Diestostemma albinoi, Pinto & Mejdalani & Takiya, 2017

Pinto, Ângelo Parise, Mejdalani, Gabriel & Takiya, Daniela Maeda, 2017, Unraveling the white-clothed Diestostemma Amyot & Serville: a taxonomic revision of the American sharpshooters of the D. bituberculatum complex (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), Zootaxa 4281 (1), pp. 135-164 : 139-144

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Diestostemma albinoi

sp. nov.

Diestostemma albinoi sp. nov.

LSID http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C47E7C85-4E15-4066-87B3-3E6B561C2CBC ( Figures 1–2 View FIGURES 1 – 12 , 15–16 View FIGURES 15 – 24 , 25–26 View FIGURES 25 – 30 , 37–38 View FIGURES 37 – 45 , 46–47 View FIGURES 46 – 55 , 56–58 View FIGURES 56 – 71 , 72–74 View FIGURES 72 – 80 , 87 View FIGURES 87 – 92 , 93 View FIGURE 93 )

Material examined (2 ♂, 1 ♀). Holotype ♂. ECUADOR. Orellana [Province: Francisco de Orellana Canton], Reserva Étnica Waorani , Transect Ent., 1 km S. Onkone Gare Camp., Fogging terre [sic, terra] firme forest, lot#1126 (00°39’10”S, 076°26’00”W, 248 m a.s.l.), 06.VII.1995, T.L. Erwin et al. leg. ( EPNC); 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ paratypes, same data as holotype but lot#1086, [0] 2.VII.1995 ( DZRJ and USNM, respectively). GoogleMaps

Measurements of the male holotype (mm). Total length (from anterior of head to tip of forewings) 20.3; crown length 2.3; transocular distance 4.1; interocular distance 2.7; distance between compound eye and mesal line 1.3; distance between ocellus and mesal line 0.9; pronotal disc maximum width 4.9; pronotal disc maximum length 3.9; forewing length 16.1; length of metathoracic femur 3.9; metathoracic tibia 7.4.

Description of the male holotype. Head ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 12 , 15–16 View FIGURES 15 – 24 ). Crown maximum length 0.6 transocular distance and slightly shorter than interocular distance (ratio of 0.85) in dorsal view; anterior margin rounded with small apical concavity at insertion of nymphal blade-like frontal process; epicranial suture indistinct; posterior portion with distinct M-shaped elevation from ocellar base to posterior margin, connected laterally to strong ridge posterior to ocular suture; frons with deep muscle impressions laterally and median longitudinal depression, dorsal surface convex; frontogenal suture extending onto crown to ocellar level. Ocellus located at level of anterior limit of compound eye, distinctly closer to eye than mesal line (ratio of distances between ocellus and eye with eye to mesal line of 0.17). Epistomal suture indistinct. Clypeus anterior margin at level of profile of frons in lateral view.

Thorax ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 12 , 15–16 View FIGURES 15 – 24 ). Pronotum maximum width at posterolateral angles 1.2 times wider than transocular distance; maximum length (at level of humps) 1.5 times longer than crown length; lateral margins convergent anteriorly; disc sculptured dorsally by punctures and callosities, punctures numerous and closer to each other at posterior 0.66; pair of small bean-shaped anterolateral pits posterior to anterior margin, followed by smooth polished elevated area; anteromesal area depressed into rhombus shape bordered by elevated polished areas (callosities); posterior 0.33 dorsally projected into two rounded humps; Y-shaped mesal callosity prolonged from rhombus depressed anterior area up to base of humps; small mesal callus at posterior margin; posterior margin sinuous with widened W-shaped outline; dorsolateral carina (dorsopleural carina sensu Young 1968) complete; lateral lobe of pronotum punctured, with median ridge, posterior margin projected into short thumb-like process. Mesonotum not punctate; scutellum with longitudinal carina at about posterior 0.5 up to apex. Forewing coriaceous (tegmen appearance); surface strongly punctured, punctures minute at distal area; venation sclerotized and moderately elevated at posterior 0.5 of corium, reticulate, except area from brachial cell to anal margin of wing, including first apical cell; three distinct sclerotized dark vein areas (SDV): (1) small rounded area at proximal edge of first discal cell, (2) slightly larger oval area at claval sulcus, adjacent and posterior to first area, and (3) a large imperfect H-shaped area located at about 0.25 proximal of wing, between ScP&RA&M and claval sulcus, costal portion of ‘H’ reduced. Hind wings membranous and densely coated by brochosomes. Metathoracic leg with femoral chaetotaxy with setal formula 2:1:0:0 (AD1 and PD1 + AD2); tibia with anteroventral row of flattened and same size setae along entire length, posteroventral row dimorphic, with hair-like longer setae at about proximal 0.66 and with shorter flattened setae at distal 0.33; ratio of length of each individual tarsomere by total tarsus length (excluding pretarsus) equal to 0.42, 0.32 and 0.26, respectively.

