Tibia: CylindriCal, Straight, leSS than 3 timeS longer than high, baSe thinner than patella. TarSuS: ConiCal, with Ventral Spur on diStal half. TarSal Claw Sharp and CurVed, half the tarSuS length.

Legs (length of femur/ patella/ tibia/ baSitarSuS/ telotarSuS). I 0.92/ 1.08/ 0.64/ (0.27+0.37); II 0.6/ 0.33/ 0.38/ (0.36+0.30); III 0.51/ 0.22/ 0.26/ (0.32+0.32); IV 0.88/ 0.36/ 0.60/ (0.50+0.36). The holotype of S. algodoal   haS a Single leg I ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). ItS telotarSuS iS CompoSed of Single artiCle ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5 – 7 ), whiCh iS not Common in SChizomidS. It iS poSSible, howeVer, that thiS artiCle repreSentS Simply a malformation.

Opisthosoma ( FigS 1, 4 View FIGURES 1 – 4 ). Tergite I poorly SClerotized. Tergite XII with a poorly deVeloped rounded poSterodorSal proCeSS. DorSal Setation: SegmentS I –VII eaCh with large pair of Dm only; VIII with a pair of Dm and a pair of Dl2; IX with a pair of Dm widely Separate, a pair of Smaller Dl1 and a pair of Dl2; X with pairS of Dl1 and Dl2; XI only with a pair of Dm widely Separate; XII with pairS of Dm, Dl1 and Dl2. Sternite Setation: I unarmed; II with two pairS of lateral maCroSetae on eaCh Side and an arCh of maCroSetae around the anterior border, and many miCroSetae SCattered on the genital plate; III and IV with pairS of Vm2, Vl1 and Vl2, and a pair of AS between the Vm2 pair and two pairS of AS between Vm2 and Vl1; V aS IV, with an additional pair of AS between the Vm2 pair, and an aSymmetriCal inner AS Seta on the right Side; VI aS V, but inStead of two pairS of AS between the Vm2 pair, there iS a pair and a median Seta; VII aS VI, but without the aSymmetriCal Seta; VIII aS III; IX with a Single, median Vm1 and pairS of Vm2, Vl1 and Vl2, pluS a Small aSymmetriCal Seta between Vm2 and Vl1 on the right Side; X aS IX, but without the aSymmetriCal Seta; XI aS X, but without the Vl2 pair; XII with a Small pair of Vm2 and large Vl1 and Vl2 pairS.

Flagellum ( FigS 4 View FIGURES 1 – 4 , 9–13 View FIGURES 9 – 10 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ). 0.31 long, 0.32 wide, trilobate in dorSal View, with an oVal, deep, median depreSSion on diStal half and a pair of anterior poCketS near the Stalk. DorSal Setation: Centralized Dm1 between the dorSal oVal depreSSion and the anterior poCketS; Dm4 diStal, grouped with the pair of Dl3. Ventral Setation: with a group CompoSed of a median Vm1, a pair of Vm2 and a pair of Vm4 near the Stalk; Vm5 Centralized on flagellum; a pair of Vl1 diStally on the lateral lobeS and a pair of Vl2 diStally on the median lobe. Additionally, eaCh lateral lobe haS a group of 5–6 msP along the border, and the median lobe haS three msP on eaCh Side, near the tip.

Note. The male flagellum of Some SpeCieS of Surazomus   waS only SuperfiCially deSCribed. ThoSe whoSe male flagellar Setation waS deSCribed haVe Setae Dl1 and Dl2 on lateral lobeS at the middle of the length of the trilobate flagellum. Other than theSe, they only haVe a dorSal, diStal pair of Setae, Called Dl3. Surazomus algodoal   sp. nov. haS at leaSt four pairS of Setae on the lateral lobeS of the male flagellum, all herein labeled aS msP. Their homology with Dl1 and Dl2 of other SpeCieS, whiCh Share Similar loCation, iS Still unCertain and the CaSe needS further inVeStigation onCe more data are aVailable.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution. Known only from type loCality.

Natural history. The Single SpeCimen waS ColleCted at the ground leVel with a pitfall trap inStalled in a Small patCh of reStinga foreSt, a SpeCialized type of formation within the dry biome of reStinga ( See diSCuSSion below), in the inland plainS of Algodoal ISland, off the CoaSt of the State of Pará, Brazil (Fig. 14).  

FIGURE 14. NorthWestern portion of Algodoal Island, shoWing the village (left, bottom), the mangrove (central, dark green area) and restinga (upper and right side). The red dot corresponds to the point Where the holotype of S. algodoal   sp. nov. Was found. Each black arroW (upper left) indicates a fish Weir (“curral”). Photo modified from Google Earth®.

Distribution of Surazomus   . The genuS haS been reCorded primarily from Continental areaS in weStern Amazon and andean CountrieS (ArmaS 2010). Surazomus antonioi   , howeVer, iS from the ISland of CoCo in the PaCifiC OCean, CoSta RiCa (ArmaS & Víquez 2014). The eaSternmoSt reCord hitherto waS S. paitit   from Caxiuanã National ForeSt, Melgaço, Pará, Brazil ( Bonaldo & Pinto-da-RoCha 2007). Herein we expand the diStribution of the genuS all the way to iSlandS in the AtlantiC OCean of South AmeriCa.


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi