Tapinauchenius plumipes (C. L. Koch, 1842 )

Cifuentes, Yeimy & Bertani, Rogerio, 2022, Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the tarantula genera Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1985, and Amazonius n. gen. (Theraphosidae, Psalmopoeinae), Zootaxa 5101 (1), pp. 1-123 : 35-42

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5101.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0FD7126B-77A7-4B99-A0E7-04298368C3C4

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6822073

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BF87CE-A314-FFCD-FF5E-FDA7FD37F9CF

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Plazi

scientific name

Tapinauchenius plumipes (C. L. Koch, 1842 )
status

 

Tapinauchenius plumipes (C. L. Koch, 1842)

( Figs 19 View FIGURE 19 , 21–61 View FIGURES 21–23. 21 View FIGURES 24–31 View FIGURES 32–43 View FIGURES 44–45 View FIGURES 46–52 View FIGURES 53–57 View FIGURES 58–62 )

Mygale plumipes C. L. Koch, 1842: 67 , fig. 733.

Eurypelma plumipes: C. L. Koch, 1850: 73 ; Simon, 1864: 67.

Tapinauchenius plumipes: Ausserer, 1871: 201 ; Simon, 1892: 172; Pickard-Cambridge F., 1899: 898; Petrunkevitch, 1911: 90; 1928: 82; 1939: 290; Roewer 1942: 257; Bonnet, 1959: 4239; Schmidt, 1994a: 259, figs 2.; Cifuentes & Perafán 2020: 110, figs 4.9B; World Spider Catalog 2021.

Avicularia deborrii Becker, 1879: 143 . First synonymized by Simon, 1886: 133.

Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão, 1930 b: 56 , fig. 4; Petrunkevitch 1939: 292; Roewer 1942: 258; Bonnet 1956: 1710. New synonymy.

Avicularia violacea: Lucas, Silva & Bertani, 1992: 163 .

Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt, 1995b: 11 , fig. 1. First synonymized with Tapinauchenius violaceus by West et al. 2008.

Tapinauchenius violaceus : West et al., 2008: 39, figs 21–22.

Pachystopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947: 21 . New synonymy.

Tapinauchenius concolor: Bertani 2012: 29 .

Tapinauchenius gigas Caporiacco, 1954: 50 . New synonymy.

Diagnosis. Females of Tapinauchenius plumipes resemble those of T. latipes , T. cupreus , T. polybotes and T. rasti in the spermathecae with a constriction near the tip, forming a small and strongly sclerotized lobe ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 24–31 ). They differ by tibiae III with an apical-ventral row of spiniform setae ( Fig. 48 View FIGURES 46–52 ) and legs, carapace and chelicerae with violet sheen ( Figs 59–61 View FIGURES 58–62 ). Additionally, they differ from females of T. latipes by the longer spermathecae ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 24–31 ); from T. cupreus by the non-oval spermathecae shape, and from T. rasti and and T. polybotes by the geographic distribution on South America mainland. Males of T. plumipes resemble those of T. gretae n. sp. by the embolus being more than 3.5 times longer than subtegulum in retrolateral view. They differ by the embolus in dorsal view curving gently to retrolateral side ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 24–31 ).

