Paractenopsyllus, Wagner, 1938Paractenopsyllus madagascarensis Hastriter & Dick,

Hastriter, Michael & Dick, Carl, 2009, A description of the flea species Paractenopsyllus madagascarensis n. sp. and the female sex of Paractenopsyllus raxworthyi Duchemin & Ratovonjato, 2004 (Siphonaptera, Leptopsyllidae) from Mad, ZooKeys 13 (13), pp. 43-55: 45-51

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.3897/zookeys.13.174

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5D2F4F0B-5786-4DEF-8414-650C511153EB

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DE87EA-C974-FFDC-FF68-5284FBF8B683

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Paractenopsyllus Paractenopsyllus madagascarensis Hastriter & Dick
status

sp. n.

Key to Species of Paractenopsyllus 

This key is a modification of the key presented in Duchemin and Ratovonjato (2004).

1 Females (unknown for P. oconnori  and P. beaucournui  )............................... 2

– Males........................................................................................................ 17

2 Pronotal comb with more than 28 teeth ..................................................... 3

– Pronotal comb with 28 or fewer teeth......................................................... 4

3 Caudal margin of S-7 with two lobes................ P. kerguisteli Wagner, 1938 

– Caudal margin of S-7 with one narrow elongated lobe.................................. ............................................................................ P. madagascarensis  sp. n.

4 Caudal margin of S-7 with two lobes (exclusive of apical ventral margin) ... 5

– Caudal margin of S-7 with one lobe (exclusive of apical ventral margin)... 12

5 Bulga of spermatheca much longer than wide (length twice width)............. 6

– Bulga more spherical or elliptical (length less than or equal to 1.5× width)... 7

6 Dorsal and ventral lobes on caudal margin of S-7 broad and obtusely rounded ( Fig. 15View Figure 14-16)............................ P. raxworthyi Duchemin & Ratovonjato, 2004 

– Dorsal lobe rounded, but ventral lobe acutely pointed at apex ...................... ................................................................................. P. vauceli Klein, 1965 

7 Ventral lobe of S-7 acutely pointed at apex... P. ratavonjatoi Duchemin, 2004 

– Ventral lobe of S-7 rounded........................................................................ 8

8 Bursa copulatrix angular forming two 90 degree angles... P. petiti Klein, 1965 

– Bursa copulatrix with no right angles .......................................................... 9

9 Ventral margin of S-7 with shallow sinus at most.......................................... .................................................................. P. duplantieri Duchemin, 2004 

– Ventral margin of S-7 with distinct deep sinus.......................................... 10

10 Ventral sinus of S-7 angular at deepest point.......... P. albignaci Klein, 1967 

– Ventral sinus of S-7 rounded and not angular ........................................... 11

11 Ventral lobe of S-7 distinctly narrower than dorsal lobe and elongated well beyond dorsal lobe and apex of ventral edge of sternite ................................. .......................................................................... P. pauliani Lumaret, 1962 

– Ventral lobe broader than dorsal lobe; extending only slightly beyond dorsal lobe and shorter than apex of ventral edge of sternite.................................... ............................................................... P. juliamarinus Duchemin, 2004 

12 Setae of frontal row fine and not thickened or spiniform .......................... 13

– One or more setae of frontal row thickened or spiniform.......................... 15

13 Perula extremely dilated; bursa copulatrix scarcely longer that width of dilated perula .................................................. P. goodmani Duchemin, 2003 

– Perula not much more dilated than width of bursa copulatrix................... 14

14 Lobe of S-7 rounded, extending far beyond ventral apex of sternite; sinus subtending lobe, much narrower that width of lobe..... P. rouxi Duchemin, 2004 

– Lobe of S-7 somewhat angular; sinus much wider than dorsal lobe............... .......................................................................... P. grandidieri Klein, 1965 

15 Lobe of S-7 and ventral apex of sternite acutely pointed; sinus between broadly flattened at base.............................................. P. viettei Klein, 1965 

– Lobe of S-7 rounded at apex; sinus rounded at base.................................. 16

16 Vertical distance between ventral margin of S-7 and dorsal margin of sclerite longer than horizontal width of S-7 from anterior edge to apex of lobe......... ..................................................................... P. randrianasoloi Klein, 1967 

– Vertical width of S-7 less than horizontal width... P. gemelli Duchemin, 2004 

17 Apex of median dorsal lobe narrowly rounded, even drawn out as narrow lobe........................................................................................................... 18

– Apex of median dorsal lobe broadly rounded, never lobate ....................... 21

18 Sternum eight with sinus on caudal margin and a dorsal lobe ....................... .......................................................................... P. grandidieri Klein, 1965 

– Sternum eight without a sinus or dorsal lobe on caudal margin ................ 19

19 Proximal lobe of distal arm of S-9 expanded postad into triangle; apex of median dorsal lobe nearly forming a right angle........... P. petiti Klein, 1965 

– Proximal lobe of distal arm of S-9 not expanded, nearly parallel; apex of median dorsal lobe much less than a right angle ............................................ 20

20 Telomere short (length 3× maximum width); apodeme of aedeagus broad (length only 3× maximum width measured from apex to base of fulcral lateral lobe) ........................................................ P. ratovonjatoi Duchemin, 2004 

– Telomere long (length>3× maximum width); apodeme of aedeagus narrow (length 4× or more the width).............................. P. rouxi Duchemin, 2004 

21 Apodeme of aedeagus long and narrow (length 4× or more maximum width)....................................................................................................... 22

– Apodeme of aedeagus shorter and broad (length about 3× width)............. 27

22 Apex of median dorsal lobe hooked .......................................................... 23

– Apex of median dorsal lobe not hooked .................................................... 25

23 Apical lobe of distal arm of S-9 drawn out into a point................................. ......................................... P. raxworthyi Duchemin & Ratovonjato, 2004 

– Apical lobe blunt or globular .................................................................... 24

24 Sinus formed by hook of median dorsal lobe as large as outline of lateral lobe............................................................... P. randrianasoloi Klein, 1968 

– Sinus much smaller than outline of lateral lobe.... P. gamelli Duchemin, 2004 

25 Dorsal lobe of S-8 present; subtended by sinus ......................................... 26

– Dorsal lobe absent; no well defined sinus .................................................... ............................................................... P. juliamarinus Duchemin, 2004 

26 Lateral lobe present, margins minutely serrate...... P. madagascarensis  sp. n.

– Lateral lobe absent ................ P. oconnori Duchemin & Ratovonjato, 2004 

27 Proximal lobe of distal arm of S-9 as wide as, or wider than length from base to distal lobe ............................................................................................. 28 Proximal lobe distinctly narrower that length............................................ 29

28 Setae along caudal margin of S-8 interrupted; manubrium with curved angle on ventral margin ........................................ P. goodmani Duchemin, 2003 

– Setae along caudal margin of S-8 complete; manubrium straight on ventral margin....................................................... P. duplantieri Duchemin, 2004 

29 Caudal margin of S-8 with sinus.................................. P. vietti Klein, 1965 

– Caudal margin of S-8 without sinus.......................................................... 30

30 Apex of distal arm of S-9 drawn out into a point .......................................... ....................................... P. beaucournui Duchemin & Ratovonjato, 2004 

– Apex of distal arm of S-9 globular, rounded.............................................. 31

31 Caudal margin of S-8 with dorsal lobe................... P. albignaci Klein, 1968 

– Caudal margin of S-8 entire; without indication of lobe ........................... 32

32 Manubrium only slightly curved or hooked upward .... P. vauceli Klein, 1965 

– Manubrium distinctly curved upward....................................................... 33

33 Ventral lobe of distal arm of S-9 without sinus at apex; ventral margin of crochet angled................................................... P. kerguisteli Wagner, 1938 

– Ventral lobe of distal arm of S-9 with sinus at apex; ventral margin of crochet rounded............................................................. P. pauliani Lumaret, 1962 

Paractenopsyllus madagascarensis Hastriter & Dick  , sp. n.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9351B91F-FC97-47FB-B8C2-C1194681FFC8

Figs 1View Figures 1-8 -13

Type Material. Holotype. 3, 1♀ Paratype (SMG-13919), Fianarantsoa Province, Midongy S, Parc National de Midongy-Sud, NE slope Mt Papango (23°50’17.9982”S, 46°57’29.9988”E), 3.5 km SW Befotaka, 1250 m, ex Eliurus tanala Major, 1896  (FMNH-178699), 3 XI 2003GoogleMaps  , S.G. Goodman; allotype ♀, 43, 1♀ paratypes (SMG- 13903, SMG-13924), same data as holotype except E. tanala  (FMNH-178698, FMNH-178644), 2-5 XI 2003GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ paratype (SMG-13904), same data as holotype except Eliurus majori Thomas, 1895  (FMNH-178686); 33GoogleMaps  , 7♀ paratypes (SMG- 13918, SMG-13935), same data as holotype except Eliurus webbi Ellerman, 1849  (FMNH-178712, FMNH-178646), 3, 6 XI 2003GoogleMaps  ; 13 paratype (SMG-13920), same data as holotype except Gymnuromys roberti Major, 1896  (FMNH-178717)GoogleMaps  ; 13 paratype (SMG-13905), same data as holotype except Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)  (FMNH-178680), 2 X 2003GoogleMaps  ; 13, 1♀ paratypes (SMG-13863, SMG-13900), Parc National de Midongy-Sud, NE slope Mt Papango (23°50’06”S, 46°57’47.9982”E), 2.5 km SW Befotaka, 875 m elev., ex E. tanala  (FMNH-178693, FMNH-178696), 28, 31 X 2003GoogleMaps  , S.M. Goodman; 1♀ paratype (SMG-13979), W slope Mt Ambatobe, 1.2 km ENE Ampatramary, 9.5 km NE Midongy-Sud (23°30’36”S, 47°03’6.0012”E), 650 m elev., ex E. webbi  (FMNH-178716), 14 XI 2003GoogleMaps  , S.M. Goodman; 1♀ paratype (SMG-13980), W slope Mt Ambatobe, 1.2 km ENE Ampatramary, 9.5 km NE Midongy-Sud (23°30’36”S, 47°03’6.0012”E), 650 m elev., ex Eliurus minor Major, 1896  (FMNH-178691), 14 XI 2003GoogleMaps  , S.M. Goodman; and 13 paratype (SMG-14002),

W slope Mt Ambatobe, 1.2 km ENE Ampatramary, 9.5 km NE Midongy-Sud (23°30’36”S, 47°03’6.0012”E), 650 m elev., ex Nesomys rufus Peters, 1870  (FMNH- 178649), 16 XI 2003. The holotype, allotype, and eight pairs of paratypes are deposited in the Field Museum of Natural History , Chicago, IL, one pair of paratypes each in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History , Washington, D.C. and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History , Pittsburgh, PA, and two pairs of paratypes in the senior author’s collection. Mammal host specimens are deposited in the Field Museum of Natural History , Chicago, ILGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Males most closely allied with P. oconnori  (females unknown), but distinguished by details of the aedeagus. The median dorsal lobe is expanded dorsally and greatly enlarged compared to all species except P. oconnori  . Paractenopsyllus madagascarensis  differs from P. oconnori  by the presence of a distinct lateral lobe arising from the median dorsal lobe. Females differ from all other species possessing more than 28 teeth in the pronotal comb by the presence of one extremely long and narrow lobe on the caudal margin of S-VII (Fig. 9).

Description. Head ( Figs. 1-2View Figures 1-8). Frontal tubercle high on frons; farther from oral angle than distance from oral angle to base of first genal tooth. Frontal row of 9 setae; middle three thickened and somewhat spiniform. Two placoids above frontal tubercle. Preantennal area with minute scattered pits bearing minute coniform peg-like structures. Heavily sclerotized incrassation at oral angle; one thick seta at base of labial palpus. Area behind frontal row with 6 long setae and 17-18 minute scattered setae (only 4 long setae in female). Tentorium visible anterior to small pigmented eye; eye with ventral notch. Two genal ctenidia off-set at bases; anterior tooth about 2/3 length of posterior. Two lucodiscs at base of second genal tooth (see Hastriter 2009). Postantennal area with 4 rows of stout setae (4, 3, 6, and 7). Three placoids present; one lucodisc dorsad between rows 3 and 4. Occipital groove lacking. Antennal fossa heavily sclerotized from eye to falx and from falx to angle of scape. Scape with oblique row of 6 fine setae; two at dorsal apex. Pedicel with 8-10 fine marginal setae; none extended beyond basal segment of clavus. Clavus not extended onto prosternum. Penultimate segment of labial palpus shortest. Maxilla sharply pointed; palpus of 5 segments. Thorax ( Fig. 1-2View Figures 1-8). Pronotum with two rows of setae (8, 6); pronotal ctenidia with 31 spines. Three lucodiscs present. Prosternum with heavily sclerotized phragma extended beneath ventral portion of pronotal ctenidia. Mesonotum with two rows of setae (6, 5); anterior group of scattered smaller setae. Mesepisternum with 3 setae (6 in female); mesepimeron with 4 setae. Pleural rod bifurcate at dorsal third. Mesosternum heavily sclerotized; truncate. One stout pseudoseta under hyaline mesonotal collar. Metanotum with two rows of setae (8, 6); main row very stout setae. Anterior scattered setae. Lateral margins of metanotum oblique from apex to lateral base; no apparent overlap with metepimeron. One pigmented marginal spinelet at dorsum. Lateral metanotal area with two setae. Metepisternum with one long seta; length of squamulum>2× width. Metasternum projecting ventrad between coxae. Pleural ridge stout; with hyaline ribbon-like sclerotization extended its length beneath. Metepimeron with 3 vertical rows of setae (5, 5, and 1)(anterior row

only 2 in female); spiracle longer than wide, rounded at apex. Legs (Fig. 13). Procoxa with more than 40 lateral setae; 2 long marginal setae along apical caudal margin. Lateral sulcus of mesocoxa more than 3/4 complete. Metacoxa with apical comb of 5 long setae extended over trochanter. Profemur with 5 small lateral setae; one small mesal seta. One femoral-tibial guard seta on profemur; two on other femora; lateral short and stout, mesal long and stout. Margin of fore, mid and hind tibiae with three dorsal notches each bearing a one long seta, interspersed with false combs of heavy dark bristles. Three lateral rows of setae on metatibiae (7, 10, and 8). Distotarsomeres each with five pairs lateral plantar bristles; first pair shifted onto plantar surface between second pair. Each distotarsomere with 2 spiniform preapical plantar bristles; row of 4 setae at apex extended over tarsal claw on dorsal side of segment in addition to usual preapical lateral hairs. Numerous fine setae on plantar surfaces of distotarsomeres. Unmodified Abdominal Segments. Terga I-VI have three rows of setae (anterior composed of only 1-2 minute setae). Tergum VII with two rows of setae; three antesensilial bristles (lateral and mesal less than half-length of middle bristle). One seta below level of each spiracle in main rows. Sternum II with one stout seta; minute seta anterior to main seta. Sterna III-VII with main row of 3 stout setae, group of 6-8 smaller setae anterior to main rows. Sensilium with 18 sensilial pits. Modified Abdominal Segments, Male ( Figs. 5-7View Figures 1-8). Tergum VIII extended onto basimere; with 3 long setae ventral to spiracle and group of 8-9 small setae dorsal to spiracle. Basimere of T-IX with few setae on lateral surface; mesal surface with oblique row of 8-9 minute setae from apex to middle of basimere. One long slender seta at caudal margin of basimere (may represent acetabular bristle). Telomere long, sides parallel with short marginal setae sparsely distributed along caudal and dorsal margins. Manubrium stout, long, and arched upward. Sternum VIII longer than wide with parallel sides; apex with sinus forming dorsal and ventral lobes. Lobes with 4-5 long setae; numerous shorter setae anterior to those on lobes. Distal arm of S-IX with sides of basal lobe somewhat parallel with fine long setae along caudal margin. Apical lobe of distal arm of S-IX tapering towards apex; fine setae on anterodorsal margin. Aedeagus ( Figs. 3-4View Figures 1-8). Aedeagal apodeme long and narrow (length more than 5× maximum width). Proximal spur sclerotized extended to enveloping girdle of phallosome. Penis rods exceed apex of aedeagal apodeme. Median dorsal lobe bulged on dorsum; rounded at apex. Ventral margin of median dorsal lobe with rugulose area, subtended by lateral lobes. Crescent sclerite sclerotized, thick in outline. Sclerotized inner tube with ornate sclerotized structures at dorsal apex. Crochet leaf-like towards apex; pointed apex folded back onto itself. Base of crochet with dorsal triangular lobe bearing small paxillus. Modified Abdominal Segments, Female (Figs. 9-12). Three antesensilial bristles, middle only slightly longer than others. Tergum VIII with two large apical lobes; dorsal shorter than ventral lobe. Eleven to 12 short setae dorsal to spiracle VIII; 1 very long and 2 short setae just below spiracle. Dorsal lobe of T-VIII without setae; ventral lobe with 15-16 setae, apical setae longer. Mesal surface of T- VIII with four stout setae. Sternum VII with long parallel sided lobe (length 6-7× width). Oblique row of 6 stout long setae; 9-10 shorter setae anterior to main row. Hilla and bulga of spermatheca approximately equal in length; cribriform area flattened. Hilla slightly restricted at bulga. Bursa copulatrix reflected caudad as a smooth arch. Sclerotized portion of perula flattened on dorsum. Anal stylet expanded from base to one lateral seta; narrower from lateral seta to apex with one seta. Ventral anal lobe triangular; ventral margin with line of 3 very stout short setae and 3 stout long setae. Sternum VIII without setae

Length (slide mounted specimens): Holotype 3.2mm, male average: 3.1mm (n = 12; range: 2709-3247µ); allotype 3.3mm, female average: 3.4mm (n = 12; range: 3100-3844µ).

Etymology. The species bears the name of the country from which it was collected.

Remarks. The number of specimens of this new species is few and it appears to be limited to rodents of the murid subfamily Nesomyinae  since six different species represented by three genera were infested. Its occurrence on R. rattus  may be accidental, as this rodent is ubiquitous and plentiful but rarely infested by P. madagascarensis  . Most of the species within the genus Paractenopsyllus  infest either tenrecs, or murids, but not both ( Table 1).

Paractenopsyllus madagascarensis Hastriter & Dick  , sp. n.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9351B91F-FC97-47FB-B8C2-C1194681FFC8

Figs 1View Figures 1-8 -13

Type Material. Holotype. 3, 1♀ Paratype (SMG-13919), Fianarantsoa Province, Midongy S, Parc National de Midongy-Sud, NE slope Mt Papango (23°50’17.9982”S, 46°57’29.9988”E), 3.5 km SW Befotaka, 1250 m, ex Eliurus tanala Major, 1896  (FMNH-178699), 3 XI 2003GoogleMaps  , S.G. Goodman; allotype ♀, 43, 1♀ paratypes (SMG- 13903, SMG-13924), same data as holotype except E. tanala  (FMNH-178698, FMNH-178644), 2-5 XI 2003GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ paratype (SMG-13904), same data as holotype except Eliurus majori Thomas, 1895  (FMNH-178686); 33GoogleMaps  , 7♀ paratypes (SMG- 13918, SMG-13935), same data as holotype except Eliurus webbi Ellerman, 1849  (FMNH-178712, FMNH-178646), 3, 6 XI 2003GoogleMaps  ; 13 paratype (SMG-13920), same data as holotype except Gymnuromys roberti Major, 1896  (FMNH-178717)GoogleMaps  ; 13 paratype (SMG-13905), same data as holotype except Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)  (FMNH-178680), 2 X 2003GoogleMaps  ; 13, 1♀ paratypes (SMG-13863, SMG-13900), Parc National de Midongy-Sud, NE slope Mt Papango (23°50’06”S, 46°57’47.9982”E), 2.5 km SW Befotaka, 875 m elev., ex E. tanala  (FMNH-178693, FMNH-178696), 28, 31 X 2003GoogleMaps  , S.M. Goodman; 1♀ paratype (SMG-13979), W slope Mt Ambatobe, 1.2 km ENE Ampatramary, 9.5 km NE Midongy-Sud (23°30’36”S, 47°03’6.0012”E), 650 m elev., ex E. webbi  (FMNH-178716), 14 XI 2003GoogleMaps  , S.M. Goodman; 1♀ paratype (SMG-13980), W slope Mt Ambatobe, 1.2 km ENE Ampatramary, 9.5 km NE Midongy-Sud (23°30’36”S, 47°03’6.0012”E), 650 m elev., ex Eliurus minor Major, 1896  (FMNH-178691), 14 XI 2003GoogleMaps  , S.M. Goodman; and 13 paratype (SMG-14002),

