Hoplopholcus minous Senglet, 1971,

Huber, Bernhard A., 2020, Revision of the spider genus Hoplopholcus Kulczyński (Araneae, Pholcidae), Zootaxa 4726 (1), pp. 1-94: 26-31

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Hoplopholcus minous Senglet, 1971


Hoplopholcus minous Senglet, 1971 

Figs 10–11View FIGURES 6–11, 92–117View FIGURES 92–97View FIGURES 98–105View FIGURES 106–111View FIGURES 112–117, 130–135View FIGURES 130–141

Hoplopholcus minous Senglet, 1971: 350  , figs 27–36 (♂ ♀). Brignoli 1976: 561, fig. 39. Senglet 2001: 62, fig. 14. Naumova et al. 2016: 434. Eberle et al. 2018 (molecular data). Huber et al. 2018: fig. 6.

Hoplopholcus palladis Brignoli, 1971: 260  , figs 7–12. Synonymized in Brignoli 1976: 561.

Diagnosis. Distinguished from known congeners by pair of small, round lateral pouches of uterus externus visible through cuticle ( Figs 95View FIGURES 92–97, 130, 133View FIGURES 130–141) and by shapes of procursus and bulbal processes ( Figs 98–103View FIGURES 98–105): procursus distally without prolateral pointed process and without dorsal process, ventral spine distally curved toward ventrally; ventral bulbal sclerite slender in lateral views; tip of embolar sclerite smooth (i.e. without small cone-shaped processes); embolar sclerite in dorsal view without subdistal process (in contrast to H. gazipasa  ). Females also differ from most congeners by elongate transversal pore plates and by absence of median pouch of uterus externus ( Figs 104–105View FIGURES 98–105).

Type material. Hoplopholcus minous  . ♂ holotype, 3♂ 3♀ paratypes, MHNG  , Greece, Crete, Lasithi, Exo Mouliana [~ 35.165°N, 25.988°E], 18.vii.1970 (A. Senglet); examinedGoogleMaps  .

Hoplopholcus palladis  . 1♂ 1♀ putative types (see Notes below), SMF (34505–06), and  1 juv., SMF (34515), Greece, Karpathos , Othos [~ 35.54°N, 27.15°E], 21.ix.1963 (R. Kinzelbach & J. Martens); examinedGoogleMaps  . 1♂, 1 ♀ (?) (abdomen dissected, i.e. without epigynum), and 1 juv. prosoma, putative types (see Notes below), MCVR, same data; examinedGoogleMaps  .

Notes. According to Brignoli’s (1971) original description of H. palladis  , part of the type material (1♂ 1♀ 2 juvs) was originally deposited at the Zoological Institute in Mainz, Germany, the other part (1♂ 1♀) in his private collection. He did not explicitly say where the male holotype was deposited. The spider collection of the Zoologi- cal Institute in Mainz has long ago been transferred to the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt (J. Martens, personal communication, 9.i.2014), while most of Brignoli’s private collection is now in Verona at the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale.

The Senckenberg Museum has three specimens of H. palladis  (1♂ 1♀ 1 juv.) from Karpathos collected in 1963, but the original labels have been discarded and replaced by machine-written labels. The information on these labels differs from the data given in Brignoli’s original publication, but several details suggest that these are type specimens and that the labels were erroneously transcribed. First, the locality is spelled as “Otlos”, which does not exist in Karpathos and is quite obviously a misspelling of Othos (or Odhos). Second, the date is given as 27.5.1963 instead of 21.9.1963, suggesting a confusion of numbers that may easily look similar in handwriting (1 and 7; 5 and 9). Third, the collector is spelled as Fornbach instead of Kinzelbach & Martens. Such a collector does not otherwise exist in the entire SMF database (J. Altmann, personal communication, 11.i.2019), and the “-bach” seems to be the only correctly transcribed piece in this section of the label. In sum, even though there are major discrepancies between the label data and those in the original publication, I consider it very likely that this is indeed type material of H. palladis  .

