Simothraulopsis caliginosus, Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa, 2017

Do, Jeane M. C., Salles, Frederico F. & Hamada, Neusa, 2017, Systematics of Simothraulopsis Demoulin, 1966 (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae), Zootaxa 4285 (1), pp. 1-81: 44-50

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.828100

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5E5CC15A-009D-4E12-9342-315058D35E98

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA6B06-FFAE-6C3E-FF0C-FD80EFD2FC3E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Simothraulopsis caliginosus
status

sp. nov.

Simothraulopsis caliginosus  sp. nov.

( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 B, 3C, 29–33)

Diagnosis. Male imago: 1) general coloration: thorax dark brown, abdomen black ( Figs 29View FIGURE 29 A, B); 2) hind wing with costal projection forming a right angle, located approximately 1/2 distance from base to apex of wing ( Figs 30View FIGURE 30 B, C); 3) abdominal terga II and III with laterobasal whitish translucent white angles; terga IV and V with translucent white basal bands ( Figs 29View FIGURE 29 A, B); 4) penis projection lanceolate, of almost same width throughout most of its length, short (less than the half of total length of penis lobes) and slightly laterally directed ( Figs 29View FIGURE 29 D, 30D); 5) penis lobes fused on basal half ( Fig 30View FIGURE 30 D); 6) ventral region of penis lobes with a well-marked sclerotized region ( Fig. 29View FIGURE 29 D). Mature nymph: 1) coxa and trochanter of foreleg with pectinate setae ( Fig. 33View FIGURE 33 A); 2) femur III robust, about two times longer than wide ( Fig. 33View FIGURE 33 C); 3) posterolateral projections presents on abdominal segments V –IX ( Fig. 33View FIGURE 33 D); 4) gills grayish violet ( Fig. 31View FIGURE 31 E).

Male imago. Length: body: 4.8–5.1 mm; forewing: 4.9–5.2 mm; hind wing: 0.4–0.6 mm.

Head. Dorsal region dark brown, with black marks; ventral region brown, with gray marks. Upper portion of compound eyes brown, lower portion black; ocelli withish gray, surrounded by black ( Figs 29View FIGURE 29 A, B). Scape and pedicel of antenna brown, flagellum whitish brown.

Thorax. Pronotum orangish brown, margins black; with a submedial black stripe. Mesonotum dark brown; longitudinal medial, anterolateral scutal, lateroparapsidal and medioparapsidal sutures light brown; posterior scutal protuberance, scuto-scutellar impression and scutellum black. Pleura brown washed with dark brown; membranous area grayish. Metanotum dark brown. Sterna light brown, sutures darker ( Figs 29View FIGURE 29 A, B). Wings membrane hyaline ( Figs 30View FIGURE 30 A –C). Forewing with longitudinal veins whitish yellow and cross veins translucent; costal arms and base of veins C, Sc and anal section dark brown; fork of vein MP slightly asymmetric ( Fig. 30View FIGURE 30 A). Hind wing with costal projection developed, forming a right angle, located approximately 1/2 distance from base to apex of wing; longitudinal and cross veins yellowish brown, except base of vein C to costal projection dark brown; costal region blackish brown, part of lower portion of hind wing dark brown ( Figs 30View FIGURE 30 B, C). Legs. Fore coxa dark brown, median and hind coxae yellowish brown, with gray marks. Fore trochanter brown, median and hind trochanters whitish. Leg I: femur dark brown; tibia: black on basal half, distal half white; tarsus white. Leg II and III: femora blackish brown, with a narrow apical band and small subapical mark white; tibiae black, with a narrow subapical band whitish brown. Tarsi white.

Abdomen. Terga black, posterior margins darker. Tergum I completely black; terga II and III with laterobasal translucent white angles; terga IV and V with translucent white basal bands; tergum X brown ( Fig. 29View FIGURE 29 A, B). Sterna I –III whitish, with a lateral black mark; others black. Genitalia ( Figs 29View FIGURE 29 D; 30D). Styliger plate yellowish brown. Forceps segment I darkish brown, segments II and III whitish gray. Segment II 0.13 length of segment I, 1.8 length of segment III. Penis lobes yellowish brown, fused on basal half; each lobe rounded apically, with a lanceolate, of almost same width throughout most of its length, short (less than the half of total length of penis lobes) projection, slightly laterally directed; inner margins of lobes divergent, each margin with a lobular area near fusion of lobes ( Fig. 30View FIGURE 30 D); ventral region of penis lobes with a well-marked sclerotized region ( Fig. 29View FIGURE 29 D). Caudal filaments whitish, except basal region brown and apical margin of each segment black.

Female imago. Length: body: 4.9–5.3 mm; forewing: 5.0– 5.2 mm; hind wing: 0.5–0.8 mm. Color pattern similar to male imago, except coloration more brown. Sterna IX with lateral margins dark brown ( Fig. 29View FIGURE 29 C).

Mature nymph. Length: body, 4.9–5.3 mm; antenna, 3.6–3.9 mm; cerci, 4.4–4.5 mm; caudal filament, 5.3–5.5 mm. General coloration yellowish brown ( Figs 31View FIGURE 31 A-C).