W slope Mt Ambatobe, 1.2 km ENE Ampatramary, 9.5 km NE Midongy-Sud (23°30’36”S, 47°03’6.0012”E), 650 m elev., ex Nesomys rufus Peters, 1870  (FMNH- 178649), 16 XI 2003. The holotype, allotype, and eight pairs of paratypes are deposited in the Field Museum of Natural History , Chicago, IL, one pair of paratypes each in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History , Washington, D.C. and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History , Pittsburgh, PA, and two pairs of paratypes in the senior author’s collection. Mammal host specimens are deposited in the Field Museum of Natural History , Chicago, ILGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Males most closely allied with P. oconnori  (females unknown), but distinguished by details of the aedeagus. The median dorsal lobe is expanded dorsally and greatly enlarged compared to all species except P. oconnori  . Paractenopsyllus madagascarensis  differs from P. oconnori  by the presence of a distinct lateral lobe arising from the median dorsal lobe. Females differ from all other species possessing more than 28 teeth in the pronotal comb by the presence of one extremely long and narrow lobe on the caudal margin of S-VII (Fig. 9).

Description. Head ( Figs. 1-2View Figures 1-8). Frontal tubercle high on frons; farther from oral angle than distance from oral angle to base of first genal tooth. Frontal row of 9 setae; middle three thickened and somewhat spiniform. Two placoids above frontal tubercle. Preantennal area with minute scattered pits bearing minute coniform peg-like structures. Heavily sclerotized incrassation at oral angle; one thick seta at base of labial palpus. Area behind frontal row with 6 long setae and 17-18 minute scattered setae (only 4 long setae in female). Tentorium visible anterior to small pigmented eye; eye with ventral notch. Two genal ctenidia off-set at bases; anterior tooth about 2/3 length of posterior. Two lucodiscs at base of second genal tooth (see Hastriter 2009). Postantennal area with 4 rows of stout setae (4, 3, 6, and 7). Three placoids present; one lucodisc dorsad between rows 3 and 4. Occipital groove lacking. Antennal fossa heavily sclerotized from eye to falx and from falx to angle of scape. Scape with oblique row of 6 fine setae; two at dorsal apex. Pedicel with 8-10 fine marginal setae; none extended beyond basal segment of clavus. Clavus not extended onto prosternum. Penultimate segment of labial palpus shortest. Maxilla sharply pointed; palpus of 5 segments. Thorax ( Fig. 1-2View Figures 1-8). Pronotum with two rows of setae (8, 6); pronotal ctenidia with 31 spines. Three lucodiscs present. Prosternum with heavily sclerotized phragma extended beneath ventral portion of pronotal ctenidia. Mesonotum with two rows of setae (6, 5); anterior group of scattered smaller setae. Mesepisternum with 3 setae (6 in female); mesepimeron with 4 setae. Pleural rod bifurcate at dorsal third. Mesosternum heavily sclerotized; truncate. One stout pseudoseta under hyaline mesonotal collar. Metanotum with two rows of setae (8, 6); main row very stout setae. Anterior scattered setae. Lateral margins of metanotum oblique from apex to lateral base; no apparent overlap with metepimeron. One pigmented marginal spinelet at dorsum. Lateral metanotal area with two setae. Metepisternum with one long seta; length of squamulum>2× width. Metasternum projecting ventrad between coxae. Pleural ridge stout; with hyaline ribbon-like sclerotization extended its length beneath. Metepimeron with 3 vertical rows of setae (5, 5, and 1)(anterior row

only 2 in female); spiracle longer than wide, rounded at apex. Legs (Fig. 13). Procoxa with more than 40 lateral setae; 2 long marginal setae along apical caudal margin. Lateral sulcus of mesocoxa more than 3/4 complete. Metacoxa with apical comb of 5 long setae extended over trochanter. Profemur with 5 small lateral setae; one small mesal seta. One femoral-tibial guard seta on profemur; two on other femora; lateral short and stout, mesal long and stout. Margin of fore, mid and hind tibiae with three dorsal notches each bearing a one long seta, interspersed with false combs of heavy dark bristles. Three lateral rows of setae on metatibiae (7, 10, and 8). Distotarsomeres each with five pairs lateral plantar bristles; first pair shifted onto plantar surface between second pair. Each distotarsomere with 2 spiniform preapical plantar bristles; row of 4 setae at apex extended over tarsal claw on dorsal side of segment in addition to usual preapical lateral hairs. Numerous fine setae on plantar surfaces of distotarsomeres. Unmodified Abdominal Segments. Terga I-VI have three rows of setae (anterior composed of only 1-2 minute setae). Tergum VII with two rows of setae; three antesensilial bristles (lateral and mesal less than half-length of middle bristle). One seta below level of each spiracle in main rows. Sternum II with one stout seta; minute seta anterior to main seta. Sterna III-VII with main row of 3 stout setae, group of 6-8 smaller setae anterior to main rows. Sensilium with 18 sensilial pits. Modified Abdominal Segments, Male ( Figs. 5-7View Figures 1-8). Tergum VIII extended onto basimere; with 3 long setae ventral to spiracle and group of 8-9 small setae dorsal to spiracle. Basimere of T-IX with few setae on lateral surface; mesal surface with oblique row of 8-9 minute setae from apex to middle of basimere. One long slender seta at caudal margin of basimere (may represent acetabular bristle). Telomere long, sides parallel with short marginal setae sparsely distributed along caudal and dorsal margins. Manubrium stout, long, and arched upward. Sternum VIII longer than wide with parallel sides; apex with sinus forming dorsal and ventral lobes. Lobes with 4-5 long setae; numerous shorter setae anterior to those on lobes. Distal arm of S-IX with sides of basal lobe somewhat parallel with fine long setae along caudal margin. Apical lobe of distal arm of S-IX tapering towards apex; fine setae on anterodorsal margin. Aedeagus ( Figs. 3-4View Figures 1-8). Aedeagal apodeme long and narrow (length more than 5× maximum width). Proximal spur sclerotized extended to enveloping girdle of phallosome. Penis rods exceed apex of aedeagal apodeme. Median dorsal lobe bulged on dorsum; rounded at apex. Ventral margin of median dorsal lobe with rugulose area, subtended by lateral lobes. Crescent sclerite sclerotized, thick in outline. Sclerotized inner tube with ornate sclerotized structures at dorsal apex. Crochet leaf-like towards apex; pointed apex folded back onto itself. Base of crochet with dorsal triangular lobe bearing small paxillus. Modified Abdominal Segments, Female (Figs. 9-12). Three antesensilial bristles, middle only slightly longer than others. Tergum VIII with two large apical lobes; dorsal shorter than ventral lobe. Eleven to 12 short setae dorsal to spiracle VIII; 1 very long and 2 short setae just below spiracle. Dorsal lobe of T-VIII without setae; ventral lobe with 15-16 setae, apical setae longer. Mesal surface of T- VIII with four stout setae. Sternum VII with long parallel sided lobe (length 6-7× width). Oblique row of 6 stout long setae; 9-10 shorter setae anterior to main row. Hilla and bulga of spermatheca approximately equal in length; cribriform area flattened. Hilla slightly restricted at bulga. Bursa copulatrix reflected caudad as a smooth arch. Sclerotized portion of perula flattened on dorsum. Anal stylet expanded from base to one lateral seta; narrower from lateral seta to apex with one seta. Ventral anal lobe triangular; ventral margin with line of 3 very stout short setae and 3 stout long setae. Sternum VIII without setae

Length (slide mounted specimens): Holotype 3.2mm, male average: 3.1mm (n = 12; range: 2709-3247µ); allotype 3.3mm, female average: 3.4mm (n = 12; range: 3100-3844µ).

Etymology. The species bears the name of the country from which it was collected.

Remarks. The number of specimens of this new species is few and it appears to be limited to rodents of the murid subfamily Nesomyinae  since six different species represented by three genera were infested. Its occurrence on R. rattus  may be accidental, as this rodent is ubiquitous and plentiful but rarely infested by P. madagascarensis  . Most of the species within the genus Paractenopsyllus  infest either tenrecs, or murids, but not both ( Table 1).