Ernolatia Walker, 1862

Wang, Xing, Wang, Min, Zolotuhin, Vadim V., Hirowatari, Toshiya, Wu, Shipher & Huang, Guo-Hua, 2015, The fauna of the family Bombycidae sensu lato (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hainan Islands, Zootaxa 3989 (1), pp. 1-138: 51-53

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3989.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9BCFFC47-43D1-47B8-BA56-70A129E6A63F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BB102D-FF84-CE25-A2B5-1DB4F375A3EE

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scientific name

Ernolatia Walker, 1862
status

 

XII. Ernolatia Walker, 1862  (FIGURE 19)

Ernolatia Walker, 1862  , J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 6: 131. Type species: Ernolatia signata Walker, 1862  , by monotypy. Ernolatia: Hampson  , [1893], Fauna Brit. India I: 34; Strand, 1922, in Seitz, Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde: 437. Ocinara: Roepke, 1924  , Tijdschr. Ent. 67: 174.

Diagnosis. The genus is unmistakable, characterized by the following characters: forewing cream or yellowishwhite; outer margin angled at apex of M 3; discal cell with a thin crescentic spot; outer and inner margins of fore and hindwings with short fringes; uncus narrow, turret-shaped, shallowly bifid apically; gnathos reduced; valvae completely reduced, their role played by enlarged laterocaudal processes of sternum VIII; saccus broad and short; aedeagus short and straight.

Distribution. Oriental Region.

Remarks. The type species, Ernolatia signata  , was originally described by Walker (1862) as a “liparid” moth (which would now refer to Noctuoidea, Erebidae  , Lymantriinae  ) and was later moved to Bombycidae  by Kirby (1892). The larva has small excrescences on T 2, A 2 and A 5, and a horn on A 8 (Roepke, 1924; Lin, 2005). Robinson et al. (2010) reported that the species E. lida  has the host plants Ficus septica Burm.  f., 1768 (= F. leucantatoma Poir.  ), F. el as t i c a Roxb. ex Hornem., 1814 and F. benjamina  L., 1767 (all Moraceae  ) in Southeast Asia. In this paper, a single Ernolatia  species is recorded from China (Map 12).

Map 12. Distribution of Ernolatia  spp. mainly in China 30. Ernolatia moorei  (Hutton, 1865) (FIGURES 19 A – 19 H)

Ocinara moorei Hutton, 1865  , Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 2 (3): 326. TL: “at Mussooree at an elevation of about 5,400 feet ”. Syntypes: male, female ( BMNH) [examined].

Bombyx plana Walker, 1865  , List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln. Br. Mus. 32: 575. TL: “ Hong Kong ”. Type: female ( BMNH) [examined]. Synonymized by Dierl, (1978).

Ocinara bipuncta Chu & Wang, 1993  , Sinozoologia 10: 228, fig. 8, pl. 1, fig. 8. TL: Putian, Fujian, China. Holotype, male in IZAS [not examined]. Synonymized by Zolotuhin & Witt (2009).

Ocinara moorei: Kirby, 1892  , A synonymic catalogue of Lepidoptera Heterocera  1: 717; Hampson, [1893], Fauna Brit. India I: 35; Strand, 1922, in Seitz, Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde: 437; Roepke 1924, Tijdschr. Ent.: 177.

Ocinara plana: Hampson, 1892  , Fauna Brit. India I: 35; Strand, 1922, in Seitz, Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde: 437.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from other Ernolatia  species by submarginal line of forewing gray and broad with a slimsy wave, the intersection of costa and submarginal line with a black spot, sternal processes shallowly bifid at the apex. Those characters can help us to distinguish this species from other Chinese bombycid moths.

Specimens examined. [ZHEJIANG] Linhai City: 4 male, Mt. Kuocangshan, Lingjiang river, 600–900 m, March to middle April 2000, S. Li leg. (MWM); [ TAIWAN] 225 males and 46 females from different counties of Taiwan (Taitung, Taoyuan, Ping-Tung, Kaoshiung, Ilan, Nantou) (MWM); Pingtung County: 2 males, Kending, 10.X. 2000, D. Anstine leg. ( TFRI); Kaoshiung County: 1 male, Shanping, 25.II. 1988, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); Yilan County: 2 males, Fushan Botanical Garden, 13.VI. 1991, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); New Taipei City: 1 male, Aroukeng, Shenkeng, 14.II. 1992, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); Hualien County: 1 male, Lvshui, 23.I. 1989, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); 1 male, Tianxiang, 6.V. 1990, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); Nantou County: 1 male, Lianhuachi, Yuchi, 12.III. 1990, Yi-Bin Fan leg. ( TFRI); [GUANGDONG] Conghua County: 1 male, Liuxihe Liver, 1.VI. 2006, Min Wang leg. ( SCAU); [GUANGXI] Fangchenggang City (Shiwandashan National NR): 1 male, Dongzhong Forest Farm, 14.XI. 2001, Min Wang & Guo-Hua Huang leg. ( SCAU); [HAINAN] Wuzhishan City (Wuzhishan National NR): 23 males and 1 female, 18 ˚ 53 ’N, 109 ˚ 43 ’E, 1500 m, 20.II – 10.IV. 2001, local collector leg. (MWM); Ledong County (Jianfengling National NR): 3 males, 29.XI. 2003, Min Wang & Guo-Hua Huang leg. ( SCAU); Baisha County (Yinggeling National NR): 1 male, 6.IX. 2005, Min Wang leg. ( SCAU); 1 male, Daoyin Village, 4.XII. 2005, Min Wang & Wei Xiong leg. ( SCAU); [SHAANXI] Taibai County: 1 female, Mts. Tsinling (Qinling), Mt. Taibaishan, 1600 m, Houzbenzi, 15.VI – 15.X. 1999, 33˚ 53 ’N, 107 ˚ 49 ’E, local collector leg. (MWM); [SICHUAN] Baoxing County: 1 male, Donglashan Grand Canyon, Longdong Town, 24.V. 2004, Min Wang & Guo-Hua Huang leg. ( HUNAU); [YUNNAN] Fugong County (42 km N Fugong, 1390 m, Lishadi (=Walo), 27 ˚ 15 ’N, 98 ˚ 55 ’E): 3 males and 3 females, 12–16.V. 1999, R. Brechlin leg. (MWM); 5 males and 2 females, 15– 27.X. 1999, local collector leg. (MWM); Dali City: 9 males, 1200 m, 20 km south of Dali city, 16.III – 10.IV. 2000, 24˚ 30 ’N, 100 ˚01’E, local collector leg. (MWM); Simao County: 1 male, 18 km south of Simao county, Mt. Mangxiba, 22 ˚ 28 ’N, 101 ˚01’E, 26.II – 20.III. 1999, local collector leg. (MWM); Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture: 5 females, Puwen, 900 m, 10–30.IV. 2000, 22˚ 30 ’N, 100 ˚02’E, Brechlin’s local collector leg. (MWM); Yunlong County: 3 males, 13 km north of Caojian town, Fengshuining Mts., 2460 m, 10–23.VI. 1999, R. Brechlin leg. (MWM); Mouding County: 2 females, 1300 m, 16.III – 10.IV. 2000, 25˚ 19 ’N, 101 ˚ 32 ’E, local collector leg. (MWM); [XIZANG ( TIBET)] 1 female, Menia, Hotchu river, 2500–3000 m, June to August (MWM).

Bionomics. Morus alba Linn., 1753  , Ficus microcarpa Linn., 1781  and F. superba Miq., 1867  ( Moraceae  ) have all been reported as larval host plants in China (Chu & Wang, 1993; Lin, 2005), and Ficus venosa  in India. Eggs are laid in line touching each other. The larvae belong to the common bombycid type (Plate 6 H). Adults are found from lowland forests (500 m) to upper montane forests (200 m) throughout the year (Plate 6 E – 6 G). Kishida (2011) reported that this species had been collected from Ishigaki Shima in Japan. In Taiwan, specimens have been collected throughout the year, with apparently 2–3 generations (known from January to July and again in October to December), at elevations from 210 to 1370 m, but also rarely known from up to 2320 m.

Distribution. Mainland China (Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Hongkong, Guangxi, Shannxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Xizang), Hainan and Taiwan Islands, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, India.

Remarks. Based on the extreme similarity in appearance of the two species, E. lida  (Moore, [1860] and E. moorei  , the ranges of these two species needs verification, especially in the southern parts of southeastern Asia (Holloway, 1987).

FIGURE 19. Adults and male genitalia of Ernolatia moorei  . A –B. Male (Mussuree), holotype; C –D. Male ( India), paratype; E. Male (Guangxi); F. Male genitalia (Guangxi); G. Male ( Thailand); H. Female ( Thailand).

IZAS

Institut Zoologii Akademii Nauk Ukraini - Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

TFRI

Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute