Sobral, Marcos, Grippa, Carlos R., Souza, Marcelo C., Aguiar, Osny T., Bertoncello, Ricardo & Guimarães, Thais B., 2012, Fourteen new species and two taxonomic notes on Brazilian Myrtaceae, Phytotaxa 50 (1), pp. 19-50: 20-28
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Calyptranthes is an American genus with 264 recognized species ( Govaerts et al. 2011); of which 68 grow in Brazil ( Sobral et al. 2010). It is one of the four "core" genera of the grouping presently recognized as subtribe Myrciinae O.Berg ( Lucas et al. 2007) , along with Gomidesia O.Berg , Marlierea Cambess. and Myrcia DC. ex Guill. , with which it shares ovaries with two biovulate locules and embryos with two foliaceous cotyledons surrounded by a well developed hypocotyl. It is recognizable from these other genera by its calyx morphology, with lobes completely fused in bud and opening through a regularly circular lid, the calyptra. Nevertheless, the tearing of the calyx, whether through a calyptra, regular lobes or irregular lobes, although having been used since the beginnings of the taxonomy of American Myrtaceae ( De Candolle 1828, Berg 1855 –1856), has been proved to be at least a weakly dependable character ( McVaugh 1968, Landrum 1984, Landrum & Kawasaki 1997, Lucas et al. 2007). Considering this, the present delimitation of Calyptranthes and allied genera may become subject to taxonomic reevaluation.
1.1. Calyptranthes boanova Sobral sp. nov. Type: Brazil, Bahia, mun. Boa Nova, Fazenda São José , 14°23, 630´S, 40°08,722´W, 25 Oct. 2001, W. W. Thomas, A. M. Carvalho, M. R. Barbosa, S. Sant'Ana & J. L. Paixã (holotype CEPEC; isotypes BHCB, NY, RB). Figure 1 View FIGURE 1 GoogleMaps .
This species is close to C. grandiflora , from which it is kept apart through the glabrous and sessile leaves.
Shrub to 1.8 m. Twigs glabrous, the internodes 40–60 mm long × 2–2.5 mm wide, grey. Leaves sessile or subsessile, the petioles when present to 1 × 2 mm, glabrous; blades ovate-lanceolate to oblong, 130– 70 mm, 2.2–4.5 times longer than wide, discoloured when dry, glabrous or with sparse brownish dibrachiate trichomes to 0.3 mm at the abaxial side; glandular dots smaller than 0.1 mm in diameter, about ten per square milimeter, slightly excavated adaxially and plain and darker than the surface abaxially; apex acute or acuminate to 15 mm; base cordate; midvein sulcate or biconvex adaxially, prominent abaxially; secondary nerves 16 to 27 at each side, visible on both faces and salient abaxially, leaving the midvein at angles 80–85 degrees; marginal vein 1.5–2 mm from the margin, the margin itself with a yellowish or brownish girdle 0.2–0.3 mm wide. Inflorescences terminal, paniculiform or racemiform, with up to 20 flowers, with basal triangular, glabrous and carenate bracts 4-5 × 3 mm; main axis to 70 × 2,5 mm, slightly complanate; secondary axes when present 5–20 × 2 mm; flowers sessile; bracteoles not seen, possibly deciduous before anthesis; flower buds not seen; calyx glabrous, subglobose, 2–3 × 3–4 mm, opening through a calyptra 2.5–3.5 mm, glabrous on both sides; petals not seen, possibly abortive; stamens to 5 mm, the anthers globose, 0.2–0.3 × 0.3 mm, eglandular; staminal ring 2.5–3 mm in diameter, glabrous, with indistinct scars of fallen stamens; calyx-tube to 0.5 mm deep; styles not seen, fallen in all flowers, leaving a round scar 0.8 mm in diameter; ovary with two locules and two ovules per locule. Fruits immature, to 10 mm in diameter; embryo very young and with indistinct characters.
Geographical distribution, habitat and phenology — this species in known only from Boa Nova, a municipality of 870 km 2 ( IBGE 2012), in southern Bahia, where it was collected in forests at 860–900 m elev.; flowers and fruits were collected in October.
Conservation — there are listed 760 collections in specieslink ( CRIA 2012) from the municipality of Boa Nova, mostly gathered from 2000 onwards, what renders an average of 0.8 collections / km 2, indicative of a still scarcely sampled area. Additionally, little is known about the environmental conditions of the collection site, although southern Bahia has been subject to intense human occupation ( Aguiar et al. 2005). In light of this, it seems precipitate to infer a conservational status for this species other than DD (Data Deficient), according to IUCN criteria (IUCN 2001).
Affinities — Calyptranthes boanova is apparently related to C. grandiflora O.Berg (see Berg 1857 –1859 for a description), a species presently known for the Brazilian state Rio de Janeiro, from which it can be distinguished by the characters in the following couplet:
1. Leaves with petioles to 8 mm; blades with cuneate base and indumentum visible at least in young leaves .................
.............................................................................................................................................. Calyptranthes grandiflora —. Leaves sessile or petioles to 1 mm; blades with cordate base, glabrous or with very scarce indumentum, visible only
through lenses ............................................................................................................................ Calyptranthes boanova
Etymology — the epithet is an apposition alluding to the collection locality.
1.2. Calyptranthes curta Sobral & O.Aguiar , sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. São Paulo, mun. Salesópolis, Casa Grande, Reserva Florestal , Guaratuba , 23°39´S, 45°52´W, 94 Feb. 1988, G. Franco & A. Custódio Filho 437 (holotype BHCB; isotype SPSF). Figure 2 View FIGURE 2 GoogleMaps .
This species is related to C. dichotoma from which it is kept apart through the smaller and few-flowered inflorescences.
Tree to 3 m. Twigs dichotomously ramified, somewhat swollen at the nodes, the internodes 25–30 mm × 2–3 mm, at least the most distal ones with simple grey or brown appressed trichomes 0.5–0.6 mm, intermixed with smaller dibrachiate trichomes to 0.4 mm. Leaves with petioles 4–9 × 2–2.5 mm, pilose as the twigs at least in young leaves; blades elliptic, 50–110 × 21–63 mm, 1.7–2.5 times as long as wide, discoloured when dry, the abaxial side lighter, glabrous adaxially and with scattered simple trichomes to 0.5 mm intermixed with dibrachiate ones 0.1–0.2 mm; glandular dots smaller than 0.1 mm in diameter, about 20 to 30 per square milimeter, visible mostly adaxially; apex acute; base acute to cuneate; midvein sulcate adaxially and prominent abaxially; secondary veins 15 to 18 at each side, visible and moderately prominent on both sides, a little more so abaxially, straight, leaving the midvein at angles 60–70 degrees, intermixed with intersecondary veins of a slightly smaller gauge; marginal vein 1.5–2 mm of the revolute margin. Inflorescences axillary or ramiflorous, with three flowers crowded at the apex of an applanate axis 5–7 × 1.2–1.5 mm; bracts at the base of the flowers cordiform, concave, to 3 × 4 mm, abaxially with simples trichomes 0.3–0.4 mm and dibrachiate trichomes to 0.2 mm; pedicels absent; bracteoles elliptic, to 2 × 1 mm, occasionally wanting at the base of the apical flower, persisting after anthesis, concave or plane, with trichomes as the bracts; flower buds globose or ovate, 4–5 × 3 mm, uniformly covered with appressed dibrachiate trichomes 0.2–0.3 mm intermixed with scattered simple trichomes 0.3–0.4 mm; calyx lobes completely fused, opening through a calyptra 2–3 × 3 mm apiculate in 0.5–2 mm; petals one or two, spathulate, to 2 × 1 mm; stamens up to 80, to 8 mm, the anthers globose, to 0.2 × 0.3 mm, eglandular; staminal ring 2 mm in diameter, glabrous; calyx tube to 2 mm deep; style 10–11 mm, the stigma punctiform and papillose; ovary with two locules and two ovules per locule. Fruits unknown.
Distribution, habitat and phenology — this species is presently known only for the type collection, from rainforests at altitudes between 890–950 m above sea level, at the municipalty of Salesópolis, in the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (mata atlântica) domain. Flowers were observed in February.
Conservation status — data from specieslink ( CRIA 2012) list more than 2000 collections from Salesópolis, a municipality with 424 km 2 ( IBGE 2012), rendering the considerable average of about 4.8 collections/km 2; nevertheless, to our knowledge this species was collected only once, a fact that may be suggestive of its real rarity. Until new data are available, it seems adequate to score it in IUCN category DD (data deficient; IUCN 2001).
Affinities — Calyptranthes curta is apparently related to C. dichotoma Casaretto (for description see Berg 1857 —1859), a species also collected in the state of São Paulo, of which it can be distinguished by the characters in the following couplet:
1. Inflorescences with main axis larger than 50 mm, with at least one ramification and bearing more than ten flowers.
............................................................................................................................................... Calyptranthes dichotoma —. Inflorescences with unbranched axis up to 5 mm, bearing mostly three flowers ........................... Calyptranthes curta
Etymology — the epithet is derived from the Latin word for "short", alluding to the small inflorescences.
1.3. Calyptranthes detecta Sobral & M.Souza , sp. nov. Type: Brazil, Minas Gerais, mun. Descoberto, Reserva Biológica da Represa do Grama , 27 jan. 2002, R. C. Forzza & B. K. S. Franco 2065 (holotype RB; isotypes BHCB, CESJ). Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 .