Head. Brown, with grayish and yellowish marks. Upper portion of male compound eyes orangish brown, lower portion dark gray. Eyes of female black. Ocelli light gray, surrounded with black ( Figs 31View FIGURE 31 A –C). Scape, pedicel and flagellum of antenna light brown. Maximum width of labrum 1.2 times maximum width of clypeus. Labrum ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32 A) grayish brown, medial region with a yellow stripe; anteromedial emargination broad, with five denticles of equal size; with a pair of submedial, well defined black marks on basal region. Mandible ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32 B) brown; with large area washed of dark gray and with a rounded, yellowish mark medially located; outer margin slightly curved, with 6–8 filiform, long, thick setae medially located. Maxilla ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32 C) translucent yellow, outer margin brown, with dark gray marks. Segment II of maxillary palpi 1.15 length of segment I, 1.8 length of segment III. Hypopharynx as in figure 32D. Labium as in figure 32E.

Thorax. Terga brown, with margins and marks grayish; with a medial mark whitish yellow on pronotum and near anterior margin of mesonotum; anterior margin of pronotum with five spines; mesonotum brown; pleura brown washed with gray; sterna whitish yellow. Legs. Coxae and trochanters brown, with medial and ventral gray marks. Femora I and II yellowish brown with medial and apical brown bands; femur III almost completely brown, except yellowish mark located near basal region and apical margins. Tibiae brown, with basal and subapical grayish brown bands (mature nymphs have the tibia almost completely black on leg III). Tarsi with a brown basal band. Femur III robust, about two times longer than wide ( Fig. 33View FIGURE 33 C). Leg I ( Fig. 33View FIGURE 33 A). Coxa and trochanter with pectinate setae. Femur: outer margin with apical half with stout setae; inner margin with short stout setae; dorsal surface with lanceolate and spatulate setae; with basal arcs of pectinate setae near both inner and outer margins. Tibiae: inner margin and dorsal surface near inner margin with few pectinate setae; outer margin with few filiform setae. Tarsus with few pectinate setae along inner margin and few filiform setae along outer margin. Leg II ( Fig. 33View FIGURE 33 B). Coxa with filiform setae on dorsal region. Trochanter with lanceolate short setae near distal margin. Femur: outer margin with stout setae; inner margin with apical half with lanceolate setae; dorsal surface with lanceolate and spatulate setae. Tibia: inner margin with stout setae; outer margin with filiform setae. Tarsus with few, short, stout setae along inner margin; outer margin bare. Leg III ( Fig. 33View FIGURE 33 C). Coxa with filiform setae on dorsal region. Trochanter with lanceolate and filiform setae. Femur: outer margin with lanceolate and stout setae; inner margin with apical half with lanceolate setae; dorsal surface with lanceolate setae. Tibia: inner margin with stout setae; outer margin with lanceolate and filiform setae; dorsal surface near inner margin with lanceolate setae. Tarsus with bare margins.

Abdomen. Terga blackish brown, with medial and lateral margins yellowish. Sterna yellowish white. Gill grayish violet ( Fig. 31View FIGURE 31 E). Posterolateral projections present on abdominal segments V –IX, VII –IX more developed ( Fig. 31View FIGURE 31 D). Caudal filaments brownish, with basal area darker.

Life cycle association. Male subimago extracted from nymph and compared with the imago.

Etymology. From the Latin word caliginosus  , darker; a reference to the darker general coloration of this species, and is used as a noun in apposition.

Comments. Simothraulopsis caliginosus  sp. nov. was extensively collected in the state Espírito Santo, from sea level costal areas to mountainous regions. Additionally, this species was collected in Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais states ( Fig. 49View FIGURE 49). Specimens were found in different environments, from small streams to large rivers, occupying almost all type of substrates, although they were more common in rock bottomed streams.

The new species is morphologically similar to S. plesius  (see discussion above for S. plesius  ). However, S. caliginosus  sp. nov. can be distinguished from the others species of this genus by the darker general coloration of the male imago ( Figs 29View FIGURE 29 A, B), by the angle of the hind wing costal projection (90°) ( Figs 30View FIGURE 30 B, C), and by the presence of a lobular area near the fusion of the penis lobes ( Fig. 30View FIGURE 30 D). Nymphs of this species can be distinguished by the labrum with a pair of submedial, well defined black marks on basal region ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32 A), by the medial whitish yellow mark present on pronotum ( Fig. 31View FIGURE 31 A) and by the arrangements of setae on the legs ( Fig 33View FIGURE 33).

