Syringogaster brunnea Cresson, 1912

Marshall, S. A., Buck, M., Skevington, J. H. & Grimaldi, D., 2009, A revision of the family Syringogastridae (Diptera: Diopsoidea), Zootaxa 1996 (1), pp. 1-80 : 28-30

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Syringogaster brunnea Cresson


Syringogaster brunnea Cresson View in CoL

Figs. 17–20, Plates 1C, 2A; Map 2

Syringogaster brunnea Cresson, 1912: 394 View in CoL .

DESCRIPTION: Head uniformly pale reddish brown, entire frons including ocellar triangle tomentose but ocellar triangle more shining than frontal vitta; ocellar triangle strongly tapered and triangular, anterior apex rounded and separated from frontal margin by 2X scape length; remainder of frons dull; ocellar triangle raised and flanked on each side by a row of six very small inclinate interfrontal bristles. Ocellar tubercle setulose but without bristles. Pedicel entirely tomentose. Face pale, parafacial densely white tomentose laterally and brown medially, lower brown part expanded and with black bristles; shining vibrissal angle with sparse thin black bristles. Gena equal in height to subgena at middle, with only fine pale setulae posterior to shining and sparsely setose vibrissal angle; supracervical collar 2–3X length of pronotum.

Thorax: Pronotum with a strong transverse carina on each side, medially with two dark longitudinal lines. Mesonotum pale reddish brown except for the following contrasting black areas: small, humeral pit and associated large triangular humeral carina, lateral vestiges of transverse suture, anterior part of supra-alar carina, a carina at the anterior margin of the notopleuron, and two prescutellar pits. Pleuron orange except for contrastingly dark and shining area surrounding posterior spiracle. Anepisternum shining on anterior 2/3, sparsely tomentose on posterior third. Anepimeron sparsely setulose. First prespiracular lobe very small and knob-like, second forming a knife-like ridge connecting to prominent anterior edge of spiracle. Subspiracular ridge strongly bilobed, anterior lobe bare, posterior lobe very prominent and densely tomentose. Fore leg yellow to pale brown, bristles pale except for 1–4 (usually 2–3) short, stout, black distal anteroventral spines on femur (sometimes also one small distal posteroventral spine). Mid femur white basally, rest of femur pale brown; tibia brown on basal half, yellowish on distal half. Mid tarsomeres 1–3 and basal half of tarsomere 4 with antero- and posteroventral sawlines. Hind femur with a narrow white basal ring; remainder of leg orangebrown. Hind femur with anteroventral row of 12–15 bristles extending over distal 7/10 of femur, posteroventral row shorter. Hind tibia with apex weakly trilobate, lobes subequal. Sawlines present on basal four tarsomeres of hind tarsus (extremely shortened on tarsomere 4).

Wing dark with clear patches forming transverse bands before and after crossvein dm-cu and before crossvein bm-cu. Fork of CuA distal to bm-cu, separated from bm-cu by more than twice the length of bm-cu; A 1 +CuA 2 short so cell cup appendiculate on distal corner, CuA 1 extending less than half way from dm to wing margin. R 2+3 running almost parallel to costa distally, not distinctly turned up to costa near apex. Cell r 4+5 greatly tapered from apex to level of r-m; r-m less than one third as long as dm-cu.

Abdomen: Syntergite 1–3 strongly petiolate, parallel-sided on basal half, greatly expanded distally; tergites 2 and 3 fused without suture. Syntergite 1–3 densely microsculptured, sculpturing forming transverse ridges on tergite 1, densely tomentose.

Female terminalia: Tergite 7 simple, without posteromedial emargination. Four spermathecae in two pairs, each pair close together on short ducts, touching but not appressed; each spermatheca smooth, broadly coneshaped, with a broad basal invagination and a small smooth, cylindrical cap (evagination) distally, cap about 0.20X spermathecal diameter.

Male terminalia: Posterolateral corners of tergite 5 sinuate and developed into prominent, dark processes, process on right side finger-like and twice as long as the one on left side. Sternites 5 and 6 transverse, broadly divided medially, the two halves of the latter asymmetrical, left half distinctly incrassate towards lateral margin. Spiracles 5 and 6 in tergite, distinctly above ventral margin. Epandrium longer than wide. Cercus elongate, well developed, half as long as surstylus. Surstylus elongate, almost parallel-sided on basal 2/3, slightly expanded and rounded distally (narrow with minutely downcurved apex in lateral view). Hypandrium with three pairs of breaks or weakenings: first between basal U-shaped portion and base of hypandrial arms, second between hypandrial bridge and mesal base of each hypandrial arm, third near middle of each hypandrial arm posterior to ventral hypandrial lobe. Anterior U-shaped portion with well-developed asymmetrical, notched anterior apodeme. Hypandrial bridge robust and strongly sclerotized, slightly broader than usual. Ventral hypandrial lobe distally narrow and parallel-sided, posterior surface long-setose. Accessory sclerites present on each side between postgonites and posterior part of hypandrial arm. Pregonites asymmetrical, distally expanded into a tripartite, disk-like structure; right pregonite with basolateral ridge better developed and more prominent than left pregonite. Phallapodeme pale anteriorly, posteriorly abruptly widened and meeting with lateral portion of hypandrium to form a weakly sclerotized and inconspicuous phallic guide. Basiphallus asymmetrical, near middle with a slight bend towards left side, apex with a moderately stout process on left side; distiphallus complex, directed sinistrally made up mostly of multiple flat plates.

TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype ♀ ( ANSP holotype # 5253): COSTA RICA. Peralta Sta., 10.viii.09, P.P. Calvert . Paratype ♂ ( ANSP paratype # 5253): COSTA RICA. Juan Viñas , 2500’, 3.v.1910, near brook, forest edge, P.P. Calvert. We have seen only photos provided by J. Weintraub ( ANSP) .

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: COLOMBIA. Río Raposo , vi and v.1964, light trap, V. H. Lee (2♂, USNM) . COSTA RICA. Puntarenas, RiosParaisos Biological Reserve , 16 km NE Quepos, 400 m, 25.ii.2006, S.A. Marshall (1♂ in alcohol for sequencing, DEBU) ; La Virgen , 16 km NE Quepos, 800 m, 25.ii.2006, S.A. Marshall (1♂, 2♀, in alcohol for sequencing, DEBU) ; Quepos, Manuel Antonio National Park , 80 m, vii.1991, R. Zuñiga, L _S_370900_448800 (5♂, 1♀, INBC) ; Estación Altamira, 1 km S del Cerro Biolley , 1300–1450 m, 20.xi–9.xii.1995, R. Villalobos, L _S_331700_572100, #45340, #45341 (2♀, INBC) ; Estación Carara , R. B. Carara, 200 m, iii.1990, R. Zuñiga, 195250-478700 (1♂, INBC) ; Heredia, La Selva Biological Station, 6–11.vii.1993, B. Brown & D. Feener , and ii.1993, malaise, P. Hanson (2♂, INBC) ; La Suiza , iv.1922 – ix.1926, P. Schild (6♂, 8♀, 4 specimens without abdomen, A.L. Melander Collection, USNM) ; Higuito, San Mateo, P. Schild (1♂, Melander Collection, USNM) ; Turrialba , xi.1922, P. Schild (1♂, Melander Collection, USNM) ; “Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo” [apparently in error], Biological Reserve “La Selva”, 10°26.30’N, 83°59.40’W, 65 m, tropical lowland rain forest, swept, eclector, O. Krüger , 4.viii.1995, “ X1064 ” (1♀, ZSMC) GoogleMaps ; Est. Biol. La Selva , 50–150 m, 15.i.1994, M/01/320 (1♀, CSCA) ; as previous but 1.xi.1993, ALAS malaise trap, M/01/248 (1♀, CSCA) . ECUADOR. Guayas, Tenguel , xii.1955, Levi-Castillo (1♂, USNM) . GUATEMALA. Pt. Barrios , 3–14.iii.1905, J.S. Hine (1♂, USNM) ; Los Amates , 18–28.ii.1905, J.S. Hine (1♀, USNM) . PANAMA. Canal Zone, Paraíso , 3.ii.1911 A. Busck (1♀, USNM) ; Coclé, El Valle , 8°37’N, 80°7’W, 1.vii.1973, Erwin & Hevel (1♂, USNM) GoogleMaps .

COMMENTS: Syringogaster brunnea is easily distinguished from other species in the brunnea -group by the lack of ocellar bristles, the small number of anteroventral spinules on the fore femur and the reddish brown thorax.


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio)


Zoologische Staatssammlung


California State Collection of Arthropods














Syringogaster brunnea Cresson

Marshall, S. A., Buck, M., Skevington, J. H. & Grimaldi, D. 2009

Syringogaster brunnea

Cresson 1912: 394
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