Coloration. Head and thorax ground color ochre-yellow with dark brown to black irregular areas. Crown with dark brown spots as follows: small rounded spot on posterolateral surface of antennal ledge, along frontogenal suture, and pair of spots over M-shaped elevation adjacent to posterior margin about same size as ocellus. Pronotal disc dark brown at anterior margin with small mesal rounded spot, over Y-shaped and posterior rounded callosities, and over dorsolateral pronotal carina (dorsopleural carina sensu Young 1968); lateral and ventral surfaces of thorax brownish-yellow with irregular darker areas, legs ochre-yellow to reddish-brown, darker at articulations, tibial carinae and over dorsal surface of tarsus. Forewing with three SDVs, two small rounded basal spots and large imperfect H-shaped marking at anterior 0.25; entire anal margin of clavus, continuing over inner margin of apical cell, brown to black. Hind wings translucent white. Abdomen largely realgar colored (red arsenic) except for yellow genital capsule and dark brown aedeagus.

Male terminalia (based mainly on the paratype). Pygofer ( Fig. 56 View FIGURES 56 – 71 ) dorsal margin slightly concave at middle; inner surface without lobe in ventral view; posterior margin broadly rounded; microsetae distributed throughout lobe surface, broader and longer at posterior 0.33. Valve, in ventral view, transverse, subrectangular; fused laterally to pygofer lobe; articulated to subgenital plate. Subgenital plate ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 56 – 71 ) 1.3 times longer than wide at base in ventral view; dorsal surface with strong tooth-like process near outer margin, associated with style apex; posterior margin broadly rounded; microsetae distributed throughout ventral surface, tuft of longer setae at dorsoposterior angle. Style ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 56 – 71 ), in dorsal view, without preapical lobe; apex of apophysis subacute, directed posteriorly; ventral margin with two small, preapical dentiform processes. Connective ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 56 – 71 ) 5.5 times longer than maximum width, narrowing anteriorly with arms positioned adjacent to each other and parallel sided at apex; stalk much longer than arms. Dorsal connective formed by two narrow, elongate longitudinal bars. Aedeagus ( Figs. 72–74 View FIGURES 72 – 80 ) strongly sclerotized; basally wide, gradually narrowing distally into cylindrical, curved, sickle-shaped shaft in lateral view; shaft posterodistal portion membranous; basiventral process cylindrical up about proximal 0.5, bulbous basally, slightly constricted before bifurcating and expanding into pair of spear-like strongly flattened rami; rami of basiventral processes with tips slightly surpassing shaft apex, distally divergent in posterior view, with flattened surface smooth and laterally faced.

Female terminalia. Sternite VII ( Fig. 87 View FIGURES 87 – 92 ) with maximum width about 0.4 of mesal length in ventral view; posterior margin sinuous, with three convex lobes, mesal lobe strongly projected into rounded triangular plate, extending distally farther than lateral ones.

Variation of paratypes. Female and male paratypes are very similar to the holotype; minor differences are here described. Crown with mesal anterior margin convex with small rounded process at insertion of nymphal blade-like frontal process in female; with M-shaped elevation from ocellar base to posterior margin less projected in male; dorsal surface of frons slightly flattened in male. Ratio of distances between ocellus and eye with eye to mesal line 0.15–0.16. Metafemoral chaetotaxy with setal formula 2:1:0:0 (AD1 and PD1 + AD2) in the male; 2:0:1:0 and 2:1:1:1 (AD1 and PD1 + AD3; AD1 and PD1 + AD2 + AD3 + AD4) in the female.

Measurements (mm, n = 2). Females are larger than males; all upper bounds of intervals correspond to the female. Total length (from anterior of head to tip of forewings) 21.4–22.3; crown length 2.1–2.3; interocular distance 2.6; transocular distance 4.1–4.3; distance between compound eye and mesal line 1.3–1.4; distance between ocellus and mesal line 0.9–1.0; pronotal disc maximum width 5.1–5.3; pronotal disc maximum length 3.8; forewing length 16.8–18.0; metathoracic femur length 3.5–4.3; metathoracic tibia length 7.2–8.6.

Diagnosis. A large, dorsolaterally white and ventrally realgar colored Diestostemma , with two pronotal humps and small dark areas on the forewing. Males and females of D. albinoi sp. nov. are very similar to other species of the D. bituberculatum complex. Males and females can be distinguished from D. rubriventris by the distal SDV on forewing, which is slightly more proximal (at the proximal 0.25) and H-shaped ( Figs. 46–47 View FIGURES 46 – 55 ), whereas in D. rubriventris it is a large rounded spot at the proximal 0.33 ( Figs. 54–55 View FIGURES 46 – 55 ).

Males can be distinguished from all known males of the D. bituberculatum complex by the robust aedeagal process, gently curved over aedeagal shaft in lateral view, bifurcated at about 0.50 of process length and with rami expanded, spear-like, strongly flattened in lateral view ( Figs. 72–74 View FIGURES 72 – 80 ; aedeagal process slender, abruptly or strongly curved over the shaft, and with rami bifurcated at <0.40 proximal or>0.50 distal of the process length; not significantly expanded in lateral view in remaining species, Figs. 75–86 View FIGURES 72 – 80 View FIGURES 81 – 86 ).

Females have the posterior margin of sternite VII trilobed with a strongly projected mesal lobe extending distally farther than lateral lobes, which allows separating D. albinoi sp. nov. from all species in this complex except D. bituberculatum ( Fig. 87 View FIGURES 87 – 92 ; lateral lobes extending distally farther than mesal lobe in D. cavichiolii sp. nov., D. gervasioi sp. nov., D. olivia sp. nov., and D. rubriventris ; Figs. 89–92 View FIGURES 87 – 92 ). Nevertheless, the wider mesal lobe in D. albinoi sp. nov., with maximum width at base ±0.33 of sternite width and lateral lobes extending distally to about 0.5 of mesal lobe length, will distinguish it from D. bituberculatum ( Fig. 87 View FIGURES 87 – 92 ; mesal lobe width at base Ĺ0.25 of sternite width and lateral lobes extending distally to about 0.33 of mesal lobe length in D. bituberculatum ; Fig. 88 View FIGURES 87 – 92 ).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality at Reserva Étnica Waorani, Orellana Province, in the Amazonian Forest of Ecuador ( Fig. 93 View FIGURE 93 ).

Biological and ecological data. Probably a canopy dweller species, as material of this species was collected using insecticidal fogging techniques on the canopy of terra firme tall trees.

Etymology. Specific name based on the given name in genitive singular after the retired eminent treehopper specialist Albino Morimasa Sakakibara (Universidade Federal do Paraná), honored in this special issue, in recognition of his huge contribution to our knowledge of treehoppers and related insects.

Remarks. The sternite VII of the only known female may exhibit postmortem distortion due to internal structures of genitalia being fixed while extruded. Even though it was correctly interpreted, we hope a preparation of the terminalia for the forthcoming comparative study of the females of the D. bituberculatum complex will confirm our interpretation of its shape.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History