Glyptothorax stibaros , Ng, Heok Hee & Kottelat, Maurice, 2016

Ng, Heok Hee & Kottelat, Maurice, 2016, The Glyptothorax of Sundaland: a revisionary study (Teleostei: Sisoridae), Zootaxa 4188 (1), pp. 1-92: 81-86

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4188.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AA85050E-7653-44BE-9330-AC617BFE6DF8

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E0BE0E-FFC9-5446-FF58-FA1DFE8056C6

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Glyptothorax stibaros
status

new species

Glyptothorax stibaros  new species

( Fig. 39View FIGURE 39)

Glyptothorax major  (non Boulenger, 1894)— Imaki et al., 1981: 41, Fig. 85; Roberts, 1989: 134, Fig. 104 upper (in part); Kottelat et al., 1993: pl. 37.

Glyptothorax nieuwenhuisi  (non Vaillant, 1902)— Jiang et al., 2011: 280.

Glyptothorax fuscus  (non Fowler, 1934)— Rainboth et al., 2012: Pl. 38, Fig. 842.

Type material. Holotype: MZBAbout MZB 17215, 55.3 mm SL; Borneo: Kalimantan Barat, Sanggau, km 249 to Pontianak on Sosok–Sanggau road, 0°9'38"N 110°29'28"E; H. H. Tan et al., 26 April 1998.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: ZRCAbout ZRC 39494View Materials (2), 41.0– 47.7 mm SL; Sarawak: Sungai Stok Muda in the vicinity of Lundu , 1°28'51"N 109°58'18"E; H. H. Tan et al., 6 September 1995GoogleMaps  . ZRCAbout ZRC 49134View Materials (1), 48.9 mm SL; data as for holotypeGoogleMaps  . CASAbout CAS 49416View Materials (1), 46.5 mm SL; Kalimantan Barat: small forest stream flowing into Kapuas mainstream NE of Gunung Setunggul , 53 km SW of Sintang and 10 km NW of Silat, 0°24'N 111°51'E; T.R. Roberts & S. Wirjoatmodjo, 16 August 1976GoogleMaps  . ZRCAbout ZRC 53527View Materials (1), 55.4 mm SL; Kalimantan Barat: Sungai Sawak at km 377 to Pontianak along Sintang–Pontianak road, near turnoff to Nanga Pinoh , Kapuas River drainage, 0°1'25"S 112°27'0"E; H. H. Tan et al., 15 August 2007GoogleMaps  . ZRCAbout ZRC 49135View Materials (2), 39.4–42.1 mm SL; Kalimantan Barat: Sintang, km 463 to Pontianak on Nangapinoh–Nangasayan road, 0°29'55"S 111°48'7"E; H. H. Tan et al., 24 April 1998GoogleMaps  . CMK 11756View Materials (1), 47.8 mm SL; Kalimantan Barat: Sungai Pala at Pala Hulu (Kec. Siberuang, Kp. Renyai Hulu), km 101 on road from Sintang to Putussibau , 0°21'42"N 111°55'47"E; M. Kottelat, 16 June 1995.GoogleMaps 

Diagnosis. Glyptothorax stibaros  is distinguished from Sundaic congeners except G. decussatus  in having 5–7 small serrations (vs. smooth or with up to 6 low projections) on the posterior margin of the dorsal-fin spine. It differs from G. decussatus  in lacking (vs. having) anteromedial striae in the thoracic adhesive apparatus; a more tapering body, as manifested by the larger ratio between the body and caudal peduncle depths (caudal peduncle depth 3.4–3.8 times in body depth at dorsal-fin origin vs. 2.0); and a more slender caudal peduncle (depth 6.9–8.2% SL vs. 10.3–10.9). Glyptothorax stibaros  is futher distinguished from Sundaic congeners in having the following unique combination of characters: premaxillary tooth band approximately one-third exposed when mouth is closed; eye diameter 7–9% HL; head width 19.2–22.4% SL; anteromedial striae in thoracic adhesive apparatus absent; pectoral-fin spine length 18.1–22.2% SL; predorsal length 39.1–42.8% SL; dorsal-fin spine length 15.9–20.4% SL; pectoral-fin spine length 18.1–22.2% SL; large tubercles on abdominal region; dorsal-to-adipose distance 15.1– 21.3% SL; adipose-fin base length 14.6–17.8% SL; straight dorsoposterior margin of adipose fin; prepelvic length 48.8–55.3% SL; body depth at anus 15.6–20.6% SL; caudal peduncle length 16.0–19.7% SL; caudal peduncle depth 3.4–3.8 times in body depth at dorsal-fin origin; post-adipose distance 15.7–18.3% SL; and a slightly mottled body lacking both dark vertical bars and prominent pale midlateral stripe.

Description. Morphometric data in Table 17. Head depressed; body robust, subcylindrical. Dorsal profile rising steeply and evenly from tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin, then sloping gently ventrally from origin of dorsal fin to end of caudal peduncle. Ventral profile straight to anal-fin base, then sloping gently dorsally from anal-fin base to end of caudal peduncle. Anus and urogenital openings located at vertical through middle of adpressed pelvic fin. Skin tuberculate, with tubercles of even size on sides of body. Lateral line complete and midlateral. Vertebrae 16+18=34* (4) or 17+18=35 (1).

Head depressed and broad, triangular when viewed laterally. Snout prominent. Anterior and posterior nares large and separated only by base of nasal barbel. Gill opening broad, extending from ventral margin of posttemporal to isthmus. First branchial arch with 2+6 (1), 2+7 (10) or 3+8* (1) rakers. Bony elements of dorsal surface of head covered with thick, tuberculate skin. Eye ovoid, horizontal axis longest; located entirely in dorsal half of head.

Barbels in four pairs. Maxillary barbel long and slender, extending to middle of pectoral-fin base. Nasal barbel slender, extending to midway between its base and anterior orbital margin. Inner mandibular-barbel extending to midway between its base and that of pectoral spine. Outer mandibular barbel extending to two-thirds of distance between its base and that of pectoral spine.

Mouth inferior, premaxillary tooth band partially (approximately one-third) exposed when mouth is closed. Oral teeth small and villiform, in irregular rows on all tooth-bearing surfaces. Premaxillary teeth appearing in single broad semilunate band. Dentary teeth in a single crescentic band, consisting of two separate halves tightly bound at midline.

Thoracic adhesive apparatus consisting of keratinized striae in an ovate field extending from isthmus to just beyond posterior limit of pectoral-fin base ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 q). Anteromedial striae absent. Chevron-shaped medial pit on posterior third.

Dorsal fin located above anterior third of body, with I,6 (6) rays; fin margin straight or slightly concave; spine short and straight, smooth on anterior margin and with 5–7 small serrations (holotype =7) on posterior margin. Adipose fin with anterior margin straight or slightly concave and posterior margin straight. Caudal fin strongly forked, with lower lobe slightly longer than upper lobe and i,7,8,i (6) principal rays. Procurrent rays symmetrical and extending only slightly anterior to fin base. Anal-fin base vertically opposite adipose-fin base. Anal fin with straight anterior margin and straight or slightly concave posterior margin; with iv,8,i* (3) or iv,9,i (3) rays. Pelvicfin origin at vertical through posterior limit of dorsal-fin base. Pelvic fin with slightly convex margin and i,5 (6) rays; tip of adpressed fin not reaching anal-fin origin. Pectoral fin with I,7 (i) or I,7,i* (5) rays; posterior fin margin slightly concave; anterior spine margin smooth, posterior margin with 6–12 (holotype =12) serrations.

Coloration. In 70% ethanol: dorsal and lateral surfaces of head and body reddish to medium brown, fading to paler color (beige to light gray) on ventral surfaces. Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head and body with small irregular darker spots in some individuals. A thin, cream mid-dorsal stripe extending from base of last dorsal-fin ray to origin of adipose fin; stripe indistinct or nearly absent in some individuals. Laterosensory pores rimmed in beige, imparting appearance of a diffuse light brown midlateral line in some individuals. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of caudal peduncle slightly paler in some individuals. All fins with fin rays proximally brown or gray, becoming hyaline more distally, and diffuse melanophores on fin membranes. Pectoral and pelvic fins with brown or gray on base of fin rays and hyaline posterior margin. Anal fin with brown base; brown spot on anterior third of fin present in some individuals. Adipose fin brown with hyaline distal margin. Base of caudal fin with dark crescent in most individuals. Each caudal-fin lobe with irregular, elongate brown or gray blotch on about half of outer fin rays; most of inner rays of lobes hyaline. Maxillary and nasal barbels brown to gray dorsally, beige ventrally. Mandibular barbels beige.

Habitat. Glyptothorax stibaros  inhabits small, forested streams with a moderate current and a substrate of sand and gravel; leaf litter and logs are usually present in the streambed.

Distribution. Glyptothorax stibaros  is known from river drainages in western and northwestern Borneo, from the Kapuas River drainage northwards to the Sungai Stamin drainage ( Fig. 35View FIGURE 35).

Etymology. The specific epithet comes from the Greek adjective στιβαρός, meaning stout or sturdy, in reference to the relatively deep body (when compared to the caudal peduncle depth) of this species.

Comparisons. Besides G. decussatus  (already compared to G. stibaros  in the diagnosis), there are four other congeners known from Borneo: G. exodon  , G. major  , G. nieuwenhuisi  , and G. pictus  . Glyptothorax stibaros  further differs from G. exodon  in having the premaxillary teeth one-third (vs. almost entirely) exposed when the mouth is closed, a smaller eye (diameter 7–9% HL vs. 10–13), a shorter dorsal-to-adipose distance (15.1–21.3% SL vs.

21.9–26.3), and a less contrasting color pattern on the body (compare Figs. 7View FIGURE 7 and 37View FIGURE 37), from G. major  in lacking (vs. having) anteromedial striae in the thoracic adhesive apparatus and having a more tapering body, as manifested by the larger ratio between the body and caudal peduncle depths (caudal peduncle depth 3.4–3.8 times in body depth at dorsal-fin origin vs. 1.7–2.4). It is distinguished from G. nieuwenhuisi  in having a more tapering body, as manifested by the larger ratio between the body and caudal peduncle depths (caudal peduncle depth 3.4–3.8 times in body depth at dorsal-fin origin vs. 2.1–2.4), and from G. p i ct u s in having a more slender caudal peduncle (depth 6.9–8.2% SL vs. 8.4–10.9) and lacking (vs. having) dark vertical bars at the adipose-fin base and the base of the caudal fin.

Among the remaining Sundaic congeners, G. stibaros  is further distinguished from G. amnestus  in lacking (vs. having) anteromedial striae in the thoracic adhesive apparatus and a more slender caudal peduncle (depth 6.9–8.2% SL vs. 9.8–11.2), from G. famelicus  in having a greater predorsal length (39.1–42.8% SL vs. 32.1–35.2), longer dorsal- (15.9–20.4% SL vs. 8.9–14.0) and pectoral-fin spines (18.1–22.2% SL vs. 14.0–15.6), a longer adipose-fin base (14.6–17.8% SL vs. 11.4–12.8), a deeper body (depth at anus 15.6–20.6% SL vs. 11.4–14.3), a shorter postadipose distance (15.7–18.3% SL vs. 19.1–22.0), and lacking (vs. having) a prominent pale midlateral stripe on the body, and from G. f u s cu s in having larger tubercles on the abdominal region ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15) and a more tapering body, as manifested by the larger ratio between the body and caudal peduncle depths (caudal peduncle depth 3.4–3.8 times in body depth at dorsal-fin origin vs. 2.3–2.8). It further differs from G. k el u k in having a straight (vs. convex) dorsoposterior margin of the adipose fin and a deeper body (depth at anus 15.6–20.6% SL vs. 14.0–15.8), from G. ketambe  in having a wider head (19.2–22.4% SL vs. 16.1–17.9), greater predorsal (39.1–42.8% SL vs. 33.3–35.9) and prepelvic (48.8–55.3% SL vs. 45.4–47.8) lengths, longer dorsal- (15.9–20.4% SL vs. 12.5–14.8) and pectoralfin spines (18.1–22.2% SL vs. 14.3–16.6), a deeper body (depth at anus 15.6–20.6% SL vs. 12.7–15.3), a shorter post-adipose distance (15.7–18.3% SL vs. 19.5–21.7), a shorter caudal peduncle (length 16.0–19.7% SL vs. 20.1– 22.9), and lacking (vs. having) a prominent pale midlateral stripe on the body, and from G. platypogon  in having a longer pectoral-fin spine (18.1–22.2% SL vs. 13.6–17.9), a straight (vs. convex) dorsoposterior margin of the adipose fin, a more slender caudal peduncle (depth 6.9–8.2% SL vs. 8.0–11.4) and a longer caudal fin (26.4–32.3% SL vs. 20.1–27.0). Glyptothorax stibaros  can be further distinguished from G. plectilis  in lacking (vs. having) anteromedial striae in the thoracic adhesive apparatus and a more slender caudal peduncle (depth 6.9–8.2% SL vs. 8.4–10.6), and from G. prashadi  in having a more tapering body, as manifested by the larger ratio between the body and caudal peduncle depths (caudal peduncle depth 3.4–3.8 times in body depth at dorsal-fin origin vs. 1.8–1.9) and a shorter, more slender caudal peduncle (length 16.0–19.7% SL vs. 20.1–22.2; depth 6.9–8.2% SL vs. 8.3– 10.3). It further differs from G. robustus  in having (vs. lacking) a medial pit in the thoracic adhesive apparatus, a longer predorsal distance (39.1–42.8% SL vs. 36.7–40.0) and lacking (vs. having) a prominent dark longitudinal band running through each caudal-fin lobe, and from G. s c h m i d t i in having a longer predorsal distance (39.1– 42.8% SL vs. 31.6–36.9), a longer dorsal-fin spine (15.9–20.4% SL vs. 8.9–14.9), a longer pectoral-fin spine (18.1–22.2% SL vs. 14.0–18.3), a longer adipose-fin base (14.6–17.8% SL vs. 10.1–14.9), a shorter dorsal-toadipose distance (15.1–21.3% SL vs. 23.9–28.1), a shorter post-adipose distance (15.7–18.3% SL vs. 18.9–22.0), a deeper body (depth at anus 15.6–20.6% SL vs. 11.4–15.7) and lacking (vs. having) a prominent pale midlateral stripe on the body.

TABLE 17. Morphometric data for Glyptothorax stibaros (n = 6).

  Holotype MZB 17215
  39.1–42.8 62.8–66.4 48.8–55.3
  19.2–22.9 13.2–15.7 15.9–20.4
  15.1–17.4 13.4–16.1 21.3–26.8
  18.1–22.2 26.4–32.3 14.6–17.8
  15.1–21.3 15.7–18.3 16.0–19.7
  6.9–8.2 15.6–20.6 23.7–25.9
  26.8–28.7 19.2–22.4 15.9–18.0
Inner mandibular barbel length Outer mandibular barbel length
MZB

Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense

ZRC

Zoological Reference Collection, National University of Singapore

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Siluriformes

Family

Sisoridae

Genus

Glyptothorax

Loc

Glyptothorax stibaros

Ng, Heok Hee & Kottelat, Maurice 2016

2016
Loc

Glyptothorax nieuwenhuisi

Jiang 2011: 280

2011
Loc

Glyptothorax major

Imaki 1981: 41

1981