Surprisingly, the label information in the vial in the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in Verona has exactly the same putative misspelling, erroneous date, and dubious collector: “Grecia—Scarpanto, 27.5.63, Otlos—Fornbach”. It seems that Brignoli misread the original handwritten label, was informed about the correct collection data before his publication was printed, but failed to replace the erroneous labels.

Other material examined. GREECE, Crete: 5♂ 7♀, ZFMK (Ar 20897) and  4♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Cre 8), Lasithi, Exo Mouliana , along path to Richtis Waterfall (between 35.177°N, 25.988°E and 35.185°N, 25.987°E). 150–270 m a.s.l., 1.vii.2015 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20898) and  2♂ 3♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Cre 16), Lasithi, Orino Gorge (35.0651°N, 25.9178°E). 350 m a.s.l., at stream, 6.vii.2015 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Cre 24), Lasithi, Voila (35.0853°N, 26.1057°E), 570 m a.s.l., in Agios Georgios church, 8.vii.2015 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 2♀ 3 juvs, SMF, Lasithi, steep valley before Sfaka (35.151°N, 25.916°E), 190 m a.s.l., evergreen oak forest, under stones, 31.iii.2007 (A. Schönhofer)GoogleMaps  . 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20899), Lasithi, near Lastros [35.14°N, 25.90°E], 100 m a.s.l., 29.ix.1998 (K. Thaler, B. Knoflach)GoogleMaps  . 1♀, CJVK (2257 part), Lasithi, E Karidi, maquis [shrubland] around Spilaio Kato Peristeras [35.133°N, 26.190°E], 600 m a.s.l., 12.v.2003 (J. van Keer)GoogleMaps  . 1♂ 1♀, MHNG, Chania, Azogires Paleochoras [35.272°N, 23.719°E], 28.v.1978 (A. Senglet)GoogleMaps  .

Kasos: 3♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20900), Agia Marina, Spilaio Stylo Kamara  [35.397°N, 26.901°E], 255 m a.s.l., 9.vi.2007 (F. Gasparo)GoogleMaps  ; 2♂ 3♀ 6 juvs, HISR (1817), same locality, 18.vii.1996 (K. Paragamian)GoogleMaps  .

Rhodes: 1♂ 2♀, CJVK (2629), N Lakki [~ 39.19°N, 27.78°E], under large stones in Pinus  forest, 12.v.2005 (J. & K. van Keer)GoogleMaps  . 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20901), Profitis Ilias [36.277°N, 27.944°E], mountain pine forest, 12.iv.2001 (collector not given)GoogleMaps  .

Kos: 1♀, SMF, near Zia [~ 36.840°N, 27.205°E], 500–800 m a.s.l., forest and macchia, 24.iv.1968 (J. Mar- tens)GoogleMaps  .

Peloponnese: 1♂, SMF, south coast, “Foinikous” [=Foinikounta— 36.81°N, 21.805°E], lime- and sand-cliffs at seashore, 4.vi.1998 (L. Mausehund)GoogleMaps  .

Naxos: 3♂ 4♀, MHNG, Apyranthos [Apeirantos; 37.072°N, 25.520°E], 9.viii.1972 (A. Senglet)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, MHNG, same locality, 2.vii.1968 (A. Senglet)GoogleMaps  .

Chios: 2♂ 2♀, ZFMK (Ar 20902), “lower slopes of Pelineon” [Pelinaion Oros; ~ 38.57°N, 26.00°E], under rocks, 9.v.2006 (R. Snazell)GoogleMaps  .

Samos: 4♂ 4♀ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20903–04), and  2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Sam 15), near Panagia Makrini church above Kallithea (37.728°N, 26.600°E), under rocks in forest, 700–800 m a.s.l., 15.v.2019 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 3♀ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20905), and  1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Sam 16), near Ampelos (37.7989°N, 26.7941°E), under rocks in forest, 320 m a.s.l., 16.v.2019 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 2♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20906), and  1♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Sam 19), same data but 18.v.2019  . 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20907), and  1♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Sam 20), Marathokampos (37.7248°N, 26.6877°E), among rocks in forest, 220 m a.s.l., 18.v.2019GoogleMaps  (B.A. Huber).

TURKEY: Aydın: 2♀, ZFMK (Ar 20908), Kuşadsı District, Güzelçamlı Vil., Dilek Yarımadası-büyük Mend- eres Deltası Milli Parkı (37.696°N, 27.163°E), 105 m a.s.l., 7.vi.2009 (Y.M. Marusik)GoogleMaps  .

Antalya: Alanya District   : 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20909) and  1♂ 2 juvs in pure ethanol (Tur 58), Sapadere Canyon (36.527°N, 32.313°E), 370 m a.s.l., under rocks in pine forest near canyon entrance, 31.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk)GoogleMaps  . 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20910), Avsallar (36.639°N, 31.757°E), 7 m a.s.l., in cave, on wall, roof and under stones, 6.i.2013 (Y.M. Marusik)GoogleMaps  . 1♂, ZFMK (Ar 20911), Incekum Camping [36.63°N, 31.76°E], 19.v.2006 (T. Danışman)GoogleMaps  . 1♂ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20912), road of Elikesik Village (36.566°N, 31.925°E), 25 m a.s.l., maquis on S exposed slope, litter and under stones, 8.i.2013 (Y.M. Marusik)GoogleMaps  . 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20913), Alanya Kalesi, above Kleopatra beach (36.539°N, 31.992°E), 2.xi.2013 (S. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 4♀, ZFMK (Ar 21281), Dim Valley near Kuzyaka (36.564°N, 32.152°E), small unnamed creek, “on pebbles and litter”, 4.i.2013 (Y.M. Marusik)GoogleMaps  . 1♂ 1♀ 5 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 20914), Taşatan Mountains (36.671°N, 32.170°E), 1210 m a.s.l., 9.vi.2009 (Y.M. Marusik)GoogleMaps  . 2♂ 2♀ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20915), Taşatan Plateau, Banlıca Area (36.668°N, 32.154°E), 740 m a.s.l., under stones and sifting litter, 3.i.2013 (Y.M. Marusik)GoogleMaps  . 1♀, ZFMK ( Ar 20916), ~ 10 km E Güzelbağ (36.728°N, 31.938°E), in ravine, 5.xi.2013 (S. Huber)GoogleMaps  .

Redescription. Male (Exo Mouliana, ZFMK Ar 20897). MEASUREMENTS. Total length 4.8, carapace width 1.9. Distance PME-PME 110 µm; diameter PME 140 x 160 µm; distance PME-ALE 60 µm; diameter AME 80 µm; distance AME-AME 30 µm. Leg 1: 33.5 (9.5 + 0.9 + 9.5 + 11.6 + 2.0), tibia 2: 6.5, tibia 3: 4.8, tibia 4: 6.0; tibia 1 L/d: 43.

COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace ochre-yellow, ocular area and clypeus brown, posterior triangle brown; sternum medially dark brown, lighter brown toward margins; legs ochre-yellow, with darker rings subdistally on femora and tibiae and in patella area; leg coxae ventrally lighter; abdomen gray, with pairs of large black marks dorsally, denser pattern of oblique marks posteriorly; ventrally with large brown mark anteriorly, black mark at spinnerets and smaller diffuse brown mark in-between.

BODY. Habitus as in Fig. 10View FIGURES 6–11. Ocular area slightly elevated. Deep thoracic pit and pair of furrows diverging from pit toward posterior margin ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 106–111). Clypeus unmodified. Sternum wider than long (1.4/1.0), unmodified. Abdomen oval, dorso-posteriorly rounded.

CHELICERAE. Very similar to H. forskali  (cf. Figs 214–215View FIGURES 212–221), with pair of latero-distal apophyses provided with two modified cone-shaped hairs each ( Figs 108–110View FIGURES 106–111); stridulatory ridges very fine (not seen in dissecting microscope, but stridulatory pick present).

PALPS. As in Figs 92–94View FIGURES 92–97; coxa with very low retrolateral bulge, trochanter barely protruding ventrally, femur with distinct dark line retrolaterally, with prolateral stridulatory pick ( Fig. 112View FIGURES 112–117); procursus ( Figs 98–99View FIGURES 98–105) with low ventral ‘knee’, ventral spine distally curved toward ventrally, without prolateral process, without prolateral ridge, and without dorsal process; genital bulb ( Figs 100–103View FIGURES 98–105) with slender ventral sclerite, tip of embolar sclerite smooth (i.e. without small cone-shaped processes); embolar sclerite in dorsal view without subdistal cone; with distinct dorsal membranous process.

LEGS. Femora 1 and 2 with single rows of ventral spines (~28 on femur 1, ~16 on femur 2) ( Fig. 117View FIGURES 112–117); with few curved hairs ventrally on tibia 1 and metatarsus 1 only; few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 5%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all leg tibiae; tarsi without distinct pseudosegments but with many small platelets.

Male (variation). Tibia 1 in 38 other males: 5.9–11.0 (mean 8.4). Modified hairs on cheliceral apophyses only slightly variable: of 36 males, 28 symmetric with two hairs on each side (2+2), eight asymmetric 2+3. Number of spines on femora variable, spines on femur 2 sometimes barely thicker than other leg hairs. Males from Naxos with single row of weak spines (only slightly thicker than other hairs) also ventrally on tibia 1. Curved hairs in some males also on tibia 2 and metatarsus 2.

Female. In general similar to male ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 6–11) but without spines on legs; also females with few curved hairs on tibiae and metatarsi 1(–2); also females with very fine stridulatory ridges (not seen in dissecting microscope but stridulatory pick present; Fig. 113View FIGURES 112–117). Tibia 1 in 45 females: 5.9–9.9 (mean 7.6).

FEMALE GENITALIA. Epigynum as in Figs 95View FIGURES 92–97, 130, 133View FIGURES 130–141, with distinctive pair of small, round lateral pouches usually visible in uncleared specimens; posterior margin of epigynal plate partly transparent or whitish; with pair of light brown weakly bulging areas in front of epigynum; posterior plate simple, short but wide. Internal genitalia with pair of small, round lateral pouches of uterus externus (with variable size and variable distance from each other; Figs 96View FIGURES 92–97, 104View FIGURES 98–105, 131, 134View FIGURES 130–141), uterus externus without median pouch, with elongate transversal pore plates ( Figs 97View FIGURES 92–97, 105View FIGURES 98–105, 132, 135View FIGURES 130–141).

Distribution. Apparently widely distributed in Crete, southern Greece, the Aegean Islands, and western and southern Turkey ( Fig. 441View FIGURE 441).

Natural history. In contrast to most other species in Hoplopholcus  , this is a largely epigean species. Most specimens were collected near the ground among and under rocks. At the type locality (Exo Mouliana), the species was found in almost the same microhabitat as H. minotaurinus  , but slightly more exposed (see under H. minotaurinus  above). Very few records are from caves, but even in these cases it is not clear whether the specimens were found within the cave or outside (or in the entrance).


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg


Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig














Hoplopholcus minous Senglet, 1971

Huber, Bernhard A. 2020

Hoplopholcus minous

Naumova, M. & Lazarov, S. P. & Petrov, B. P. & Deltshev, C. D. 2016: 434
Senglet, A. 2001: 62
Brignoli, P. M. 1976: 561
Senglet, A. 1971: 350

Hoplopholcus palladis

Brignoli, P. M. 1976: 561
Brignoli, P. M. 1971: 260