Olonia Stål, 1862

Constant, Jérôme, 2018, Revision of the Eurybrachidae XIV. The Australian genera Olonia Stål, 1862 and Stalobrachys gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha), European Journal of Taxonomy 486, pp. 1-97: 4-12

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.486

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D587D9-FF9E-4B1D-FD3B-FD1AFAC0FAB2

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scientific name

Olonia Stål, 1862
status

 

Genus Olonia Stål, 1862 

Figs 1–3View Fig. 1View Fig. 2View Fig. 3

Olonia Stål, 1862: 488  (description in key; list of included species; type species: Eurybrachys rubicunda 

Walker, 1851, by subsequent designation in Distant 1906: 206). Lyncilia Stål, 1863: 248  (description) syn. nov. (type species: Lyncilia nobilis Stål, 1863  , by monotypy).

Olonia  – Stål 1863: 250 (description of a new species). — Atkinson 1886: 13 (incomplete English translation of key to genera of Eurybrachidae in Stål 1862  ). — Karsch 1890: 60 (compared with Metoponitys Karsch, 1890  ); 1895: 215 (compared with Aspidonitys Karsch, 1895  ). — Melichar 1903: 67 (placed in a group of eurybrachid genera without a spine under the eye). — Distant 1906: 206 (type species designation, new species), 207 (compared to Yarrana Distant, 1906  ). — Kirkaldy 1907: 105 (listed without comment). — Schmidt 1908: 243 (placed in Platybrachini (= current Platybrachinae)). — Hacker 1924: 40 (compared with Platybrachys Stål, 1859  ; notes on O. viridiventris Stål, 1863  (now in Hackerobrachys Constant, 2006  )). — Metcalf 1936: 131 (senior homonym of Olonia Muir, 1925  ); 1938: 294 (senior homonym of Olonia Muir, 1925  ); 1947: 163 (listed as typical genus of the Australian fauna); 1956: 63 (catalogued). — Fennah 1964: 159 (in key to genera of Platybrachini), 162 (compared with Maon Fennah, 1964  ). — Constant 2005a: 41 (mentioned in historical review of Metoponitys Karsch, 1890  ); 2006a: 47 (mentioned as needing revision); 2006b: 31 (compared with Hackerobrachys Constant, 2006  and Fletcherobrachys Constant, 2006  ).

Lyncilia  – Karsch 1895: 215 (compared with Aspidonitys Karsch, 1895  ). — Schmidt 1908: 243 (placed in the Platybrachini (= current Platybrachinae)). — Metcalf 1956: 68 (catalogued). — Fennah 1964 (synonymized under Platybrachys Stål, 1859  (erroneous)).

non Olonia  – Muir 1925: 161 (new genus of Cixiidae  (junior homonym of Olonia Stål, 1862  )). — Metcalf 1936: 131 ( Muirolonia  as replacement name of Olonia Muir, 1925  in Cixiidae  ); 1938: 294 ( Muirolonia  as replacement name of Olonia Muir, 1925  ( Muirolonia  erroneously stated as being a new genus)).

Diagnosis

Rather small-sized (6–12 mm), dark brown variegated with black and white, tegmina usually with a white marking along costal margin on nodal line and posterior wings usually with a white marking near externoapical angle, sometimes orange on disc. The genus can be recognized by the following set of characters:

(1) gonostyli strongly sclerified and fused basally on about ½ of length

(2) gonostyli divided into a centroventral and a laterodorsal part

(3) gonostyli with laterodorsal part with large lateral process projecting laterally and bearing dorsoapical, articulate, spoon-shaped process

(4) aedeagus strongly reduced with dorsal portion of phallobase projecting dorsally as a spine or hook

The genus shares the condition of possessing a spoon-shaped process on the gonostyli with the Australian genera Chewobrachys Constant, 2008  , Fletcherobrachys Constant, 2006  , Hackerobrachys Constant, 2006  , Maeniana Metcalf, 1952  , Nirus Jacobi, 1928  and Stalobrachys  gen. nov. but differs

– from Chewobrachys  by its smaller size (6–12 mm; 12–16 mm in Chewobrachys  ), the dark brown colour (greyish brown in Chewobrachys  ) and the male gonostyli divided into a centroventral and a laterodorsal part (not divided in Chewobrachys  )

– from Fletcherobrachys  by the bright red abdomen (green to orange in Fletcherobrachys  ), the hind wings brown or with discal orange marking (basal half white in Fletcherobrachys  ), the absence of sexual dimorphism on median tibiae (with externodistal process in females of Fletcherobrachys  ) and the male gonostyli fused only on basal ½ and divided into a centroventral and a laterodorsal part (fused along most of their length and not divided in Fletcherobrachys  )

– from Hackerobrachys  by the frons being brown and slightly convex (bright yellow to red and strongly convex in Hackerobrachys  ), the posterior wings with some white and/or orange markings and rounded apically (uniformly brown with apex subquadrate in Hackerobrachys  ) and the male gonostyli fused only on basal ½ and divided into a centroventral and a laterodorsal part (fused along most of their length and not divided in Hackerobrachys  )

– from Maeniana  by the pygofer having the posterior margin strongly sinuate (with elongate laterodorsal process projecting posteriorly in Maeniana  ), the gonostyli fused on about ½ of their length (not or very shortly fused in Maeniana  ), and the laterodorsal part of the gonostyli with a strong spine or hook and with the lateral process bearing a spoon-shaped process (laterodorsal part elongate and laminate, without spine or hook, and bearing a spoon-shaped process apically in Maeniana  )

– from Nirus  by the frons being slightly convex (concave in Nirus  ), the pygofer broader on the dorsal ¾ (on ventral half in Nirus  ), and the laterodorsal part of the gonostyli with a strong spine or hook and with the lateral process bearing a spoon-shaped process (laterodorsal part of gonostyli large and laterally compressed, not strongly sclerified and without a spine or hook in Nirus  )

– from Stalobrachys  gen.nov. by the narrower posterior wings with LW/BW =1.7–2.0 (1.5 in Stalobrachys  gen. nov.), the pygofer with the posterior margin strongly sinuate (with elongate laterodorsal process projecting posteriorly in Stalobrachys  gen. nov.), the gonostyli fused on about ½ of their length (not or very shortly fused in Stalobrachys  gen. nov.), and the laterodorsal part of the gonostyli with a strong spine or hook and with the lateral process bearing a spoon-shaped process (laterodorsal part elongate and laminate, without spine or hook, and bearing a spoon-shaped process apically in Stalobrachys  gen. nov.)

The genus Loisobrachys Constant, 2008  is known from a single female and was placed close to Hackerobrachys ( Constant 2008b)  . Hence, the males of the genus potentially share the condition of possessing gonostyli with a spoon-shaped process. However, Olonia  can easily be separated from Loisobrachys  by its slightly convex frons (strongly convex in Loisobrachys  ).

Historical review

1. Historical characters recognition review

Olonia  was described by Stål (1862) within a key to the genera of Eurybrachidae  without a spine under the eyes and with the clavus of the tegmina closed. From the key, the following characters could be extrapolated to define Olonia  :

(1) posterior tibiae with 3 lateral spines

(2) frons transverse, with sides angulate

(3) pro- and mesonotum broader than combined length

(4) antennae short, placed under the eye

More recently, a key to the genera of Platybrachini was proposed by Fennah (1964), including Olonia  for which the following distinctive combination of characters could be extrapolated:

(1) tegmina with CuA vein forked close to the nodal line

(2) tegmina with MP vein forked very close to the base

(3) genae without knob-like process under the eye

(4) frons more or less flat, without depressed areas near the base

(5) antennae not surpassing the eyes

(6) genital styles (= gonostyli) of male separated

Characters (2) and (6) are not correct: in Olonia  , the MP is not forked very close to the base and Fennah’s statement probably comes from confusion with the ScP and RP, which diverge very basally, and the gonostyli in the male genitalia are fused basally.

2. Historical species review

Stål (1862) erected the genus Olonia  for three species from Australia, Eurybrachys rubicunda Walker, 1851  , E. apicalis Walker, 1851  and E. transversa Walker, 1858  . The year after, Stål (1863) added one species from Queensland, O. viridiventris Stål, 1863  . Species were progressively added to the genus: O. picea  by Kirkaldy (1906) (Queensland), O. marginata  by Distant (1906) (Queensland), O. alboapicata  and O. nigroapicata  by Jacobi (1928) (Queensland and Western Australia, respectively), and O. ornata  by Lallemand (1928) (Northern Territory). Jacobi (1928) synonymized O. picea Kirkaldy, 1906  with O. transversa ( Walker, 1858)  , a view that I did not follow ( Constant 2005b), restoring O. picea  as a separate species and considering O. transversa  as a nomen dubium because the available specimen labelled as type in BMNH does not match the original description by Walker (1858). One last species, Cicada maura Fabricius, 1775  , was transferred to Olonia  by Evans (1933) after being placed in the genus Eurymela Le Peletier & Serville, 1825  ( Cicadellidae  : Eurymelinae  ) for more than a century. Metcalf (1956) included 9 species in the genus in his catalogue of the Eurybrachidae  . More recently, I transferred O. viridiventris Stål, 1863  to the genus Hackerobrachys Constant, 2006  and synonymized O. nigroapicata Jacobi, 1928  with Fletcherobrachys stillata (Bergroth, 1907)  ( Constant 2006 b).

3. Historical classification review

The genus Olonia  was placed by Schmidt (1908) in the tribe Platybrachini Schmidt, 1908 (equivalent to the present Platybrachinae, as the family Eurybrachidae  was at that time treated as a subfamily of the Fulgoridae  ) based on the following set of characters:

(1) clavus closed, with the claval veins (= Pcu and A1) fused before the apex of the clavus and Pcu +A1 reaching the apex of the clavus

(2) ventral margin of eyes without a spine

Metcalf (1956) placed the genus in the tribe Platybrachini of the Platybrachinae, a view followed by Fennah (1964).

Description

COLOURATION. Head, pro- and mesonotum, and tegmina brown, from pale brown to nearly black, usually variegated with darker and paler areas. Tegmina often with yellowish marking in middle of clavus on vein A1; triangular white marking along costal margin on nodal line, rarely missing; smaller white marking at apicosutural angle, rarely missing; sometimes white marking along costal margin at midlength. Posterior wings brown, usually darker on apical half; sometimes with orange marking in middle; white triangular marking at apicocostal angle, rarely missing. Pro- and mesofemora with 2 pale rings, obsolete in dark species; pro- and mesotibiae with 3 pale rings, obsolete in dark species; metafemora red to brown, darker apically; metatibiae brown. Abdomen and ventral face of thorax bright red; genital segments brown to black; abdominal segment VII white in females.

HEAD. As broad as thorax; vertex 4–5 times as broad as long, concave, with all margins slightly carinate; anterior and posterior margins rounded, parallel; frons about 1.7–1.95 times as broad as long, slightly convex, slightly wrinkled to rugulose, with peridiscal carina slightly marked; upper margin of frons straight in normal view; clypeus slightly surpassing anterior trochanters, elongate, with median carina towards apex; labium reaching hind coxae, with apical segment longer than broad, acuminate, shorter and more slender than penultimate; no infra-ocular spines on genae; ocelli absent; antennae elongate, not surpassing eye, not visible from above; scape about as long as broad, pedicel subcylindrical, elongate, narrowing towards apex.

THORAX. About 1.45 times as broad as combined length of pro- and mesonotum; pronotum about half as long as mesonotum; pronotum with disc weakly wrinkled, carina parallel to anterior margin and with two slightly impressed points on disc; mesonotum with disc weakly wrinkled, median and peridiscal carinae slightly marked.

TEGMINA. Slightly convex in smaller species to nearly flat in the larger ones; curving down at nodal line, often with apex slightly curved upwards; elongate, about 2.1–2.5 times as long as broad; costal margin slightly sinuate; apical margin obliquely rounded; sutural margin slightly oblique after clavus. Venation: veins ScP+RA and RP separated close to base; first fork of MPAbout MP on basal ½; first fork of CuA slightly before apex of clavus; clavus closed; Pcu and A1 fused at ¾ of clavus length; Pcu+A1 reaching apical angle of clavus; numerous elongate cells along posterior half of costal margin and along apical margin.

POSTERIOR WINGS ( Fig. 1AView Fig. 1). Well developed, about as broad as tegmina, rounded apically; moderately narrow: LW/BW = 1.7–2.0; anal area moderately developed; sutural margin weakly trilobous; not reaching apex of tegmina at rest; dark brown to black, with apicosutural triangular white spot, rarely missing; sometimes with central, small to very large, orange marking. All main veins visible from base, forked after nodal line and sometimes forming closed cells; transverse veinlets delimiting elongate cells on apical ½; veins A1 and A2 sometimes with 2–3 terminals. Arrangement of secondary veins and veinlets variable between specimens and sometimes between the two wings of the same specimen.

LEGS. Pro- and mesofemora and -tibiae dorsoventrally flattened, elongate and slender; metatibiae with 3 lateral and 9 apical spines; first metatarsomere ventrally with pad of microsetae at interno-apical angle and group of 6 spines ( Fig. 1BView Fig. 1). Metatibiotarsal formula: (3) 9/4/0.

MALE GENITALIA. Pygofer rather short, higher than long and sinuate in lateral view; posterior margin roundly projecting at dorsal ½. Anal tube dorsoventrally flattened, elongate, with lateral margins usually curved lateroventrally; epiproct at basal ½. Gonostyli fused basally, well sclerified, deeply divided in centroventral and laterodorsal parts, elongate and spinose or sword-shaped; laterodorsal part with strong spine or hook, sometimes bifid, and with large lateral process projecting laterad and bearing dorsoapical, articulate, spoon-shaped process. Aedeagus strongly reduced; dorsal portion of phallobase point- or hook-shaped; ventral portion of phallobase as more or less reduced, sclerified lamina; phallus membranous, dorsoventrally flattened.

FEMALE TERMINALIA ( Fig. 2View Fig. 2) (based on O. marginata  ). Abdominal segment VI slightly broader apically and with posterior margin largely emarginate medially in ventral view, and with a small process projecting lateroventrally on each side of emargination ( Fig. 2CView Fig. 2); anal tube elongate and narrow, curved postero-ventrad, v-shaped in cross section beyond anus, lanceolate in dorsal view ( Fig. 2A–B, D–EView Fig. 2); gonoplacs unilobed, projecting dorsolaterad, longer than high, not surpassing anal tube ( Fig. 2A–B, D–EView Fig. 2); gonapophysis IX large, elongate, apically rounded and curved dorsad ( Fig. 2 A – B, D– EView Fig. 2); gonocoxae VIII resembling reniform inflated pouch ( Fig. 2 A – EView Fig. 2); gonapophysis VIII dorsoventrally flattened and fused together and with sternite VII in a large semicircular lobe slightly emarginate apically ( Fig. 2 A – EView Fig. 2); anterior vagina small and membranous; posterior vagina strongly sclerified, dorsoventrally flattened, short and broad basally, constricted and subtriangular distally ( Fig. 2DView Fig. 2); bursa copulatrix attached posterodorsally, oval, much larger than posterior vagina ( Fig. 2D– EView Fig. 2); walls bearing weak, longitudinally reticulated ornamentation ( Fig. 2D– EView Fig. 2).

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM. Females slightly larger than males. Colour dimorphism also present, in different patterns according to species, sometimes combined:

(1) white markings on anterior and posterior wings more developed in males

(2) orange marking on posterior wing larger in males

(3) apical margin of tegmina and posterior wings bordered with white in females, not in males

SIZE. ♁: 6.2–10.1 mm; ♀: 7.2–11.2 mm.

Distribution

Australia: eastern and northern Queensland, also on islands ( Fig. 3View Fig. 3).

Biology

According to the available data, species of Olonia  seem to be present all year round and to be polyphagous, living on plants close to the ground. They were recorded from plants in the families Bursaceae, Convolvulaceae  , Myrtaceae  , Solanaceae  , Urticaceae  and Vitaceae  . Known habitats range from open forests to beaches. All species seem to have a rather restricted distribution. Species of Olonia  are present in all bioregions included in the distribution range of the genus ( Fig. 3 BView Fig. 3).

Species included (12)

O. bourgoini  sp. nov.

O. danielsi  sp. nov.

O. guillaumei  sp.nov.

O. hochae  sp. nov.

O. marginata Distant, 1906 

O. maura ( Fabricius, 1775) 

O. monteithi  sp. nov.

O. nobilis ( Stål, 1863)  comb. nov.

O. picea Kirkaldy, 1906 

O. rubicunda ( Walker, 1851) 

O. rylandae  sp. nov.

O. soulierae  sp. nov.

Remarks

Olonia apicalis ( Walker, 1851)  and Olonia ornata Lallemand, 1928  are here excluded from Olonia  and transferred to Maeniana Metcalf, 1952  and Platybrachys Stål, 1859  , respectively (see below).

Identification key to the species of Olonia 

The following key uses the characters of the male genitalia; O. rubicunda ( Walker, 1851)  is not included, as it is only known from a single female. Females should not be identified unless a male from the same collecting event is available to support the identification.

