Bombyx mandarina ( Moore, 1872 )

Wang, Xing, Wang, Min, Zolotuhin, Vadim V., Hirowatari, Toshiya, Wu, Shipher & Huang, Guo-Hua, 2015, The fauna of the family Bombycidae sensu lato (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hainan Islands, Zootaxa 3989 (1), pp. 1-138: 9-10

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3989.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9BCFFC47-43D1-47B8-BA56-70A129E6A63F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BB102D-FFBE-CE18-A2B5-1899F403A2EF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bombyx mandarina ( Moore, 1872 )
status

 

2. Bombyx mandarina ( Moore, 1872)  ( FIGURES 1View FIGURE 1 C – 1 D, 2 A – 2 C, 3 D)

Bombyx mandarina Moore, 1872  , Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1872: 576, pl. XXXIII, fig. 5. TL: [ China] "Neighborhood of Shanghai". Holotype: male ( BMNH) [examined].

Theophila mandarina formosana Matsumura, 1927  , J. Coll. Agric. Hokkaido Univ. 19: 51, pl. V, fig. 47. TL: " Formosa (Horisha)" (= Taiwan). Holotype: male (Sapporo University) [examined].

Diagnosis. The male genitalia of B. mandarina  are similar to those of B. mori  , but the species can be distinguished the latter by the following characters: body and wings brown or reddish brown; forewing with a dark crescentshaped apical spot, medial line broad and arched; postmedial lines almost straight; submarginal line edged with white.

Specimens examined. 1 male, holotype of mandarina  , Shanghai, N. China ( BMNH); 1 male, type of formosana, det. Matsumura, Type, Matsumura, Baibara, 22.VII. 1925 (Sapporo University); [ZHEJIANG] Longquan City: 1 male, Mt. Huangmaojian, 1400–1880 m, March to middle April 2000, J. Li leg. (MWM); [ TAIWAN] Yilan County: 1 male, 10.VIII. 1936, Taiheizan (Mt. Taiping), 24 ˚ 29 ’N, 121 ˚ 31 ’E, E. & S. Asahina leg., Syoziro Asahina’s collection, donation, 1998 ( NSMT); 1 female, Fushan Botanic Garden, 750 m, 9.VI. 2011, Shipher Wu & Wei-Chung Chang leg. ( TFRI); Nantou County: 1 male, Aowanda, 1100 m, 8.XI. 2012, Shipher Wu & Wei-Chun Chang leg. ( TFRI); Pingtung County: 1 male, Nanrenshan, 25.IX. 2013. Jing-Fu Tsai leg. ( TFRI); Taitung County: 1 female, 5 km west of Chipen, 350 m, 15–16.V. 1997, Gy. M. Laszlo & G. Laszlo leg. (MWM); 138 males and 28 females from different counties of Taiwan (Taitung, Taoyuan, Ping-Tung, Kaoshiung, Ilan, Nantou) (MWM); [ HENAN] Xinyang City: 2 males, Dabie Shan, 1500 m, 15 km south of Shou-Man village, 31 ˚ 33 ’N, 114 ˚ 48 ’E, September 2000, local collector leg. (MWM); [ HUBEI] Huanggang City: 4 males and 1 female, Tapieh Shan (Mt. Dabieshan), June to August 1999, J. Li leg. (MWM); Shiyan City: 1 male, Mt. Niutou, 1550 m, August 2000, local collector leg. (MWM); 5 males, Mt. Wudangshan, 1500 m, 32 ˚ 16 ’N, 110 ˚ 57 ’E, summer 2000, local collector leg. (MWM); Fangxian County: Heishan Mt., August 1998, Li leg., via A. Schintlmeister, November 2000 in W. A. Nassig’s collection; [ HUNAN] Taoyuan County (Wuyunjie National NR): 1 male, 26.VIII. 2008, Guo-Hua Liu leg. ( HUNAU); Dong’an County (Shunhuangshan National Park): 1 larva on Morus australis  , bred, adult emerged September 2008, Liu-Sheng Chen & Min Wang leg. ( SCAU); [GUANGXI] Fangchenggang City (Shiwandashan National NR): 4 males, 30 km southwest of Nanping town, 900 m, 21 ˚ 43 ’N, 107 ˚ 32 ’E, 1–14.IV. 2003, Siniaev & local collector leg. (MWM); [SHAANXI] Xi’an City (Mts. Qinling): 1 male, 1850 m, 40 km south of Xi’An, 33 ˚ 52 ’N, 108 ˚ 50 ’E, 22–24.VI. 2004, Viktor Sinyaev leg. (MWM); Taibai County (Mts. Tsinling (Qinling), Mt. Taibaishan, Houzhenzi): 16 males, 1400 m, IX. 1998, 33˚ 51 ’N, 107 ˚ 49 ’E, local collector leg. (MWM); 1 male, Dudamen village, 1500 m, 33 ˚ 50 ’N, 107 ˚ 41 ’E, October 2003, Viktor Sinyaev leg. (MWM); 19 males, China, 1500 m, IX. 2000, 33˚ 53 ’N, 107 ˚ 49 ’E, local collector leg. (MWM); 11 males, 1400 m, October 1998, 33˚ 51 ’N, 107 ˚ 49 ’E, local collector leg. (MWM); 8 males, 1600 m, 27.V –08.VI. 1999, 33˚ 53 ’N, 107 ˚ 49 ’E, local collector leg. (MWM); 6 males, 1500 m, summer 2000, 33 ˚ 53 ’N, 107 ˚ 49 ’E, local collector leg. (MWM); Ningshan County: 4 males, 1500 m, near Ningshan town, 33 ˚ 44 ’N, 106 ˚ 26 ’E, X. 2001, local collector leg. (MWM); Mts. Daba Shan (Tapa Shan): 7 males, 1800 m, 15 km south of Shou-Man village, 32 ˚08’N, 108 ˚ 37 ’E, summer 2000, local collector leg. (MWM); 1 male and 1 female, 1000 m, Shou-Man village, 32 ˚ 14 ’N, 108 ˚ 34 ’E, 24–25.V. 2000, Siniaev & Plutenko leg. (MWM); 1 female, 900–1000 m, 32 ˚ 56 ’N, 109 ˚ 25 ’E, 20–24.VIII. 2001, local collector leg. (MWM); [SICHUAN] Luding County: 1 male, Moxi Town, 20.VII. 2004, Min Wang & Liu-Sheng Chen Leg. ( SCAU); Yajiang County: 1 male, Bajiaolou Town, 5.VIII. 2004, Min Wang & Liu-Sheng Chen leg. ( SCAU); Danba City: 6 males, 30 km N Danba city, Mt. Maiduoer Shan, July 1999, Li & Wang leg. (MWM); 1 male, Laolinkou, 1900 m, 28 ˚ 21 ’N, 103 ˚ 26 ’E, 26.VI – 12.VII. 2008, Viktor Sinyaev leg. (MWM); [YUNNAN] Weishan County (Mt. Weibaoshan): 2800 m, September 2002, Ying et al. leg. (MWM); [XIZANG ( TIBET)] Ost-Tibet (Mt. Meilixueshan): 6000 m, July 1999, Wang & Li leg. (MWM).