Type material. Lectotype and paralectotype males of Mygale plumipes C. L. Koch, 1842 , here designated, from Suriname, deposited at ZMB, Kat N°2044-1,2, examined ( Figs 32–34 View FIGURES 32–43 ). Syntypes female and male of Avicularia deborrii Becker, 1879 , from Paramaribo, Suriname, deposited at Museé de Bruxelles, not examined. Lectotype immature male from Guyana, Campo di Marlissa [4°55’N 58°13’W], 31 December ( MZUF 507) and paralectotype, immature, from Guyana, Campo I Demerara ( MZUF 505) of Pachystopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 , designated by Bertani (2012), deposited at Museo Zoologico “La Specola”, Firenze, examined. Holotype female of Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão, 1930 from Cuminá [1°21’S, 56°02’W], state of Pará, Brazil, deposited at MNRJ, examined ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 53–57 ). Lectotype female, here designated, of Tapinauchenius gigas Caporiacco, 1954 , from Saint Jean du Maroni [5°24’N, 54°04’W], French Guiana, Benoist coll., December 1913, deposited at MNHN AR 14637, examined ( Figs 46–50 View FIGURES 46–52 ). Holotype female and paratype male of Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt, 1995 from Piste de Coralie PK4, Porte de la Conte (Route de l’Est), Piste de l’Est, Cacao [4°32’N 52°29’W], French Guiana, A. Braunshausen, 1992/93, ded. M. Verdez, deposited at SMF 38042 View Materials , SMF 38046 View Materials , examined ( Figs 53–56 View FIGURES 53–57 ).

Other material examined. GUYANA: Kamakusa ( Kamakusa mountains ?) [5°39’N, 60°08’W], 1 female, no collector, November 1992 (AMNH-Tap-36) GoogleMaps ; Bartica, Kartabo [6°23’N, 58°42’W], 1 female, no data (AMNH-Tap-60) GoogleMaps ; SURINAME: Paramaribo [5°50’N, 55°11’W], 1 male, Agr Sta, V. Doesburg col., August 1962 (AMNH-Tap-39) GoogleMaps . FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne: Le Gallion [4°46’N, 52°25’W], Emerald Jungle Village lodge, in cabin room on floor, 1 male, R. West, April 1999, ( MZUSP 76526 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; same data and collector, in tree cavity, no silk, 1 male, 8 April 1999 ( MZUSP 76527 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Gaston [4°18’N, 52°06’W], 1 male, J. Moonen col., 29 September 1991, ( MZUSP 76528 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; BRAZIL: Amazonas: Iranduba, Vila de Paricatuba [3°05’00”S, 60°14’32”W], 1 male, M. Q. Almeida col., 22 April 2017 ( INPA 9094 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Manaus, ZF 2, km 14, Malaise grande (2°35’21”S, 60°06’55”W), 1 female, J. A. Rafael and F. F. Xavier, 15–30 November 2016 ( INPA 9095 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Novo Airão [2°37’40”S, 60°56’32”W], 1 female, Alberto col., 30 July 1997 ( INPA 9096 View Materials ); GoogleMaps (2°37’41.5”S, 60°57’13.6”W) 1 female, R. Bertani and M. E. E. S. Oliveira, 06 November 2017 ( MNRJ 7695 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1 male, same data and collectors ( MNRJ 7696 View Materials ) ; ramal do Olimpio (02°39’23’’S, 60°55’44’’W), on recently felled Inajá palm trunk, 1 female, P. F. Bührnheim, N. O. Aguiar and N. F. Fé col., 06 July 1997 ( INPA 9093 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; ( UHE Balbina [1°55’06”S, 59°29’25”W], 1 male, B. Mascarenhas col., 14 January 1988 ( MPEG 005384 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Rio Preto da Eva [2°41’54”S, 59°42’02W], 1 male, M. Q. Almeida col., 25 August 2014 ( INPA 9098 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Pará: Ananindeua [1°22’S, 48°23’W], 1 male, R. F. da Silva col., 13 August 1974 ( MNRJ 7697 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Belém, Ilha Nova [1°14’01”S, 48°32’41”W], 1 female, R. F da Silva col., 20 June 1977 ( MPEG 005196 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Jacundá , right margin of Tocantins river (4°33’S, 49°27’W), 1 female, W.L. Overal and team col., 13 May 1984 ( MPEG 005134 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Jurutí [2°09’51”S, 56°05’28”W], 1 male, N.S. Abrahim, 22 May 2009 ( MPEG 034337 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Ourém [1°32’53”S, 47°07’02”W], 1 female, D.D. Guimarães col., 06 October 2001 ( MPEG 000212 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Santa Bárbara do Pará [1°13’38”S, 48°17’46”W], Fazenda Morelândia, 1 female, B. J. F da Silva col., 13–15 November 1998 ( MPEG 000188 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; Senador José Porfirio [2°35’S, 51°56’W], right margin of Xingu river , 1 female, 04 March 2001 ( MPEG 000199 View Materials ) GoogleMaps .

Redescription. Male (INPA 9094). Total length, not including chelicerae or spinnerets 24.20. Carapace 10.32 long, 9.41 wide, 5.98 high. Chelicera: 5.17 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 11.51, 6.20, 10.97, 9.14, 4.81, 42.63; II: 10.45, 5.05, 9.51, 8.98, 4.15, 38.14; III: 8.56, 4.06, 7.5, 8.71, 3.98, 32.81; IV: 11.3, 3.96, 8.01, 8.73, 5.55, 36.55; Palp: 6.37, 3.65, 6.52, -, 2.14, 18.68. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 1.77, 1.87, 2.08, 2.01, palp= 1.32; patellae I–IV= 1.73, 1.76, 1.82, 1.72, palp= 1.48; tibiae I–IV= 1.51, 1.35, 1.43, 1.67, palp= 1.44; metatarsi I–IV= 1.03, 1.20, 1.02, 1.13; tarsi I–IV= 0.98, 1.07, 1.05, 1.09, palp= 1.31. Abdomen: 12.01 long, 7.23 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 0.67 long, 0.27 wide, 0.25 apart; PLS, 1.43 basal, 0.85 middle, 1.55 distal; midwidths 0.35, 0.46, 0.50, respectively. Carapace: 1.10 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae conspicuous. Fovea: deep, straight, 0.51 wide. Eyes: eye tubercle 0.58 high, 0.91 long, 1.32 wide. Clypeus: absent. Anterior eye row straight, posterior recurved. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.32, ALE 0.28, PME 0.15, PLE 0.23, AME– AME 0.19, AME–ALE 0.07, AME–PME 0.11, ALE–ALE 0.92, ALE–PME 0.22, PME–PME 0.74, PME–PLE 0.06, PLE–PLE 1.00, ALE–PLE 0.13. Maxilla: length to width 1.60. Cuspules: ca. 106 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 0.56 long, 0.77 wide, with ca. 87 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Chelicera: basal segment with 9 teeth in row. Sternum: 2.82 long, 2.00 wide.

Legs: Formula: I IV II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 0.86. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate; IV with few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 2/3 distal; IV 1/4 distal. IV divided by rows of setae. Spination: Palps and legs (ventral apical: tibia/metatarsi): Palp 0; I: 1 behind retrolateral process of tibial apophysis; II: 2/0; III 2/2; IV 0/2. Tibial apophysis ( Figs 28–30 View FIGURES 24–31 ): with two processes, retrolateral larger than prolateral, one spine at side of prolateral, another on apical part of retrolateral process. Conspicuous triangular protuberance behind retrolateral process. Metatarsus I folds on retrolateral side of tibial apophysis.

Palp ( Figs 24–27 View FIGURES 24–31 ): tegulum length 0.90, width 0.75, embolus proximal width 0.25, length 3.81. Embolus proximal portion straight. Embolus length to tegulum length: 4.23, curves gently to retrolateral side. Embolus distal portion narrows abruptly ending in curved tip.

Color pattern (preserved in alcohol): Carapace, legs, palpal femora and tibiae brown, with blue-violet shades; abdomen purple with proximal transverse line connected with central vertical line forming “T” shape.