1. Process of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli bifid ( Figs 30DView Fig. 30, 33DView Fig. 33)................................................2 – Process of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli not bifid ( Figs 5DView Fig. 5, 10DView Fig. 10, 19DView Fig. 19)...................................4

2. Process of the centroventral part of gonostyli with several teeth apically ( Fig. 30CView Fig. 30) ...................... ................................................................................................................. O. maura ( Fabricius, 1775) 

– Process of the centroventral part of gonostyli without teeth apically ( Figs 33CView Fig. 33, 42CView Fig. 42)..................3

3. Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli convergent apically, subequal in length and surpassing process of centroventral part in ventral view ( Fig. 42A, C–DView Fig. 42) ... O. picea ( Kirkaldy, 1906) 

– Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli slightly diverging apically with dorsal one shorter than ventral one, and not reaching level of apex of process of centroventral part in ventral view ( Fig. 33A, C–DView Fig. 33) .................................................................................................. O. monteithi  sp. nov.

4. Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli surpassing processes of centroventral part in ventral view ( Figs 19CView Fig. 19, 46CView Fig. 46)...........................................................................................................5

– Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli shorter than processes of centroventral part in ventral view ( Figs 5CView Fig. 5, 10CView Fig. 10, 37CView Fig. 37)....................................................................................................6

5. Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli strongly sinuate with central portion straight ( Fig. 46A, CView Fig. 46) ................................................................................................. O. rylandae  sp. nov.

– Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli strongly and regularly curved ventrally ( Fig. 19A, CView Fig. 19) ............................................................................................................ O. marginata Distant, 1906 

6. Anal tube elongate and narrow, more than 3 times as long as broad, with sides subparallel ( Figs 5BView Fig. 5, 10BView Fig. 10) ....................................................................................................................................................7

– Anal tube broader, less than 2.5 times as long as broad, with sides curved ( Figs 8BView Fig. 8, 37BView Fig. 37)...........9

7. Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli falcate, broader at midlength and incurved ( Fig. 5A, C–DView Fig. 5) .................................................................................................................... O. bourgoini  sp. nov.

– Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli regularly narrowing from base to apex and not incurved ( Fig. 10A, C–DView Fig. 10)...................................................................................................................8

8. Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli curved laterally ( Fig. 10C–DView Fig. 10); process of centroventral part of gonostyli with ventral margin convex in lateral view ( Fig. 10AView Fig. 10) ............................... .......................................................................................................................... O. guillaumei  sp. nov.

– Processes of the laterodorsal part of gonostyli curved ventrally ( Fig. 13C–DView Fig. 13); process of centroventral part of gonostyli with ventral margin slightly concave in lateral view ( Fig. 13AView Fig. 13) ................ ............................................................................................................................... O. hochae  sp. nov.

9. Anal tube with apical margin notched and lateral margins subparallel beyond epiproct ( Fig. 48BView Fig. 48); process of centroventral part of gonostyli very elongate and narrow ( Fig. 48A, CView Fig. 48) ........................... ............................................................................................................................. O. soulierae  sp. nov.

– Anal tube with apical margin not notched and lateral margins not subparallel beyond epiproct ( Figs 8BView Fig. 8, 37BView Fig. 37); process of centroventral part of gonostyli not very elongate and narrow ( Figs 8A, CView Fig. 8, 37A, CView Fig. 37).............................................................................................................................................10

10. Processes of the centroventral part of gonostyli incurved and slightly surpassing processes of lateroventral part in ventral view ( Fig. 37CView Fig. 37); anal tube regularly narrowing beyond epiproct ( Fig. 37BView Fig. 37) ..................................................................................................... O. nobilis ( Stål, 1863) 

– Processes of the centroventral part of gonostyli strongly hooked dorsally at apex and strongly surpassing processes of lateroventral part in ventral view ( Fig. 8CView Fig. 8); anal tube broadening beyond epiproct to ¾ of its length ( Fig. 8BView Fig. 8) .................................................................... O. danielsi  sp. nov.

MP

Transvaal Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Eurybrachidae

Loc

Olonia Stål, 1862

Constant, Jérôme 2018

2018
Loc

Olonia Stål, 1862 : 488

Stål, 1862 : 488

Loc

Olonia

Stål 1863 : 250 Atkinson 1886 : 13 Karsch 1890 : 60 1895 : 215 Melichar 1903 : 67 Distant 1906 : 206 Kirkaldy 1907 : 105 Schmidt 1908 : 243 Hacker 1924 : 40 Metcalf 1936 : 131 Fennah 1964 : 159 Constant 2005a : 41

Loc

Lyncilia

Karsch 1895 : 215 Schmidt 1908 : 243 Metcalf 1956 : 68