Bionomics. The larval hosts of this species include Morus australis Poir., 1796  , Morus alba Linn., 1753  and Broussonetia papyrifera (Linn., 1799) L'Hér. ex Vent.  ( Moraceae  ), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., 1753  ( Malvaceae  ), Diospyros kaki Thunb., 1780  and Diospyros oleifera Cheng, 1935  ( Ebenaceae  ), Quercus  spp. ( Fagaceae  ) and Malus  sp. ( Rosaceae  ) ( Miyata, 1983; Chu & Wang, 1996). Numerous specimens were collected between July and August 1925 by T. Uchida, R. Saito & K. Kikuchi in Taiwan. Eggs are laid singly or in large clusters without touching each other (Plate 2 D). The larva has a short horn (Plate 2 E – 2 G) and the pupa is formed in a yellowish-green cocoon spun between mulberry leaves (Plate 2 H). Adults fly in forests from lowlands at about 350 m to 2000 m in Taiwan (Plate 2 A – 2 C).

Distribution. Mainland China (Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Jiangsu, Hebei, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Xizang) and Taiwan, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East.

Remarks. Widely distributed in China, B. mandarina  is a typical Eastern Palaearctic species. The horn on the larvae is present, though short, and the color pattern is more striking and contrasted, as illustrated by Miyata (1970). The cocoon of B. mandarina  is rather loose and irregular so considerable artificial selection must have being applied to yield the neat, tightly woven cocoon of B. mori  .

NSMT

National Science Museum (Natural History)

TFRI

Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Bombycidae

Genus

Bombyx

Loc

Bombyx mandarina ( Moore, 1872 )

Wang, Xing, Wang, Min, Zolotuhin, Vadim V., Hirowatari, Toshiya, Wu, Shipher & Huang, Guo-Hua 2015
2015
Loc

Theophila mandarina formosana

Matsumura 1927
1927
Loc

Bombyx mandarina

Moore 1872
1872