This species is close to Calyptranthes tricona , from which it is kept apart by its larger inflorescences, longer petioles and larger and lanceolate leaves.
Tree to 15 m high. Twigs grey, with scattered simple brown trichomes to 0.5 mm. Leaves with petioles 10–15 × 1.5–1.8 mm, with simple brown trichomes to 1 mm; blades lanceolate or oblong–lanceolate, 130–170 × 50–60 mm, discoloured when dry, the adaxial side dark green and glabrous, the abaxial side light green with scattered dibrachiate trichomes to 1 mm; glandular dots somewhat darker than the surface and softly excavated adaxially and barely visible abaxially; apex acuminate, the acumen to 15 mm; base cuneate; midvein moderately sulcate to biconvex adaxially, prominent and densely covered by simple brown trichomes 1–2 mm, abaxially; secondary veins 16 to 20 at each side, visible and somewhat prominent on both faces, straight, leaving the midvein at angles 70–80 degrees, intermixed with intersecondary veins of a smaller gauge; marginal veins two, the internal one 4–6 mm, the external one 1–1.5 mm from the margin. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, two at each leaf axile, with three flowers crowded at the apex of an axis 28–30 × 1.5–2 mm, the axis applanate and densely covered with brown simple trichomes to 1 mm; bracts ovate to triangular, apiculate, to 12 × 8 mm, deciduous at anthesis and with trichomes to 0.5 abaxially; bracteoles lanceolate to elliptic, to 4 × 1 mm, deciduous at anthesis, with brown simple trichomes to 0.5 mm abaxially; flower buds obovate, 7–8 × 5–6 mm, apiculate to 1 mm, uniformly covered with brown simple trichomes 1–2 mm; calyx lobes entirely fused and opening at anthesis through a calyptra to 3 mm long and about 4 mm in diameter; petals absent; staminal ring 5–6 mm in diameter, glabrous; stamens about 200, 10– 11 mm, the anthers globose, 0.3 × 0.2–0.3 mm, eglandular; style to 12 mm, the stigma punctiform and slightly papillose; calyx tube 4–5 mm deep; ovary with two locules and two centrally attached ovules per locule. Fruits unkown.
Distribution, habitat and phenology — this species is presently known only from the type collection in the municipality of Descoberto, in the rainforest domain of Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is a tree from forests, and flowers were observed in January.
Conservation status — data from specieslink ( CRIA 2012) list more than 1300 collections from Descoberto, a municipality with 213 km 2 ( IBGE 2012), resulting in an average of 6 collections/km 2; since the species was collected in a preservation area, in spite of its possible rarity it can be expected that at least in this area it is preserved. Until new data are available, it seems adequate to score it in IUCN category DD (data deficient; IUCN 2001).
Affinities — the morphology of the inflorescence of this species closely resembles that of Calyptranthes tricona D.Legrand , a species from the southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (mun. Belmiro Braga, 21 o 52'58'' S, 43 o 25'33'' W, M. Souza et al. 619, RB) through southern Brazil ( Sobral 2003) and northeastern Argentina ( Tressens & Rodríguez 1996); both species can be separated with the following key:
1. Leaves with petioles to 5 mm and blades to 70 × 35 mm, with the abaxial side densely covered with trichomes, these occasionally concealing the surface; marginal vein to 1.5 mm from the margin; inflorescence with basal bracts to 4 × 1 mm; flower buds to 6 × 3 mm; southeastern Brazil to Argentina.......................................... Calyptranthes tricona
— Leaves with petioles to 15 mm and blades to 170 × 60 mm, the abaxial side with indumentum mostly restricted to the midvein and never concealing the surface; marginal vein 4– 6 mm; inflorescences with basal bracts to 12 × 8 mm; flower buds to 8 × 6 mm;presently known only to southeastern Minas Gerais. ................. Calyptranthes detecta
Etymology — the epithet is derived from the Latin word for "uncovered" ("descoberto" in Portuguese), alluding to the place of discovery of the species.
1.4. Calyptranthes maritima Sobral & Bertoncello , sp. nov. TYPE: Brazil. São Paulo, mun. Ubatuba, Parque est. Serra do Mar , 9 Dec. 1989, A. Furlan 1078 (holotype BHCB, isotype HRCB). Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 .
This species is related to Calyptranthes strigipes , from which it differs by its larger and more densely venose leaves, more branched inflorescences and smaller flowers.
