Sabethes (Sabethoides) glaucodaemon ( Dyar & Shannon, 1925 )

Stein, Marina, Bangher, Debora N., Neves, Maycon Sebastião Alberto Santos & Alvarez, Carla N., 2020, Redescription of the female, male, larva and pupa of Sabethes (Sabethoides) glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon) (Diptera: Culicidae) and description of the female genitalia, Zootaxa 4789 (2), pp. 589-600: 590-598

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Sabethes (Sabethoides) glaucodaemon ( Dyar & Shannon, 1925 )


Sabethes (Sabethoides) glaucodaemon ( Dyar & Shannon, 1925) 

Sabethoides glaucodaemon Dyar & Shannon, 1925: 39  (F). Type locality: near San Alberto , Rio Branco , Amazonas (current State of Roraima), Brazil (USNM).

Sabethes (Sabethoides) glaucodaemon  of Da Costa Lima 1931: 57 (M*); Lane & Cerqueira 1942: 673 (M*, F); Lane 1953: 1057, 1075–1075 (MG*); Lane & Causey 1955: 16 (P*, L*); Pinheiro et al. 1981 (medical importance); Xavier et al. 1989 (collection record); Dégallier et al. 1992 (bionomics); Moses et al. 2000: 998 (taxonomy); Camargo-Neves et al. 2005 (medical importance); Pinto et al. 2009 (collection record); Silva et al. 2010 (collection record); Moreno et al. 2011 (medical importance); Tubaki et al. 2011 (bionomics); Confalonieri & Costa 2012 (collection record); Mucci et al. 2015 (bionomics); Alencar et al. 2018 (collection record); Silva et al. 2019 (collection record); Cunha et al. 2019 (medical importance).

FEMALE ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). Medium-sized species. General coloring metallic green. Head: Occiput with metallic violaceous scales, above with light blue reflections depending on angle of light, postgena with silver scales. Black short setae along eye margin, 2 long dark interocular setae. Proboscis with bluish scales, as long as abdomen, 0.80 length of forefemur, expanded in distal third. Maxillary palpus slightly longer than clypeus, dark, about 0.1 length of proboscis. Clypeus dark, without setae and scales, pruinose. Antenna 0.80 length of proboscis; pedicel without scales, pruinose. Thorax: Integument dark brown. Antepronota approximated, forming nearly a continuous straight edge, covered with metallic greenish scales above and golden scales below, a row of strong short black setae on margin of each lobe, postpronotum with metallic golden scales; scutum dark with broad metallic greenish and purple scales, purple scales mainly on prescutellar area. Scutellar scales with purple and golden reflections. Pleura completely covered by broad decumbent silvery white scales, on metepisternum and metameron, some reflections golden depending on angle of light. Thoracic setae as follows: short setae on anterior promontory (16), antepronotum (12), supraalar area (8), scutellum with 3 dark long setae on lateral lobes, 2 on midlobe, mesopostnotum with 4–6 setae, 2 dark prespiracular setae; proepisternal (1), lower mesokatepisternal setae (2) short and yellow; 9–12 golden upper mesepimeral setae, 5 long, curved and reaching median area of mesopostnotum. Wing: Length about 3.0– 3.1 mm; dorsal scales brown and broad on most veins, anal vein with narrow scales; alula with fine scales; calypter without scales. Halter: Scabellum  yellowish, without scales, pedicel with brown scales, capitellum with black scales. Legs: General color black with bluish reflections. Coxae and trochanters with silvery scales; trochanters with some yellowish scales at base. Forefemur white-scaled on almost all of ventral length, white scaling gradually narrows towards apex; midfemur with white scales on ventral surface, hindfemur with white scales ventrally, dorsal surface white-scaled on basal 0.5. Hindtibia with white scales on proximal 0.5. Fore- and hindtarsi entirely dark-scaled. Midtarsus with white scales as follows: midtarsomere 2 white-scaled anteriorly on distal 0.2–0.5, midtarsomere 3 totally covered with white scales, midtarsomere 4 with white scales on proximal 0.5 to whole length, and midtarsomere 5 dark-scaled, sometimes with few pale scales at base. Ungues of all legs simple and black. Abdomen: Slightly longer than hindfemur. Terga generally dark with bluish reflections; basal iridescent bands with irregular margins, except on tergum I with white scales. Basal bands wider and complete on terga VI and VII, from which they progressively narrow on more anterior terga until completely interrupted medially on terga I and II. Laterally dark and iridescent scales are limited by angular incisions. Sterna yellowish-scaled. Genitalia ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2): Sternum VIII with rounded posterior margin, with 3 or 4 rows of setae aligned posteriorly, similar in size; tergum VIII quadrate, covered with setae of different sizes interspersed with scales, setae arranged in an area forming a triangle towards posterior margin, longer setae located in middle; postgenital lobe longer than cerci, dorsal surface covered with small setae, with 3 or 4 larger setae on either side of mid-line; cerci long, rounded at apex, slightly curved at middle of mesal side, dorsal surface covered with long setae; tergum IX thin, slightly concave in middle, with 4 thick setae on each side; insula with small depression on caudal margin, 4 or 5 longer and thicker setae born from prominent papillae at each side on outer edge of caudal area.