Material examined. Holotype: Male imago (light trap), BRAZIL, Espírito Santo State: Sooretama  , Rio São José (S 19°07'33.1"; W 40°14'26.1"; 24m) 19/v/2011, Salles FF & Nascimento JMC, cols. ( INPA)GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: one male imago, two female imagos and six nymphs (same data as holotype) ( CZNC)GoogleMaps  ; two male imagos, two female imagos, eight nymphs, same data as holotype, except: 19/iv/2012, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P & Massariol F cols: ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; one male imago, one female subimago and seven nymphs, same data as holotype, exceptGoogleMaps  : 23/i/ 2012, Salles FF & Nascimento JMC cols: (IBN); one male imago, one female subimago and five nymphs, same data as holotype, exceptGoogleMaps  : 19/iv/2011, Nascimento JMC, Angeli K, Azeredo J, Barcelos-Silva P & Massariol F cols: (DZRJ).

Additional material. BRAZIL, Espírito Santo State: Alegre: Fumaça waterfall (S 20°37'52.1"; W 41°36'18.8"; 447m) 27/v/2011; Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P, Angeli K & Bertazo K colsGoogleMaps  : 1 I ♂; Pinheiros: Reserva Biológica Córrego do Veado, Água Limpa stream (S 18° 22' 04.1"; W 40° 08' 23.8"; 41m) 20/i/2010, Nascimento JMC, Azeredo J & Barcelos-Silva P colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂, 2N; same data, except 20/i/2010, Nascimento JMC, Rizzi EA & Barcelos-Silva P colsGoogleMaps  : 3 N. Nova Venécia: Santa Rita do Pipi Nuck (S 18°39'51.4''; W 40°30'44.9''; 80m) 18-19/iv/2012, Salles FF & Angeli K colsGoogleMaps  : 3 I ♂, 35 S I ♂, 4 S I ♀, 3 N; same previous data, except 25-26/iv/ 2012, Massariol F & Angeli K cols: 16 S I ♂, 8 S I ♀; Sooretama: São José  river (S 19°07'33.1"; W 40°14'26.1"; 24m) 19/v/2011, Salles FF & Nascimento JMC cols: 5 N; 23/i/2012, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC & Barcelos-Siva P cols: 8 N; 09/ix/2010, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P & Massariol F cols: 3 N; 15/viii/2011, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P & Angeli K cols: 5 N. Reverva Biológica de Sooretama  - Rodriguez river (S 19°01'36.6"; W 40°13'39.0"; 44m) 14/vii/2008, Salles FF, Barcelos-Silva P & Angeli K cols: 1 NGoogleMaps  ; 29/iv/2009, Salles FF, Barcelos-Siva P & Nascimento JMC cols: 4 N; 15/vii/2008, Salles FF, Barcelos-Silva P & Massariol cols: 2 N; 30/v/2009, Salles FF, Barcelos-Silva P & Angeli K cols: 3 N; 08/viii/2011, Salles FF, Barcelos-Silva P & Nascimento JMC cols: 7 N; Castelo: Brucutu river (S 20°37'09.3"; W 41°10'34.5"; 94m) 09/vi/2011, Massariol F col: 8 N; Serra: Santa Maria river (S 20°11'9.7''; W 40°23'8''; 32m) 05/xi/2011, Massariol F col: 1 N; Linhares: Angeli waterfall (S 19°15'03.8"; W 40°17'10.9"; 66m) 08/ix/2011, Massariol F col: 1 NGoogleMaps  ; 26/vii/2012, Salles FF & Nascimento JMC cols: 4 N; Domingos Martins, Goela da Onça waterfall (S 18°14'42.3"; W 40°10'43.8"; 72m)GoogleMaps  , 02/ x/2011, Massariol F col: 2 N; Galo Bravo waterfall (S 20°25'49.6"; W 41°02'05.9"; 889) 27/viii/2010, Salles FF, Barcelos-Silva P, Nascimento JMC, Shimano Y cols: 19 N; Santa Teresa : Córrego Grande (S 19°52'30.8''; W 40°31'56.6''; 712m) 20/ii/2009, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P & Massariol F cols: 4 N; Reserva Biológica Augusto Rusch, Augusto Rusch waterfall (S 19°55'30.1"; W 40°33'21.9"; 704m) 22/ii/2009, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P, Soares EDG & Farias-Jr, LRF cols: 9 N; Alfredo Chaves: Nova Mantova river (S 40°39'41.7"; W 40°50'24.3"; 371m) 23/viii/2008, Salles FF, Boldrini R & Angeli K cols: 25 N; Conceição da Barra  : stream in road to Conceição da Barra  (S 18°38'02.5''; W 39°48'50.4''; 23m) 15/iv/2008, Salles FF, Nascimento JMC, Barcelos-Silva P & Massariol F colsGoogleMaps  : 64 N. Mato Grosso State: Nova Xavantina, Colher stream (S 14.1° 38'41.8"; W 52°26'38.5"; 414m) 13/i/2006, Salles FF & Shimano Y colsGoogleMaps  : 1 I ♂; Nova Xavantina, Mirinho Antártico (S 14°49'02"; W 52°29'20"; 434m) 03/x/2012, Salles FF & Shimano Y colsGoogleMaps  : 1 I ♂. Minas Gerais State: Itacolimi, Canyon do Peixe Tolo (19°0'14.40"S; 43°36'45.00"W; 886m) 08/ix/2012, Salles FF cols: 7 N ( INPA and CZNC). 

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia