Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas Kiesenwetter, 1857,

Baiocchi, Daniele & Magnani, Gianluca, 2018, A revision of the Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas Kiesenwetter, 1857 species-group (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Anthaxiini), Zootaxa 4370 (3), pp. 201-254: 219-225

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Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas Kiesenwetter, 1857
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Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas Kiesenwetter, 1857 

( Figs. 10, 11, 12, 18View FIGURES 10‒20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30View FIGURES21‒30, 40, 41, 42, 43View FIGURES 40‒43, 44, 45, 46, 47View FIGURES 44‒47, 82, 83View FIGURES 78‒83, 92, 93View FIGURES. 90‒99, 103View FIGURES100‒109, 108View FIGURES100‒109, 114View FIGURES110‒115, 115View FIGURES110‒115, 119View FIGURES 116‒120, 122View FIGURES 121‒135, 127View FIGURES 121‒135, 132View FIGURES 121‒135, 136View FIGURES 136‒138)

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas Kiesenwetter, 1857: 90  ‒91. Type locality: “Südfrankreich, Italien und Dalmatien”.

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas: Barthe, 1902: 10  (faunistic catalogue); Cobos, 1986: 308 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy); Ruicănescu & Serafim, 1996: 69, 73 ( Fig.3CView FIGURES 1‒9) (faunistics); Bílý, 1997: 28, 61, 92, 94, 98, 117, 133, 148, 150, 161, 164, 169 (catalogue); Ruicănescu, 1997: 125 (faunistics; taxonomy); Mühle et al., 2000: 128, 221 (map 122) (faunistic catalogue); Sakalian & Langourov, 2001: 152, 157, 162 (faunistics); Muskovits & Hegyessy, 2002: 183, Fig. 62View FIGURES 62‒65 (faunistic catalogue); Ruicănescu, 2002: 128 (faunistics); Sakalian, 2003: 117 (map 86), 118 (faunistic catalogue); Verdugo Páez, 2005: 105, 118 (faunistic catalogue); Bílý, 2006: 59, 372 (catalogue); Sakalian, 2007: 11, 13, 14 ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1‒9 /2), 15, 16 (taxonomy); Bellamy, 2008: 1426 (catalogue); Izzillo, 2010: 3 (faunistics); Ruicănescu, 2013: 81, 82 ( Fig. 60View FIGURES 58‒61) (faunistic catalogue); López Vergara et al., 2015: 412 (faunistics); Kubáň et al., 2016: 499 (catalogue).

Anthaxia midas: Jacquelin Du Val, 1861: 141  (catalogue, systematics); Marseul, 1863: 136 (catalogue); 1865: 229, 230, 235 (syn. of croesus sensu Gory & Laporte  (not cresus (Villers))  (monograph); Stein, 1868: 61 (syn. of croesus (Villers))  (catalogue); Gemmiger & Harold, 1869: 1388 (syn. of croesus (Villers))  (catalogue); Bertolini, 1872: 117 (faunistic catalogue); Gozis, 1875: 48 (syn. of craesus (Villers)) (faunistic catalogue); Fauconnet, 1892: 250 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy); Kerremans, 1892: 119, 124 (catalogue); Acloque, 1897: 277 (taxonomic catalogue); Warnier, 1901: 95 (faunistic catalogue); Mayet, 1902: 117 (faunistics); Kerremans, 1903: 176 (catalogue); Mollandin De Boissy, 1903: 151 (biology); Schilsky, 1909: 113 (faunistic catalogue); Csiki, 1911: 165 (key; faunistics); Obenberger, 1912: 66‒67 (taxonomy); Caillol, 1913: 484 (faunistic catalogue); Jakobson, 1913: 792 (faunistic catalogue); Obenberger, 1917: 81 (syn. of croesus sensu Gory & Laporte  (not cresus (Villers))  (monograph); Mollandin De Boissy, 1924: 117‒118 (biology); Obenberger, 1926: 647 (catalogue); Luigioni, 1929: 587 (faunistic catalogue); Porta, 1929: 392 (faunistic catalogue); