Acanthephyra eximia, S.I.Smith, 1884

Cardoso, Irene & Contents, Paulo Young Table Of, 2005, Deep-sea Oplophoridae (Crustacea Caridea) from the southwestern Brazil, Zootaxa 1031 (1), pp. 1-76: 14-20

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1031.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BDBAFE95-EF09-4574-9308-B8F39657CD1E

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D05B22-FFB2-A22F-FE9E-FDCE4E7D0D43

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Acanthephyra eximia
status

 

Acanthephyra eximia   Smith, 1884

( Figs 8–13 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 )

Acanthephyra eximia   Smith, 1884: 376; 1886: 63, pl. 14, fig. 1.

Acanthephyra angusta Bate, 1888: 737   , pl.12, fig. 6.

Acanthephyra edwardsii Bate, 1888: 747   , pl. 124, fig. 1; Moreira, 1901: 10.

Acanthephyra brachytelsonis Bate, 1888: 753   , pl. 126, fig. 7.

Acanthephyra eximia   – Crosnier & Forest, 1973: 34, fig. 7c–d; Chace, 1986: 18, figs 2j, 4j, 5j, 6h, 9A; Ramos & Coelho, 1988: 326; Tavares, 1999: 675.

Material examined: Revizee Program: D­0503, 19°39’S, 38°38’W, 740m, 3 females (22.5 to 34mm), MNRJ 13771 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; D­0504, 19°42’S, 38°36’W, 278m, 1 ovigerous female (41mm), 5 females (38 to 44.5mm), MNRJ 13772 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; D­0505, 19°43’S, 38°38’W, 1089m, 1 female (34mm), 1 male (21mm), MNRJ 13773 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; D0506, 19°42’S, 38°36’W, 1067m, 5 females (25 to 42mm), 1 male (27mm), MNRJ 13774 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0535, 19°58'S, 39°35'W, 1002m, 23 ovigerous females (31 to 43mm), 20 females (20 to 46mm), 18 males (21 to 40mm), MNRJ 14821 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0548, 21°28’S, 39°40’W, 1799m, 1 ovigerous female (40mm), 1 male (21.5mm), MNRJ 14822 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0527, 19°50’S, 39°10’W, 1402m, 1 female (39mm), 2 males (42, 45mm), MNRJ 14823 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0552, 21°07’S, 39°46’W, 1694m, 1 male (35mm), MNRJ 14824 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0505, 14°36’S, 38°49’W, 1089m, 1 ovigerous female (38mm), 2 females (38, 26mm), 1 male (25mm), MNRJ 14825 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0507, 15°08’S, 38°40’W, 1026m, 1 ovigerous female (39mm), 2 females (26, 28mm), 1 male (44 mm), MNRJ 14826 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0524, 19°43’S, 38°39’W, 925m, 4 females (32 to39mm), 3 males (23 to 32mm), MNRJ 14827 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0523, 19°42’S, 38°32’W, 922m, 3 ovigerous females (36.5 to 44mm), 4 females (38 to 41mm), MNRJ 14828 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0544, 21°24’S, 40°02’W, 1159m, 7 males (38 to 42mm), MNRJ 14829 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E ­0512, 15°50’S, 38°02’W, 1043m, 1 female (26mm), 4 males (22 to 39mm), MNRJ 14830 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0506, 14°36’S, 38°49’W, 1067m, 1 ovigerous female (39mm), 17 females (21 to 38mm), 11 males (25 to 41mm), MNRJ 14831 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0536, 20°24’S, 39°46’W, 1293m, 1 ovigerous female (32mm), 2 females (37, 41mm), 4 males (40.5 to 42.5mm), MNRJ 14832 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E0538, 19°45’S, 39°03’W, 1237m, 1 ovigerous female (42mm), 3 males (30 to 43mm), MNRJ 14833 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0537, 20°26’S, 39°41’W, 1545m, 1 juvenile (18mm), MNRJ 14834 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0517, 13°22’S, 38°36’W, 750m, 1 ovigerous female (38mm), 6 females (30 to 39mm), 2 males (31, 36mm), MNRJ 14836 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0550, 21°26’S, 39°49’W, 1598m, 1 ovigerous female (44mm), 2 males (41, 44mm), MNRJ 14838 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0529, 19°48’S, 39°02’W, 1639m, 1 ovigerous female (41mm), 3 males (38 to 43mm), MNRJ 14839 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­ 0525, 20°08’S, 38°38’W, 1 ovigerous female (42mm), 1 male (32mm), MNRJ 14840 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­ 0522, 13°30’S, 38°38’W, 1144m, 4 ovigerous females (32 to 40mm), 3 females (28 to 34mm), 1 male (39mm), MNRJ 14844 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0496, 13°17’S, 38°17’W, 1717m, 1 female (22mm), MNRJ 14846 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0526, 20°06’S, 38°40’W, 1637m, 1 male (41.5mm), MNRJ 14847 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; E­0497, 13°13’S, 38°19’W, 1374m, 1 ovigerous female (38mm), 2 males (33, 39mm), MNRJ 14849 View Materials GoogleMaps   . Other material: Seychelles Island, 04°08'S, 56°11.3'W, 580m, 3 specimens (without pleopods) (23 to 36mm), MNRJ 18640 View Materials GoogleMaps   ; East coast of Taiwan, 25°2.2'S, 122°21.3'W, 1170m, 1 male (21mm), MNRJ 18641 View Materials GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis: Carapace with rostrum overreaching scaphocerite, ventral margin with three, occasionally four teeth; antennal spine present; branchiostegal spine present, without distinct carina. Abdomen dorsally carinate on all somite but somite 1; somites 1 to 4 with posteromesial tooth, the one of somite 3 distinctly strong. Male pleopod 1 with endopod, rounded, with numerous stout setae on proximal to mesial portion, distal lobe with numerous hook setae; male pleopod 2 with appendix interna, little more than half length of appendix masculina, with densely plumose setae on lateral margins and slightly triangular shape on distal portion; appendix masculina with pectinate setae on distal and lateral margins.

