Hirtodrosophila crioula,

Junges, João, Robe, Lizandra Jaqueline & Gottschalk, Marco Silva, 2019, Four new Neotropical species in the Hirtodrosophila hirticornis species group (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Zootaxa 4567 (2), pp. 276-292: 287-290

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Hirtodrosophila crioula

sp. nov.

Hirtodrosophila crioula  sp. nov.

( Figs. 34–43View FIGURES 34–37View FIGURES 38–43, 47View FIGURES 44–47)

Hirtodrosophila morgani  aff. ( Valer et al. 2016)

Hirtodrosophila morgani  affinis Sul ( Machado et al. 2017)

Type material. Holotype.GoogleMaps  ♂ (MZSP), labeled “ Brasil, RS. Pelotas. Horto Botânico-UFPel, 31°46'02.05''S, 52°26'55.34W, Felipe B. Valer and Monica L. Blauth col., 27.v.2011 / Hirtodrosophila crioula  sp. nov. Junges, Robe, Gottschalk ♂ Holótipo”. Paratypes. 4 ♂ labeled “ Brasil, RS. São Luiz Gonzaga. Fragmento Florestal, 28°31' 32.21"S, 54°58'58.41"W, Stela Machado col., 20.v.2012 / Hirtodrosophila crioula  sp. nov. Junges, Robe, Gottschalk, ♂ Parátipo” andGoogleMaps  1 ♂ labeled “ Brasil, RS. São Luiz Gonzaga. Fragmento Florestal, 28°31'32.21"S, 54°58'58.41"W, Stela Machado col., 20.v.2012 / Hirtodrosophila crioula  sp. nov. Junges, Robe, Gottschalk, ♂ Parátipo.” All specimens had their post-abdomen dissectedGoogleMaps  .

Type locality. Horto Botânico Irmão Teodoro Luis , municipality of Capão do Leão, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (31°46'02.05''S, 52°26'55.34W)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Notum darkish yellow, with a grey aspect ( Fig. 35View FIGURES 34–37); pleurae yellow bearing a slightly darker strip from below the postpronotum to below wing base ( Fig. 34View FIGURES 34–37). Abdomen yellow, with diffuse darker bands, although more distinct than in the other species on tergites II–V. Aedeagus with a rounded apex in ventral and dorsal views and flattened in lateral view, with small scales laterally ( Figs. 41–43View FIGURES 38–43).

Description. ♂. Head ( Figs. 36–37View FIGURES 34–37). Yellow. Frons and face brownish yellow, fronto-orbital plates with the same color of the frons. Ratio of mid to anterior orbital setae = 0.42 (0.33–0.50), ratio of mid to posterior orbital setae = 0.36 (0.25–0.42), vt index = 1.14 (1.00–1.25), ocellar triangle greyish yellow about 30% (22–37%) of frontal length. Facial carina not prominent with the same color of the frons. Antennae yellow with flagellomeres greyish yellow, aristae with 5 dorsal and one ventral branches, 4–6 internal branches. Palpus greyish yellow with an apical seta and 6 smaller preapical setae. Red eyes with short piles. Genae brownish yellow with a dark diffuse band the eye, first genal setae about 24% (22–38%) of the vibrissae. Cheek index = 0.22 (0.19–0.27), eye index = 1.18 (1.11–1.31).

Thorax ( Figs. 34–35View FIGURES 34–37). Main color yellow, sometimes the notum presents an aspect greyish yellow. Length = 1.15 (1.05–1.27) mm, width = 0.90 (0.82–0.97) mm, 10 irregular rows of acrostichal setae, no prescutellar setae. Dc index = 0.67 (0.53–0.80). Scutellum yellowish. Basal scutellar setae convergent. Scut position index = 1.16 (0.93–1.16). Two prominent katepisternal setae and a row of setulae between them. Anterior katepisternal about 46% (33–54%) of the posterior one. Pleurae yellow with a diffuse horizontal stripe extending from below postpronotum to wing base.

Wings ( Fig. 47View FIGURES 44–47). Dark yellow with veins dark yellow. Length = 2.49 (2.40–2.66) mm. Length to width ratio = 1.09 (0.95–1.16). Indices: C = 2.86 (2.64–3.17); Ac: 3.38(3.14–3.83), 4v = 2.10 (2.04–2.17); 5x = 1.98 (1.76– 2.13); 4c = 0.97 (0.86–1.08); M = 0.68 (0.64–0.75); hb = 1.91 (1.15–2.44); prox. x = 0.47 (0.41–0.56).

Abdomen. Main color yellow. Tergites II–V with fainted brown posterior marginal bands not reaching lateral area.

Body length could not be measured because all specimens had already been dissected when these measurements were taken.

Terminalia ( Figs. 38–43View FIGURES 38–43). Epandrium microtrichose, with 4 upper and 18 lower setae; 8 of the latter located on ventral lobe ( Fig. 38View FIGURES 38–43). Ventral lobes not microtrichose, not covering surstyli. Cerci not fused with epandrium. Surstylus not microtrichose, with 6 peg-like prensisetae, about 15 inner and no outer setae. Decasternum narrow ( Fig. 40View FIGURES 38–43). Hypandrium longer than wide, rectangular-shaped. Gonopod partially fused to the hypandrium, bearing one seta. Paraphysis highly microtrichose and the small setulae, if they are present, were not observed. Aedeagus with rounded apex bearing small scales laterally. Apical portion of aedeagus flattened in lateral view. Aedeagal apodeme fused with and shorter than aedeagus.

♀. Unknown.

Note. Hirtodrosophila crioula  sp. nov. was previously studied by Machado (2017) regarding sequences of the mitochondrial genome (in this study was coded as H. morgani  affinis Sul) and compared with H. gilva  , H. mendeli  , H. morgani  and H. subgilva  using the DNA barcoding approach. Hirtodrosophila crioula  sp. nov. met all the criteria proposed for distinguishing among the other species, such as the tree-based criterium, the Barcode GAP criterium, and the molecular diagnostic character.

Relationship. The terminalia of H. crioula  sp. nov., H. grisea  (see Grimaldi, 2018), H. morgani  (see Vilela and Bächli, 2004) and H. prognatha  (see Grimaldi, 2018) are quite similar, mainly by the shape and the presence of scales on the surface of the aedeagus, and by the morphology of the epandrium, cerci and surstyli. However, H. crioula  sp. nov. differs from H. grisea  by the shape of the ventral lobe of the epandrium, by the lower number of inner setulae in the surstylus, by the more elongated hypandrium, by the shape of the gonopods and by the shape of the aedeagus, not recurved dorsally at the apex. When compared to H. morgani  and H. prognatha  , H. crioula  sp. nov. differs by the shape of the ventral lobe of the hypandrium and surstylus, and by the absence of a medial apical reentrance in dorsoventral view in the aedeagus.

Etymology. The name “ crioula” is a pampean common-sense word synonymous with autochthonous, meaning born in the region where it inhabits, and it refers to the known distribution of the species in Pampa biome.

Geographic distribution. Hirtodrosophila crioula  sp. nov. was collected in areas from the Pampa biome, in the municipalities of Pelotas (31°46'02.05''S 52°26'55.34W), Bossoroca (28°31' 32.21"S, 54°58'58.41"W), Santa Maria (29°37’95’’S, 53°36’01’’W) and Santiago (29°12’51”S, 54°51’27”), all in state of Rio Grande do Sul ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1).

Ecological notes. All species here described seem to have an ecological relationship with Auricularia  fungi, since in all sampling, the imagoes were flying over their fruiting bodies. For the Amazonian species, H. rondonia  sp. nov., H. nungara  sp. nov. and H. jukyry  sp. nov., the use of Auricularia  as a breeding site needs to be confirmed. However, H. crioula  sp. nov. was the most abundant species emerging from Auricularia  spp. in the survey of Valer et al. (2016), presenting their very close relationship with this fungus.

Another striking observation refers to the frequent sympatry and syntopy detected among H. rondonia  sp. nov., H. nungara  sp. nov. and H. jukyry  sp. nov. in our samples.