Tree 4– 21 m. Twigs densely covered with brown simple trichomes to 1.8 mm, becoming sparse or completely absent with age, the internodes 70–120 × 2 mm; cataphylls present at the base of new twigs and soon deciduous, narrowly lanceolate, 20–25 × 4–6 mm, concave, glabrous or with scattered trichomes 0.3–0.5 mm. Leaves with petioles 14–19 × 1.7–2.2 mm, canaliculate, with trichomes as the twigs but up to 1 mm; blades elliptic to lanceolate, sometimes lanceolate–obovate, 145–240 × 62–106 mm, 1.9–2.7 times longer than wide, dull green or dull brown adaxially and light brown abaxially when dry, the adaxial side with simple trichomes to 1 mm along the midvein and secondary veins when young, mostly glabrous when adult, the abaxial side with simple trichomes intermixed with asymmetrical dibrachiate trichomes to 1 mm, the indumentum becoming scattered in adult leaves; glandular dots moderately visible adaxially, smaller than 0.05 mm in diameter and six to ten per square milimeter; apex acute, the tip itself acuminate in 7–12 mm; base cuneate; midvein sulcate adaxially and strongly prominent abaxially; secondary veins 18 to 25 at each side, straight, leaving the midvein at angles 50–60 degrees, plane or weakly sulcate adaxially, markedly prominent abaxially; marginal veins two, the inner one 3.5–5 mm, the outer one 0.5–1 mm from the margin. Inflorescences axillary, paniculiform, with up to 200 flowers, pyramidal in profile, up to twice ramified, the main axis 105–140 × 1–1.8 mm, with three to five ramifications, the secondary branches to 55 × 1 mm, the tertiary ones to 15 × 0.7 mm, the two proximal nodes generally with two ramifications, the proximal one shorter than the distal one, to 20 × 0.6 mm; uniformly covered with brown trichomes to 1 mm; bracts triangular–lanceolate to linear, 2–2.2 × 0.1–0.4, with trichomes to 0.2 mm abaxially, deciduous at anthesis; pedicels absent; bracteoles linear to narrowly triangular, to 1 × 0.1 mm, with trichomes as the bracts, deciduous at anthesis; flower buds elliptic to obovate, 2.8–3 × 2–2.5 mm, uniformly covered with brown trichomes 0.5–0.8 mm; calyx completely fused, opening through a calyptra up to 1 mm long and 1.5–2 mm wide; petals absent in the examined flowers; stamens about 50, to 3.5 mm long, the anthers globose, 0.2–0.3 × 0.3 mm, eglandular; staminal ring 0.8 mm wide, glabrous; calyx tube to 1 mm deep; style to 3.5 mm, the stigma slightly capitate and papillose; ovary bilocular with two centrally attached ovules per locule. Fruits unknown.
Distribution, habitat, phenology — this species is presently known from rainforests in two municipalities of the northeastern slopes of the Serra do Mar mountain range in the state of São Paulo, at about 800 m elev.; flowers were collected in November and December.
Conservation — this species was collected in two municipalities where sampling efforts have been intense; there are listed in specieslink ( CRIA 2012) about 3900 and 11000 collections from Cunha (1400 km 2 in area) and Ubatuba (700 km 2 in area), respectively, summing a sampling index of about 7 collections / km 2. In spite of the high number of collections in the area, gatherings of Calyptranthes maritima are still scarce, what may indicate the rarity of this species. Until new information is available, ti seems adequate to assing it the DD (Data Deficient) conservation status according to IUCN criteria (IUCN 2001).
1. Leaves with petioles to 7 × 1 mm and blades to 130 × 30 mm, mostly more than three times longer than wide; inflorescences with main axis to 70 mm and bearing less than 100 flowers. .................................... Calyptranthes strigipes
—. Leaves with petioles to 19 × 2 mm and blades to 240 × 106 mm, less than three times longer than wide; inflorescences with main axis to 140 mm, bearing more than 100 flowers .......................................... Calyptranthes maritima
Etymology — the epithet is derived from the Latin word for "maritime", alluding to the collection place of the specimens, the mountain range of Serra do Mar.
Paratypes: Brazil. São Paulo, mun . Cunha, Reserva Florestal de Cunha, 21 Nov. 1979, A . Fonseca Vaz 301 ( HRB, RB); mun. Ubatuba , núcleo de Picinguaba, margens do rio da Fazenda; 22 Nov. 1192, M . Sanchez & F . Pedroni 347 (coleção rio da Fazenda 634) ( SP, UEC); mun. Ubatuba, morro do Cuscuzeiro, divisa entre Ubatuba e Paraty, R . Bertoncello 823 ( HUFSJ, UEC) .
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum
Botanische Staatssammlung München
Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile
Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History
University of the Witwatersrand
Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden
Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro
Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève
University of Copenhagen
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet
Royal Botanic Gardens
Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora
Universidade Estadual Paulista
Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department
Instituto de Botânica
Universidade Estadual de Campinas
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