Benthana xiquinhoi Campos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti,

Campos-Filho, Ivanklin Soares, Fernandes, Camile Sorbo, Cardoso, Giovanna Monticelli, Bichuette, Maria Elina, Aguiar, José Otávi, 2019, Two new species and new records of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Brazilian caves, Zootaxa 4564 (2), pp. 422-448: 434-438

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Benthana xiquinhoi Campos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti

sp. n.

Benthana xiquinhoi Campos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti  sp. n.

Figs 11–13View FIGURE 11View FIGURE 12View FIGURE 13, 18DView FIGURE 18

Zoobank. .

Philosciidae  indet 2 Gallão & Bichuette, 2018: 12, table 2.

Etymology. The new species is named after Raimundo Cruz do Santos, also called ‘Xiquinho’, for his great contribution to cave surveys and his enthusiasm for cave fauna and discoveries.

Material examined. Holotype Bahia, Andaraí, Povoado de Igatu: male ( LES 6353View Materials), Gruna Parede Vermelha cave , 12°52’41”S, 41°18’57”W, 2 April 2013, leg. M.E. Bichuette, J.E. Gallão and D.M. von Schimonsky.GoogleMaps  Paratypes: 2 males ( LES 6352View Materials) (parts in micropreparations), same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  ; 1 female ( LES 6335View Materials), same locality, 31 May 2010, leg. M.E. Bichuette, B. Rantin, J.E. Gallão and L. B. SimõesGoogleMaps  ; 1 female (parts in micropreparations) ( LES 6337View Materials), same locality, 29 October 2010, leg. M.E. Bichuette and J. E. GallãoGoogleMaps  ; 1 female ( LES 6342View Materials), Gruna Veio de Aurélio cave , 12°51’36”S, 41°18’11”W, 28 October 2010, leg. M.E. Bichuette and J. E. GallãoGoogleMaps  ; 2 females, 1 juvenile ( LES 6348View Materials), Gruna Lava Pé cave , 12°53’42”S, 41°19’04”W, 30 March 2013, leg. M.E. Bichuette, J. E. Gallão and D.M. von Schimonsky.GoogleMaps 

Description. Maximum body length: male 9.5 mm, female 10.5 mm. Colour light brown: cephalon with irregular unpigmented spots; pereonites 1–7 weakly pigmented on medial portion, epimera more pigmented; pleonites 1–5 with unpigmented spots on medial portion, pleonites 3–5 more pigmented on paramedian and median portions; telson pigmented.

Body convex, outline as in Fig. 11AView FIGURE 11. Dorsal surface smooth bearing few long triangular scale-setae ( Fig. 11BView FIGURE 11). Noduli laterales long, one line per side with d/c coordinates reaching a maximum on pereonite 4; b/c coordinates gradually decreasing ( Fig. 11C, DView FIGURE 11). Cephalon ( Fig. 11EView FIGURE 11) with suprantennal line bent downwards in middle, no frontal line and lateral lobes; eyes composed of 10–12 small ommatidia arranged in four rows. Pereonites 1–4 with postero-lateral corners right-angled with rounded apices and posterior margins straight; pereonites 5–7 with postero-lateral corners gradually more acute and posterior margins gradually more arched. Pleon narrower than pereon, pleonites 3–5 with epimera triangular, acute, and directed backwards ( Fig. 11AView FIGURE 11). Telson ( Fig. 11FView FIGURE 11) triangular, lateral sides straight and apex broadly rounded.

Antennula ( Fig. 11GView FIGURE 11) of three articles, distal article longest bearing seven lateral aesthetascs plus apical pair. Antenna ( Fig. 11HView FIGURE 11) very long, reaching pereonite 4 when extended backwards, distal article of peduncle longer than flagellum; flagellum of three articles, proximal article longest, apical organ short bearing two long sensilla.

Mandibles with molar penicil of eight branches and dense cushion of setae, left mandible ( Fig. 12AView FIGURE 12) with 2+1 penicils, and right mandible ( Fig. 12BView FIGURE 12) with 1+1 penicils. Maxillula ( Fig. 12CView FIGURE 12) outer endite with two penicils, distal margin rounded; outer endite with 4+6 teeth, five of them pectinate, one short and simple. Maxilla ( Fig. 12DView FIGURE 12) outer lobe twice as wide as inner lobe with distal margin sinuous, covered with thin setae; inner lobe rounded covered with thick setae. Maxilliped ( Fig. 12EView FIGURE 12) with rectangular basis with sparse setae; endite rectangular, distal margin slightly sinuous, medial seta surpassing distal margin, two hooks on distal margin, longitudinal ridge bearing dense setae ending with one short triangular seta; proximal article of palp with two stout setae.

Pereopods rather slender, bearing distal fringe of hyaline scales on merus and carpus; carpus 1 with transverse antenna-grooming brush and distal seta with hand-like apex; dactylus with inner claw reaching distal margin of outer claw, dactylar and ungual setae simple, not surpassing outer claw.

Uropod ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13) protopod subquadrangular, protopod and exopod grooved on outer margin bearing glandular pores, exopod twice as long as endopod, endopod inserted proximally.

Pleopod exopods with Benthana  - type respiratory areas.

Male. Pereopods 1–3 ( Fig. 13BView FIGURE 13) merus and carpus with brushes of setae on sternal margin. Pereopod 7 ( Fig. 13CView FIGURE 13) without sexual dimorphism. Genital papilla ( Fig. 13DView FIGURE 13) with triangular ventral shield and two subapical orifices. Pleopod 1 ( Fig. 13EView FIGURE 13) exopod heart-shaped, elongated (ratio z:y= 2.15), lateral protrusion prominent with acute apex, distal margin straight; endopod longer than exopod, stout and straight, distal portion with line of short setae. Pleopod 2 ( Fig. 13FView FIGURE 13) exopod triangular, outer margin concave with two setae; endopod slender, distinctly longer than exopod. Pleopods 3 and 4 exopods as in Fig. 13G and HView FIGURE 13, respectively. Pleopod 5 exopod ( Fig. 13IView FIGURE 13) triangular, outer margin almost straight with five setae.

Remarks. The genus Benthana  comprises 28 species mainly distributed in the Atlantic Forest areas of Brazil, with Benthana picta ( Brandt, 1833)  occurring also in Paraguay ( Campos-Filho et al. 2015). Only two species were previously recorded from cave habitats, the troglobiont B. iporangensis Lima & Serejo, 1993  from Ressurgência das Areias de Água Quente and Areias de Cima caves (Areias system), and Gruta do Tatu cave, all included in conservation units in the state of São Paulo, and the non-troglomorphic and probably trogloxene B. taeniata Araujo & Buckup, 1994  from Gruta Zeferino I, state of Minas Gerais (Campos-Filho et al. 2014, 2015). Those caves are located in Chapada Diamantina region at the boundaires of Caatinga vegetation and surrounded by remains of the Atlantic forest and “campos rupestres” vegetation, a variation of Cerrado, not as dry as Caatinga ( Fig. 2C, DView FIGURE 2). The new species occurs in very humid sandy (unconsolidated) or rocky substrate with organic matter (mainly moss close to creeks inside caves), showing medium abundance and densities (lower <0.5 inds/m 2) ( Fig. 18DView FIGURE 18). The new species is considered to be troglobiotic.

Benthana xiquinhoi  sp. n. is similar to B. picta  in the shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod; it is readily distinct in the reduced number of ommatidia, 10–12 (vs. 24 in B. picta  ), telson with distal margin rounded (vs. triangular), mandibles with eight branches on molar penicil (vs. 12), uropod exopod longer than endopod (vs. subequal), male pleopod 1 endopod straight (vs. bent outward s). Only Benthana schubarti Lemos de Castro, 1958  and B. iporangensis  show eyes with reduced number of ommatidia, 16 and 18, respectively; Benthana xiquinhoi  sp. n. distinctly differs from those species in the shape of the male pleopod 1 exopod (see Campos-Filho et al. 2015).














Benthana xiquinhoi Campos-Filho, Bichuette & Taiti

Campos-Filho, Ivanklin Soares, Fernandes, Camile Sorbo, Cardoso, Giovanna Monticelli, Bichuette, Maria Elina, Aguiar, José Otávi 2019


Gallao, J. E. & Bichuette, M. E. 2018: 12