MALE ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). As in female except for the following differences. Antenna 0.50 length of proboscis (length 1.5–1.6 mm, mean 1.53 mm). Midtarsomere 2 white on apical 0.20–0.5, midtarsomeres 3 and 4 white on proximal 0.30–1.00. Genitalia ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 B–D, 4A–D): Tergum VIII invaginated in middle forming 2 lobes with rounded corners; third of posterior area covered by numerous spatulate scales, scales longer laterally; posterior margin with numerous long setae distributed uniformly. Sternum VIII with a row of moderately long setae on posterior margin, almost 0.5 of apical surface covered by spatulate scales. Tergum and sternum IX fused laterally, forming a complete ring. Ninth tergal lobes not produced, without invagination in middle, very small space between setal clusters, each side with 4–10(6) strong setae with tips slightly bent laterally and increasing in length. Sternum IX almost rectangular with rounded corners. Gonocoxite cylindrical, elongate, length approximately twice mid-width; minutely spiculate, 0.5 distal sternal surface with numerous scales and short setae, about 8 moderately long setae at apex; 1 strong tubercle without seta on apical third of sternal surface; 2 tergomesal setae emerge basally, mesal seta longer than sternal seta; basal mesal lobe pilose, 3 setae larger than others on upper external angle. Gonostylus shorter than gonocoxite, with short, strong stem, divided into 5 main lobes; lobes A and E almost fused, prominent, rounded with a row of about 15 setae on distal margin and 2 strong sclerotized setae shaped like claws, below this, a cockscomb-like membranous process with irregular margin. In middle of mesal surface of lobe A-E is a small brush-like appendage; adjacent to A is another appendage resembling a small inverted wing. Lobe M elongate, with 2 long foliform branches, sternal branch single, mesal branch with tip slightly curved downwards, apical third with a row of about 7 setae. Lobe B arises from middle of lobe M as a small stemmed appendage with rounded and pilose apex. Lobe C a very large and long recurved arm with strong elbow and ending in 2 strong points; middle of this arm bears 2 processes, one long fimbriate arm at apex and a short dense filamentous tuft (fp). Proctiger with broad basal sclerotization (tergum X); paraproct slender, sclerotized on margin, with protuberant apex, with 4 very close-set teeth and 1–4(4) cercal setae inserted on sclerotized area. Aedeagus rounded, widest in middle, submedian tergal arms fused, forming a median tergal bridge; apical tergal arms not fused, serrate on distal margin; median sternal plate pronounced and slightly folded outward, like a tulip flower.

PUPA ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). Positions and character of setae as figured; range and modal number of setal branches in Table 1. Cephalothorax: Integument slightly tanned, darker on postscutal area. Trumpet cylindrical, tanned; length 0.315 –0.470 mm (mean 0.390 mm), width 0.015 –0.0165 mm (mean 0.013 mm), trumpet index 2.24–2.86; pinna 0.0078 –0.0169 mm (mean 0.0130 mm), ≈0.30 length of trumpet. Seta 1-CT double, sigmoid, very long; 5-CT long, more often double. Abdomen: Tanned, sterna darker on basal area. Length 3.5–4.0 mm (mean 3.8 mm). Seta 1-I well developed, dendritic; 1-III–VII inserted lateral to seta 2. Seta 5-IV–VI always single, longer than length of corresponding segment; setae 10-II and 13GoogleMaps  -VI present. Genital lobe: Tanned in female and male. Length 0.26–0.34 mm (mean 0.30 mm) in female and 0.50–0.63 (mean 0.58mm) in male. Paddle: Hyaline, minutely speculate at base. Inner part shorter than outer part. Length 0.63–0.89 mm (mean 0.74 mm), width at widest point 0.42–0.57 mm (mean 0.49 mm), paddle index 0.30–0.89.

LARVA (fourth-instar) ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6). Position and character of setae as figured; range and modal number of setal branches in Table 2. Exhibiting the subgeneric characters noted by Harbach (1991). Head: Wider than long, width 1.05–1.57 mm (mean 1.26 mm), length 0.84–1.15 mm (mean 0.99 mm). Occipital foramen widely V-shaped, margins heavily tanned. Integument lightly tanned. Dorsomentum with 7–9 (7) dark teeth on each side of median tooth, sometimes outers shorter or similar in length. Maxilla with 5,6(5) teeth (laciniarastrum), apical tooth (AT) 0.80 length of maxillary body. Setae 1-C stout, expanded in basal third; 0,3-C single; 2-C absent; setae 4–6-C single; 10-C with 1,2(1) mostly simple branches, inserted at level of 14-C; 15-C with 2 or 2,3(2) branches, inserted near anterior margin of labiogula. Antenna: Short, length 0.26–0.30 mm (mean 0.27 mm), spiculose. Seta 1-A single, borne near apex, length about 2 times width of antenna. Thorax: Integument hyaline, smooth. Setae 0,8-P, 1,13,14- M and 5,8-T with short multiple branches. Setae 2,5,11,12-P, 2–6,911,12-M and 11,12-T always single, 3-P always double, 13-T strongly developed, with 4–9(8) very long aciculate branches. Abdomen: Integument hyaline, smooth. Abdominal segments I–VI with stellate setae, branches with truncate apices. Tubercles of setae 6,7-I,II tanned. Setae 6,7-I,II strongly developed, long, aciculate, with multiple branches. Seta 6-III–VI long, aciculate and single. Seta 1-I,II, strong, aciculate, with multiple branches, seta 1-III–V long, mostly single, seta 1-V as long as segment; seta 5-II–VI strongly developed, stellate, with multiple aciculate branches; seta 2-I inserted lateral of seta 1, 2- II–VII inserted mesal to seta 1. Seta 13-I–V strongly developed, stellate, aciculate, with multiple branches. Segment VII with small setae, only 3-VII large. Segment VIII: Comb with 17–22(17) scales arranged in a single row, scales with fringe of minute spicules. Segment X: Hyaline. Saddle incomplete, tanned, surface covered with short rows of minute spicules, length 0.21–0.24 mm (mean 0.21 mm). Seta 1-X usually double, 2-X triple, 3-X usually double, 4-X with 2–5(3) branches. Anal papillae slightly shorter than siphon, about 4 times length of segment X. Siphon: Brown, surface covered with short rows of minute spicules, gradually tapered from base to apex, length 1.03–1.26 mm (mean 1.17 mm), width at base 0.26–0.33 mm (mean 0.28 mm), siphonal index 3.34–4.83. Seta 1-S single, inserted 0.4–0.5 from base. Pecten with about 60 fine filaments extending from siphon base to point below level of insertion of seta 2a-S. Seta 2-S forked at tip. Seta 1a-S longer than 2a-S, always single and simple; 2a-S single or double, more often double.

Material examined. Sabethes glaucodaemon  : 3F, 3 FG, 11M, 11 MG, 14 Le, 14 Pe as follows: ARGENTINA, Misiones, Eldorado (26° 24′ S 54° 38′ W), 16-ix-16, 1M, Le, PeGoogleMaps  , MG, 19-iv-18, 2M, Le, Pe  , MG, 29-i-16, 1F, 1M, Le, Pe  , FG, MG, 19-i-17, 1F, Le, Pe  , FG, 15-xii-15, 1M, Le, Pe  , MG, 19-iii-16, 1M, Le, Pe  , MG, 22-vi-17, 1M, Le, Pe  , MG, 1-ix-17, 2M, Le, Pe  , MG, 24-x-16, 1M, Le, Pe  , MG, 28-ii-18, 1F, Le, Pe  , FG Alonso, Alvarez, Bangher and Stein coll.; Alvarez , Bangher, Neves, Motta and Stein det. Specimens  IMR. CUL 10-010View Materials to -021: BRAZIL, Goiás, Campos Belos (13° 00′ 52.4″ S 46° 44′ 30.7″ W), natural container trap, col. Quintella M and Motta MA, det. Motta M.A., 5-x-14, 1M, Le. Pe, NoGoogleMaps  . CCULI 4071. This voucher specimen was donated by the Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários , Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, RJ, Brazil  .

Distribution. Sabethes glaucodaemon  is recorded from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Suriname ( Stein et al. 2018; Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit 2015).

Bionomics. Larvae were collected from a bamboo stump in association with larvae of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse)  and Limatus durhamii Theobald. 


Palaontologische Hauptsammlung der Bergakadmie


Museum of Zoology


Norwegian Institute of Marine Research














Sabethes (Sabethoides) glaucodaemon ( Dyar & Shannon, 1925 )

Stein, Marina, Bangher, Debora N., Neves, Maycon Sebastião Alberto Santos & Alvarez, Carla N. 2020

Sabethoides glaucodaemon

Dyar, H. C. & Shannon, R. C. 1925: 39