Redescription. Female (INPA 9093). Total length, not including chelicerae or spinnerets 28.62. Carapace 13.37 long, 11.38 wide, 7.82 high. Chelicera: 6.88 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 10.59, 6.14, 8.59, 8.05, 4.67, 38.04; II: 9,94, 5.78, 7.75, 7.53, 5.11, 36.11; III: 7.90, 4.57, 6.65, 7.58, 4.48, 31.18; IV: 10.61, 5.31, 9.57, 10.42, 4.34, 40.25; Palp: 7.26, 4.22, 5.02, -, 6.04, 22.54. Midwidths: femora I–IV= 2.16, 2.14, 2.13, 2.15 palp= 1.83; patellae I–IV= 2.16, 2.00, 2.03, 2.02, palp= 2.02; tibiae I–IV= 1.92, 1.67, 1.76, 2.06, palp= 1.90; metatarsi I–IV= 1.73, 1.51, 1.24, 1.27; tarsi I–IV= 1.69, 1.64, 1.45, 1.26, palp= 1.79. Abdomen: 14.02 long, 8.57 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.81 long 0.95 wide, 0.33 apart; PLS, 2.24 basal, 1.79 middle, 3.25 distal; midwidths 1.59, 1.64, 1.31, respectively. Carapace: 1.17 times longer than wide; cephalic region slightly raised, thoracic striae conspicuous. Fovea: deep, straight, 1.52 wide. Eyes: eye tubercle 0.99 high, 2.09 long, 3.07 wide. Clypeus: absent. Anterior eye row straight, posterior slightly recurved. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0,66, ALE 0.62, PME 0.46, PLE 0.55, AME–AME 0.49, AME–ALE 0.20 AME–PME 0.39, ALE–ALE 2.19, ALE–PME 0.39, PME–PME 1.67, PME–PLE 0.13, PLE–PLE 2.27, ALE–PLE 0.30. Maxilla: length to width 1.66. Cuspules: ca. 132 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: 1.79 long, 2.14 wide, with ca. 119 cuspules spaced by one diameter from each other on anterior third. Chelicera: basal segment with 10 teeth in row. Sternum: 6.59 long, 5.10 wide.

Legs: Formula: I = IV II III. Length leg IV to I: 1.06. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate; IV with a few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III 1/2 distal with a row of spiniform setae; IV 1/4 distal. IV divided by rows of setae. Spination: Palps and legs (ventral apical: tibia/metatarsi): Palp 2; I: 2/0; II 2/0; III 2/ row of spiniform setae; IV 2/ row of spiniform setae.

Spermathecae ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 24–31 ): Two spermathecae completely separated, with base wider than in middle, an apical small well-sclerotized rounded lobe of less diameter than width of mid-spermathecae.

Color pattern (preserved in alcohol): Carapace brown with violet shades; legs, palpal femora, and tibiae brown; abdomen brown with violet shades, with a central longitudinal line.

Distribution. Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil ( Figs 21, 23 View FIGURES 21–23. 21 ).

Remarks. Tapinauchenius violaceus ( Mello-Leitão, 1930) (described originally as Ephebopus violaceus ) and T. purpureus Schmidt, 1995 were considered synonyms by West et al. (2008). Tapinauchenius violaceus holotype is a very small specimen, badly preserved. The small spermathecae are comparable to those of T. plumipes ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 53–57 ). The specific name, violaceus , makes reference to the purple color pattern on the abdomen which is also found in T. plumipes females. The type locality, Cuminá River, in northwestern state of Pará, Brazil, is in the known geographic distribution of T. plumipes . Therefore, we consider T. violaceus a junior synonym of T. plumipes .

Tapinauchenius purpureus Schmidt, 1995 was described from a female exuvium, a female (holotype) and a male (paratype) collected at “Piste de Coralie PK4, Port de la Conte (Route de l’Est, Cacao, French Guyana). Spermathecae shape ( Schmidt 1995b, fig. 1), female color pattern and type locality in French Guyana are congruent with those of T. plumipes . Thus, we consider T. purpureus a junior synonym of T. plumipes .

The spermathecae on mounted slide probably belonging to the exuvium is part of the type material ( Fig. 56 View FIGURES 53–57 ) but does not fit well with that of T. plumipes . It probably belongs to the new species herein described as Amazonius germani n. gen. n. sp. which is also found in French Guiana.

Pachystopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 was described with two immature specimens from Guyana, Campo di Marlissa and Campo I Demerara in a short, three line long description. The larger specimen (lectotype) lacks urticating setae and maxillary lyra, has some apical spines at distal tibiae and metatarsi and the anterior ocular row is straight. Thus, there is no doubt it belongs to Tapinauchenius , as already proposed by Bertani (2012). Additionally, it has some spinose setae ventrally on distal metatarsi III which is found in T. plumipes female and immatures and the type locality is close to the boundary with Suriname, the type locality of T. plumipes . Therefore, we consider Pachystopelma concolor Di Caporiacco, 1947 a junior synonym of Tapinauchenius plumipes (C. L. Koch, 1842) .

Tapinauchenius gigas Caporiacco, 1954 was described from three syntypes from Saint Jean du Maroni, French Guiana, collected by the botanist Benoist in December 1913. The three specimens were examined and only one female belongs to Tapinauchenius , which is, herein, designed as the lectotype. The other two specimens, a female and immature male (paralectotypes) belong to Ephebopus , and are identified by us as E. murinus . The lectotype lacks a maxillary lyra ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 46–52 ) and has typical Tapinauchenius plumipes spermathecae, long and with constriction near the tip, forming a small and strongly sclerotized lobe ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 46–52 ). The type locality is in the known geographic distribution of T. plumipes . We, therefore, consider T. gigas Caporiacco, 1954 as a junior synonym of T. plumipes (C. L. Koch, 1842) .

Schmidt (1994c) described a male and published a spermathecae drawing of an exuvium of a female he identified as T. gigas from French Guiana. However, Schmidt (1994c) did not examine the types of Caporiacco (1954) and surely misidentified the specimens used in his redescription of T. gigas . He was followed by Auer, Huber & Bochtler (2007) and Hüsser (2018). The species misidentified by Schmidt (1994c) remained undescribed until now, being herein described as Amazonius germani n. sp.

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

MZUF

Museo Zoologico La Specola, Universita di Firenze

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Tapinauchenius

Loc

Tapinauchenius plumipes (C. L. Koch, 1842 )

Cifuentes, Yeimy & Bertani, Rogerio 2022
2022
Loc

Tapinauchenius concolor:

Bertani, R. 2012: 29
2012
Loc

Tapinauchenius violaceus

West, R. & Marshall, S. D. & Fukushima, C. S. & Bertani, R. 2008: 39
2008
Loc

Tapinauchenius purpureus

Schmidt, G. 1995: 11
1995
Loc

Avicularia violacea:

Lucas, S. & Silva Jr., P. I. da & Bertani, R. 1992: 163
1992
Loc

Tapinauchenius gigas

Caporiacco, L. di 1954: 50
1954
Loc

Pachystopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947: 21

Caporiacco, L. di 1947: 21
1947
Loc

Ephebopus violaceus Mello-Leitão, 1930 b: 56

Bonnet, P. 1956: 1710
Roewer, C. F. 1942: 258
Petrunkevitch, A. 1939: 292
1939
Loc

Avicularia deborrii

Simon, E. 1886: 133
Becker, L. 1879: 143
1879
Loc

Tapinauchenius plumipes: Ausserer, 1871: 201

Cifuentes, Y. & Perafan, C. 2020: 110
Schmidt, G. 1994: 259
Bonnet, P. 1959: 4239
Roewer, C. F. 1942: 257
Petrunkevitch, A. 1939: 290
Petrunkevitch, A. 1928: 82
Petrunkevitch, A. 1911: 90
Ausserer, A. 1871: 201
1871
Loc

Eurypelma plumipes: C. L. Koch, 1850: 73

Simon, E. 1864: 67
Koch, C. L. 1850: 73
1850
Loc

Mygale plumipes C. L. Koch, 1842: 67

Koch, C. L. 1842: 67
1842