Neoxyphinus Birabén, 1953

Abrahim, Naiara, Brescovit, Antonio D., Rheims, Cristina A., Santos, Adalberto J., Ott, Ricardo & Bonaldo, Alexandre B., 2012, A Revision of the Neotropical Goblin Spider Genus Neoxyphinus Birabén, 1953 (Araneae, Oonopidae), American Museum Novitates 2012 (3743), pp. 1-76 : 6-18

publication ID 10.1206/3743.2

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scientific name

Neoxyphinus Birabén


Neoxyphinus Birabén

Neoxyphinus Birabén, 1953: 454 (type species by original designation, Neoxyphinus ogloblini Birabén, 1953 ).

Decuana Dumitrescu and Georgescu, 1987: 92 (type species by original designation, Decuana hispida Dumitrescu and Georgescu, 1987 ). NEW SYNONYMY.

Hawkeswoodoonops Makhan and Ezzatpanah, 2011: 1 (type species by original designation, Hawkeswoodoonops trevori Makhan and Ezzatpanah, 2011 ). NEW SYNONYMY.

DIAGNOSIS: Species of Neoxyphinus differ from other members of the Dysderina complex, with which they share the palpal bulb strongly inflated, completely fused to cymbium (figs. 37–40), by the absence of femur I spines in males (figs. 32, 109, 199) and the presence of at most two such spines in females (fig. 212); embolus a compact, S-shaped subapical sclerite, with an excavated base and an apical projection (figs. 41–48); ejaculatory opening large, round, located prolaterally (figs. 49, 147, 256, 290) or apically (fig. 327). They further differ from those of Scaphidysderina by the absence of a crenulated sternum and from those of Dysderina , Simonoonops , and Costarina by the absence of sternal transversal raised ridges (figs. 124, 155, 237, 263, 334). Along with the above characters, Neoxyphinus can be recognized by the presence of a procurved set of setae on carapace posterior surface, which originate from small, low tubercles (figs. 5–8) or from large spikes (figs. 9–12); male endites with an apical, retrolateral excavation bearing a subapical toothlike, curved apophysis, accompanied by a single modified setae and a slit sensillum (figs. 25–30); epigynal atrium large, ellipsoid, strongly rebordered, with angular lateral margins (figs. 50, 102, 133, 274).

Figs. 1–4. Neoxyphinus and Dysderina , males. 1, 2. Neoxyphinus gregoblin , new species; carapace spikes and abdominal denticles, lateral view. 3, 4. N. petroglobin , new species; same.

DESCRIPTION: Total length 1.49–3.33. Cephalothorax: Carapace without any color pattern, ovoid in dorsal view (figs. 11, 333), pars cephalica slightly elevated in lateral view (figs. 1, 3, 169), narrowed anteriorly between 0.5 and 0.75 times its maximum width, with rounded posterolateral corners (figs. 105, 136, 261), posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, anterolateral corners without extension or projections, posterolateral surface without spikes ( N. hispidus , N. furtivus , N. boibumba , N. barreirosi , N. keyserlingi , figs. 5–8, 222, 246, 318); with two pairs of spikes ( N. termitophilus , N. petrogoblin , N. gregoblin , figs. 9–11, 130, 140, 193) or three pairs of spikes ( N. xyphinoides , N. axe , figs. 12, 56, 69, 70, 87), surface and sides of elevated portion of pars cephalica smooth ( N. axe , N. gregoblin , N. petrogoblin , N. hispidus , N. boibumba , N. barreirosi , figs. 94, 120, 185, 198, 219, 236, 261), reticulate ( N. furtivus , fig. 297) or granulate ( N. termitophilus , N. keyserlingi , figs. 153, 333), carapace without depressions, fovea absent, without radiating rows of pits; lateral margin straight, rebordered, generally with a line of blunt tubercles (figs. 87, 120, 184, 262), except in N. furtivus and N. keyserlingi (figs. 297, 332); plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; marginal and nonmarginal setae light colored, needlelike, scattered, in both pars cephalica and pars thoracica regions. Clypeus margin unmodified (figs. 221, 262, 317) or rebordered (fig. 122); high, straight (fig. 96) or sinuous (fig. 122) in frontal view, vertical in lateral view (fig. 95), setae present, light colored, needlelike; ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection absent. Chilum absent. Six eyes, well developed, ALE largest, circular, PME squared, PLE circular, posterior eye row straight from above, procurved from front; ALE separated by less than their radius (except by their radius to diameter in N. keyserlingi ), ALE-PLE juxtaposed, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME juxtaposed. Sternum uniformly colored, generally as long as wide, longer than wide in N. xyphinoides , N. petrogoblin , N. gregoblin , and N. axe ; fused to carapace, median concavity generally absent (present only in N. xyphinoides , fig. 57), with radial furrows between coxae I–II, II–III, III–IV; surface generally smooth (medially wrinkled in N. keyserlingi , fig. 334; with median row of large shallow pits in N. gregoblin , fig. 124; with a median field of small pits in N. barreirosi , fig. 263, and N. furtivus , fig. 301), sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin with continuous transverse groove or unmodified, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV, anterior corners unmodified, lateral margin without infracoxal grooves, distance between coxae approximately equal, precoxal triangles present, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump; almost glabrous, setae sparse, light colored, needlelike, evenly scattered or marginal, originating from small tubercles, without hair tufts. Chelicerae slightly divergent, anterior face unmodified; with one tooth on both promargin and retromargin, distal region unmodified, posterior surface unmodified, promargin with row of flattened setae, paturon inner margin with a field of medial denticles (figs. 20–22, 123), laminate groove absent, setae light colored, needlelike, evenly scattered, also with some plumose setae; fang without toothlike projections, directed medially, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified (figs. 19, 23, 24). Labium rectangular, not fused to sternum, anterior margin not indented at middle, same as sternum in sclerotization; with six or more setae on anterior Figs. 5–12. Carapace, posterior view, males. 5. Neoxyphinus furtivus (Chickering) . 6. N. keyserlingi (Simon) . 7. N. boibumba , new species. 8. N. barreirosi , new species. 9. N. termitophilus (Bristowe) . 10. N. petrogoblin , new species. 11. N. gregoblin , new species. 12. N. axe , new species.

margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae (figs. 31, 89). Labrum triangular (fig. 122). Endites distally excavated in males (figs. 25–30), with single-slit sensilla on the base of distal excavation and a retrolateral subapical toothlike, curved apophysis; a single modified setae generally inserted in the base of apophysis (but in the body of apophysis in N. axe and N. keyserlingi , figs. 28, 30), serrula absent, anteromedian tip and posteromedian part unmodified, same as sternum in sclerotization. Abdomen: Ovoid, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly (figs. 74, 141, 202, 284, 309, 320), interscutal membrane without sclerotized platelets; dorsum soft portions pale orange, without color pattern. Book lung covers large, ovoid or elliptical, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified or with small tubercles. Both anterior and posterior pairs of spiracles connected by grooves (figs. 93, 112, 127). Internally, anterior spiracles leading to reduced booklungs; posterior spiracles leading to large tracheal trunks directed anteriorly toward pedicel; base of tracheal trunk with short extension directed posteriorly, branching to many long tracheoles (figs. 51–54, 216). Pedicel tube medium sized (nearly as long as high), ribbed (figs. 13–18), scuto-pedicel region unmodified, scutum extending far dorsal of pedicel, plumose hairs absent, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent. Dorsal scutum strongly sclerotized, without color pattern, covering full length of abdomen, no soft tissue visible from above, not fused to epigastric scutum, middle surface and sides smooth (but reticulate in N. furtivus , figs. 298, 299); anterior half projecting denticles present in males of N. gregoblin , N. termitophilus , N. petrogoblin , N. hispidus , and N. boibumba (figs. 126, 157, 187, 203, 240); strong projecting denticles absent in females. In N. axe , anterior setae sockets blunt (fig. 91). Epigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, not protruding, small lateral sclerites absent, often with blunt setae sockets in anterior surface (figs. 92, 157, 241). Postepigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, orange-brown, long, semicircular, covering nearly full length of abdomen, fused to epigastric scutum, anterior margin unmodified, with posteriorly directed lateral apodemes. Spinneret and supraanal scuta absent. Dorsal, epigastric, and postepigastric setae present, light colored, needlelike. Dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent. Interscutal membrane with setae. Spinneret: ALS with three or four spigots, PMS with three spigots, PLS with at least six spigots (only male of N. termitophilus surveyed, fig. 36). Legs: Without color pattern; femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I shorter than carapace (or nearly as long as carapace in N. xyphinoides ), tibia I unmodified, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex absent, tibia IV ventral scopula absent, metatarsi I and II mesoapical comb absent, metatarsi III and IV ventral scopula absent. Leg spines present on tibia and metatarsus, also on femur I in females of N. furtivus and N. hispidus (one and two prolateral spines, respectively, fig. 212). Legs I and II with spines longer than leg segment width (fig. 32); leg III with spines shorter and thinner than those of legs I and II, present only in females of N. petrogoblin , N. axe , and N. furtivus ; leg IV without spines. All metatarsi with one apical trichobothrium, hood covered by numerous low, closely spaced ridges (fig. 33, only N. boibumba surveyed). Tarsal organ a rounded, rebordered subapical depression, with four visible sensilla: Two large, well separated, posteriorly positioned and two small contiguous, anteriorly positioned (fig. 34, only Figs. 13–18. Abdomen and pedicel, lateral view, males. 13. Neoxyphinus boibumba , new species. 14. N. barreirosi , new species 15. N. petrogoblin , new species. 16. N. axe , new species. 17. N. furtivus (Chickering) . 18. N. keyserlingi (Simon) .

Figs. 19–24. Chelicerae, posterior view. 19, 20. Neoxyphinus petrogoblin , new species. 21. N. gregoblin , new species. 22. N. boibumba , new species. 23. N. furtivus (Chickering) . 24. N. keyserlingi (Simon) .

Figs. 25–30. Male endites, ventral view. 25. Neoxyphinus termitophilus (Bristowe) . 26. N. boibumba , new species. 27. N. barreirosi , new species. 28. N. axe , new species. 29. N. furtivus (Chickering) . 30. Neoxyphinus keyserlingi (Simon) .

Figs. 31–36. 31, 32, 36: Neoxyphinus termitophilus (Bristowe) ; 33, 34: N. boibumba , new species; 35: Neoxyphinus axe , new species. 31. Labium, ventral view. 32. Leg I, prolateral view. 33. Metatarsus I, apical trichobothrium, dorsal view. 34. Tarsus I, tarsal organ, dorsal view. 35. Tarsus II, claw, lateral view. 36. Spinnerets, posterior view.

Figs. 37–40. Male palpus. 37. Neoxyphinus termitophilus (Bristowe) , left palp, ventral view. 38. N. boibumba , new species, right palp, ventral view. 39. N. barreirosi , new species, left palp, ventral view. 40. N. keyserlingi (Simon) , same, ventral view.

N. boibumba surveyed). Genitalia: Male epigastric region with sperm pore small, oval, unmodified, situated between anterior and posterior spiracles ( N. termitophilus , N. boibumba , N. furtivus , N. gregoblin ) or at level of anterior spiracles; furrow without Ω-shaped insertions, without setae. Palp not strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical (fig. 242); trochanter normal size, unmodified; femur twice as long or longer than trochanter, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella shorter than femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; cymbium ovoid in dorsal view, completely fused with bulb, no seam visible, extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose and stout setae absent, with distal patch of setae (figs. 37–40); embolus dark, compact, with a ventral excavation and apical projection (figs. 41–48), accessory prolateral lamellae well developed in N. petrogoblin , N. gregoblin , N. axe (figs. 44–46) and N. xyphinoides (fig. 63), less developed in N. termitophilus and N. furtivus (figs. 41, 47), absent in N. keyserlingi , N. boibumba , N. barreirosi (figs. 42, 43, 48), and N. hispidus . Male ejaculatory opening large, round, generally located Figs. 41–46. Left embolus, ventral view. 41. Neoxyphinus termitophilus (Bristowe) . 42. N. boibumba , new species. 43. N. barreirosi , new species. 44. N. petrogoblin , new species. 45. N. gregoblin , new species. 46. N. axe , new species.

Figs. 47–54. 47. Neoxyphinus furtivus (Chickering) , left embolus, ventral view. 48. N. keyserlingi (Simon) , same. 49–51. Neoxyphinus termitophilus (Bristowe) . 49. Left embolus, apical view. 50. Female epigynum, ventral view. 51. Internal female genitalia, dorsal view. 52. N. axe , new species, same. 53. N. petrogoblin , new species, same. 54. N. barreirosi , new species, same.

prolaterally (figs. 49, 256), but located apically in N. keyserlingi (fig. 327). Sperm duct wide (figs. 84, 118, 182, 294). Female genitalia with a large elliptical atrium with angled laterals. Atrial margins strongly rebordered (fig. 50). Internally with a median elongated element (anterior sclerite, in Burger, 2011) and long lateral apodemes (figs. 51–54, 102, 133, 166, 197, 274, 312, 344). According to Burger (2011; N. termitophilus sub N. ogloblini ), genital opening slitlike, placed anteriorly to posterior border of atrium; atrium covered by a thin sclerotized plate; anterior sclerite emerging internally from the plate, through thick chitin layer, serving as attachment surface for muscles but with lumen connected to uterus externus; uterus externus leading, through long insertion duct, to large, single receptaculum (fig. 216; see Burger, 2011: 125, figs. 1A, B, 3A, B, 4A, B, for complete description).

NATURAL HISTORY: Specimens of Neoxyphinus are found in forest litter and are collected mostly with pitfall traps, Berlese funnels and Winkler extractors. Some specimens of N. gregoblin were collected with carrion traps (baited pitfall traps). Bristowe (1938), dealing with termitophilous spiders, reported that the type series of Neoxyphinus termitophilus was collected in nest galleries of Nasutitermes arenarius (Hagen and Bates) , while the holotype of Dysderina rugosa (here synonymized with N. keyserlingi Simon ) was found in nest galleries of Neocapritermes opacus (Hagen) . Additionally, one female (PBI_ OON 11979 View Materials ) of N. axe , n. sp., was labeled as having been collected in a nest of Nasutitermes sp. , at Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. However, several specimens of these three species are here recorded from the leaf litter, suggesting that these spiders are capable of occupying termite nests but are not restricted to that microhabitat.

DISTRIBUTION: Caribbean and South America, from Jamaica, Trinidad, and Venezuela to northwestern Argentina and southern Brazil (map 1).

UNRECOGNIZABLE SPECIES: Neoxyphinus trevori ( Makhan and Ezzatpanah, 2011) , new combination, and Neoxyphinus rishwani ( Makhan and Ezzatpanah, 2011) , new combination, are here considered nomina dubia.












Neoxyphinus Birabén

Abrahim, Naiara, Brescovit, Antonio D., Rheims, Cristina A., Santos, Adalberto J., Ott, Ricardo & Bonaldo, Alexandre B. 2012


Makhan, D. & S. Ezzatpanah 2011: 1


Dumitrescu, M. & M. Georgescu 1987: 92

Neoxyphinus Birabén, 1953: 454

Biraben, M. 1953: 454