Description: Eyestalk with an ocellus on medio­distal portion ( Fig. 8B View FIGURE 8 ). Carapace with rostrum about 3/4 length of carapace, overreaching scaphocerite, ventral margin convex, with three, occasionally four teeth, dorsal margin with seven to eight teeth ( Fig. 9A–C View FIGURE 9 ); dorsal margin sharply carinate throughout entire length, distinctly sinuous in lateral view; antennal spine present; with small branchiostegal spine, without distinct carina; supraorbital and pterygostomian spine absent; conspicuous cervical groove; suprabranchial carina distinct ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ). Stylocerite triangular, reaching 2/3 of first antennular peduncle article, apex acute ( Fig. 8C View FIGURE 8 ). Scaphocerite with blunt apex, densely plumose setae on inner margin and a distal tooth that distinctly overreaches blade ( Fig. 8D View FIGURE 8 ). Mandible with palp three­articulated, incisor process with about nine teeth, molar process rounded and blunt, with a row of small setae and a tubercle ( Fig. 10A, B View FIGURE 10 ). Maxilla 1 with two endites, distal endite with numerous stout setae on inner margin; basal endite with pectinate and densely plumose setae on inner margin; palp unarmed on rounded apex, and with four stout setae on a protuberance ( Fig. 10C View FIGURE 10 ). Maxilla 2 with two endites, distal endite bilobed, both lobe with long, stout, pectinate setae on inner margins; basal endite rounded, with densely plumose setae on inner margin; endopod as long as endite length, with pappose­pectinate setae on apex; scaphognathite with densely plumose setae on all margins ( Fig. 10D View FIGURE 10 ). Maxilliped 1 with two endites, distal endite with pappose setae on distal margin, and pectinate setae on inner margin; basal endite with pappose setae on inner margin; endopod three­articulated, longer than distal endite, with several pappose setae on apex and simple setae on inner margin; exopodal lobe with densely plumose setae in all margins ( Fig. 10E View FIGURE 10 ). Maxilliped 2, endopod with elongate ischium and merus with scattered plumose setae on inner margin; carpus short; propod rounded with long, stout, pectinate setae on inner margin; dactyl with long, stout, pectinate setae on inner margin; exopod elongate, with densely plumose setae on all margins ( Fig. 10F View FIGURE 10 ). Maxilliped 3 slender and elongate, propod­dactyl with stout setae on apex; exopod with densely plumose setae on all margins ( Fig. 10G View FIGURE 10 ). Pereopods 1 and 2 chelate. Pereopods 3 to 5 with fringes of setae on ischium and merus. Pereopods 3 and 4, merus with about ten stout setae on inner margin. Pereopod 5, merus with about five stout setae on inner margin ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ). Epipods with mesial teeth, present on pereopods 1 to 3 ( Fig. 11A, B View FIGURE 11 ). Abdomen dorsally carinate on all somites, but somite 1; somites 3 to 6 with posteromesial tooth; the one of somite 3 distinctly strong; somite 6 at least 1 ½ times long as height ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ). Male pleopod 1, endopod rounded, with numerous stout setae on proximal to mesial portion, densely plumose setae on posterior margin and a distal lobe with numerous hook setae ( Fig. 11C View FIGURE 11 ). Pleopod 2 with appendix masculina long and slender, with numerous strong acute pectinate setae on distal portion; appendix interna little longer than half length of appendix masculina, with a slightly triangular shape on distal portion, and densely plumose setae on lateral margins ( Fig. 11D View FIGURE 11 ). Female pleopod 1, endopod leaf shaped, with densely plumose setae on posterior margin ( Fig. 11E View FIGURE 11 ). Exopod of uropod with complete diaresis, and one distal spine on outer margin ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ). Telson not sulcate in dorsal midline; with four pairs of dorsolateral stout setae, and three pairs of distal setae, median stronger ( Fig. 12B View FIGURE 12 ).

Distribution: Cosmopolitan: Western Atlantic: from Cape Hatteras to Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, Brazil (Sergipe to Rio de Janeiro). Eastern and Central Atlantic: France (Gulf of Gascogne), Spain (Bay of Cadix), near Gibraltar, Azores, Madeira and Canary Archipelagos. Indian and Pacific: from Southeastern Africa to Japan, Hawaii and New Zealand. Adults probably live in depths between 200 and 4700 m ( Bate 1888; Chace 1986; Tavares 1999).

Remarks: This species is widely distributed in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic. Was previously recorded from Brazilian waters in Espírito Santo ( Tavares 1999) and Alagoas ( Bate 1888) ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ).

The specimens examined agrees with the descriptions of Chace (1940, 1986) and Crosnier & Forest (1973) in the carapace being dorsally carinate on entire length; absence of a branchiostegal groove, cervical groove and suprabranchial carina present; abdominal somites 2 to 6 dorsally carinate; abdominal somites 3 to 6 with dorsal tooth and dorsal tooth of abdominal somite 3 stronger than the others. However, Chace (1940, 1986) states that the rostrum ventral surface has one to five teeth, and the material examined herein has only three or four teeth. According to Wood­Mason & Alcock (1892), the female of A. eximia   has a rostrum longer and more styliform than the male; this sexual dimorphism was also observed in the present material.

Crosnier & Forest (1973) compared specimens of A. eximia   from Africa and from Brazil ( USNM) and no conspicuous morphological differences were found. Herein, specimens of A eximia   from Brazil (Atlantic) were compared with specimens from Archipelago Seychelles and from Taiwan (Pacific) and some rostrum variation were observed: in the Seychelles specimens the number of dorsal teeth on rostrum range from five to six, in Taiwan specimen, there are nine dorsal teeth on rostrum, while in Brazilian specimens the dorsal teeth on rostrum range from seven to eigth. Furthermore, the Seychelles and the Brazilian specimens have four pairs of dorsolateral stout setae on telson, while in the Taiwan specimen the telson has five dorsolateral stout setae at one side and four on the other.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Decapoda

Family

Oplophoridae

Genus

Acanthephyra

Loc

Acanthephyra eximia

Cardoso, Irene & Contents, Paulo Young Table Of 2005
2005
Loc

Acanthephyra eximia

Tavares, M. 1999: 675
Chace, F. A. 1986: 18
Crosnier, A. & Forest, J. 1973: 34
1973
Loc

Acanthephyra angusta

Bate, C. S. 1888: 737
1888
Loc

Acanthephyra edwardsii

Moreira, C. 1901: 10
Bate, C. S. 1888: 747
1888
Loc

Acanthephyra brachytelsonis

Bate, C. S. 1888: 753
1888