Halictophagus trigonodontos Cook

Cook, Jerry L., 2013, Two new species of Halictophagus (Strepsiptera, Halictophagidae) from the Dominican Republic, Zootaxa 3620 (4), pp. 569-578 : 570-574

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Halictophagus trigonodontos Cook

n. sp.

Halictophagus trigonodontos Cook , n. sp.

( Figs. 1–7)

Holotype. Male deposited in CMNH.

Type locality. Dominican Republic, La Altagracia, Parque del Este, Caseta Guaraguao, 4.4km SE Bayahibe, 18 ° 19´59 ´´N, 68 ° 48´42 ´´W; 26–27 May 2004; C. Young, J. Rawlins, J. Fetzner, C. Nunez, semi-humid forest near sea, UV light sample 51114, CMNH no. 401,532.

Paratypes: seven male specimens; 5 deposited in the CMNH, from two locations as follows: four specimens from Dominican Republic, La Altagracia, Parque del Este, Caseta Guaraguao, 4.4km SE Bayahibe, 18 ° 19´59 ´´N, 68 ° 48´42 ´´W, C. Young, J. Rawlins, J. Fetzner, C. Nunez; semi-humid forest near sea, UV light sample 51114, CMNH nos. 397,971, 398,445, 398,815, and 401,870; one specimen from Dominican Republic, La Altagracia, Parque del Este, 2.9km SW Boca de Yuma, 18 ° 21´51 ´´N, 68 ° 37´05´´; 26–27 May 2004; 28 May 2004; W, J. Rawlins, C. Young, C. Nunez J. Fetzner; semi-humid dry forest, UV light sample 52114, CMNH no. 350,697; two deposited in SHSU from Dominican Republic, La Altagracia, Parque del Este, Caseta Guaraguao, 4.4km SE Bayahibe, 18 ° 19´59 ´´N, 68 ° 48´42 ´´W; 26–27 May 2004; C. Young, J. Rawlins, J. Fetzner, C. Nunez, semi-humid forest near sea, UV light sample 51114, CMNH nos. 394,994 and 401,113.

Description. Note: All measurements are in millimeters and were taken from 8 adult specimens, which correspond with the type series. The holotype is listed first followed by the average of specimens and the range in parenthesis (holotype; average (smallest-largest)).

Female, Larva and Host: Unknown.

Male: Habitus shown in Fig. 1, Lateral view in Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 .

Total Length: 1.84; 1.79 (1.62–1.96)

Color: General color is golden-brown. Head mostly dark brown with very dark area around and between eyes; antenna lighter brown; sutures of thorax darker than sclerites; legs golden-brown with darker stripe on dorsum; tarsi cream-colored.

Head: Head as in Fig. 1; Slightly bulbous, about as wide as the thorax; facets of eye relatively large compared to other members of this genus, with about 12 visible dorsally; 23–24 facets total per eye; medial-posterior of head invaginated so that pro-thorax fits within; head width (with eyes), 0.52; 0.52 (0.44–0.60).

Mouthparts: Mouthparts as in Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ; maxillary base length, 0.07; 0.07 (0.06–0.08); maxillary palp length, 0.12; 0.12 (0.11–0.14); mandibular length, 0.10; 0.09 (0.09–0.10); palps have small setae but do not have visible sensoria except one specimen that has small sensoria on the palp visible at 70 X magnification. Mandibles triangular and heavily sclerotized. Relatively large area surrounding the mouth (extending to approximately base of antennae and covering most of frons), which probably represents a modified labrum, is much darker in color than other areas of the head and is distinctive in recognizing this species.

Antennae: Antennae as in Fig. 4; seven-segmented with flabella on 3 rd– 6 th segments. Length of segments including flabella (note: one specimen only has segments I and II): I, 0.07; 0.07 (0.07–0.09; II, 0.04; 0.04 (0.04–0.05); III, 0.37; 0.34 (0.31–0.37); IV, 0.28; 0.27 (0.26–0.28); V, 0.21; 0.21 (0.21–0.22); VI 0.21; 0.20 (0.19–0.22); VII 0.18; 0.18 (0.17–0.20).

Thorax: Sclerites as in Fig. 1. Prothorax, mesothorax and scutellum of metathorax dark brown, other sclerites lighter brown; Scutellum consistently shaped as in Fig. 1, not triangular as in many strepsipterans.

Wing: Wing as in Fig. 5. Subcosta prominent; R 1 complete, intersecting dorsal wing margin approximately 2 / 3 distance to margin; R 2 curved, heavy, much shorter than R 3; R 5 about two-thirds the length of R 4; MA extending almost to the wing margin; MP absent; CuA prominent, approximately equal in length to MA, extending nearly halfway to the wing margin.

Legs: Shapes and dimensions of legs as in Fig. 6. Fore coxa length 0.20; 0.21 (0.18–0.24); fore femur length 0.27; 0.29 (0.24–0.35); fore tibia length 0.23; 0.26 (0.21–0.36); fore tarsi lengths I 0.07; 0.07 (0.05–0.08), II 0.04; 0.06 (0.03–0.11), III 0.06; 0.07 (0.05–0.11); mid-coxa length 0.27; 0.26 (0.24–0.28); mid-femur length 0.35; 0.36 (0.34–0.37); mid-tibia length 0.34; 0.36 (0.32–0.38); mid-tarsi lengths I 0.08; 0.08 (0.06–0.10), II 0.11; 0.11 (0.09–0.12), III 0.13; 0.12 (0.11–0.13); hind coxa length 0.10; 0.10 (0.09–0.11); hind femur length 0.34; 0.33 (0.31–0.36); hind tibia length 0.31; 0.33 (0.31–0.36); hind tarsus lengths I 0.09; 0.09 (0.09–0.10), II 0.11; 0.12 (0.11–0.12), III 0.11; 0.12 (0.11–0.12). Tarsi are all three segmented; first tarsus thick and somewhat wedge shaped, second and third tarsi are narrow and elongated.

Abdomen: Abdomen as in Fig. 1.

Aedeagus: Aedeagus as in Fig. 7. Base much wider than apex, slightly curved and tapering, length 0.12; 0.11 (0.11–0.12); lateral spur long and curved, length 0.08; 0.08 (0.08–0.09).

Diagnosis. Halictophagus trigonodontos n. sp. is characterized by a heavily sclerotized, triangular mandible ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ), which sets it apart from other members of the genus. This species also has a uniquely shaped scutellum ( Fig. 1) and a terminal extension of the aedeagus that is unusually long ( Fig. 7). Both of these latter characters are somewhat like those found in Halictophagus piperi Bohart 1943 from the Philippines, but there are still distinct differences between these species in other characters as discussed below.

Halictophagus trigonodontos n. sp. differs from H. piperi in several important characters. Most easily noticed is a large size difference between these two species, with H. piperi being about 4 mm long while H. trigonodontos n. sp. is less than half that size. Bohart (1943) noted that H. piperi differed from all other Halictophagus due to its distinctive aedeagus, however since that time Oliveira and Kogan (1959) described Halictophagus lopesi from Brazil that has a similarly shaped aedeagus. Halictophagus trigonodontos n. sp. has a similar, although even more elongated, spine at the end of the aedeagus compared to H. piperi . Also, these species share an unusually shaped scutellum that is not triangular as is found in most Halictophagus species. The scutellum is somewhat rectangular with lateral, posterior extensions and a distinct anterior bulge in H. piperi . The rectangular characteristic is exaggerated in H. trigonodontos , and H. trigonodontos n. sp. has only a small anterior protuberance of the scutellum ( Fig. 1).

There are two Halictophagus species from Central America, Halictophagus obtusae Bohart, 1943 from Costa Rica and Halictophagus variatus Kinzelbach, 1971 from Guatemala, but it appears to more closely resemble North and South American species that those of Central America. In New World specimens, H. trigonodontos n. sp. most closely resembles H. lopesi . Halictophagus lopesi does have a relatively rectangular scutellum and elongated aedeagus but both are substantially different than H. trigonodontos n. sp. The aedeagus of H. lopesi is generally sshaped while the basal portion is relatively straight in H. trigonodontos n. sp. The scutellum is generally square with posterior, lateral extensions in H. lopesi and more rectangular with small posterior extensions in H. trigonodontos n. sp. The mandibles and palps of H. lopesi are both relatively small compared to H. trigonodontos n. sp.

Among other North American species, H. trigonodontos n. sp. has thoracic sclerites that most closely resemble H. bidentatus , although the scutellum is slightly triangular in H. bidentatus and rectangular in H. trigonodontos n. sp. Halictophagus trigonodontos n. sp. lacks sensoria on the first two antennal segments and legs as is found in H. bidentatus and many other characters such as shapes of the mandibles and aedeagus are different as illustrated in the plates for these species.

Another North American species with a somewhat similar, although different, scutellum is Halictophagus naulti Kathirithamby and Moy-Raygoza 2000 . Halictophagus trigonodontos n. sp. does not have the triangular extension of abdominal segment VIII that is unique to H. naulti .

Etymology. The specific epithet combines two Greek roots, trigono- meaning triangular and –odontos meaning tooth. Thus, the name refers to its heavily sclerotized, triangular mandible that is unusual for the genus Halictophagus .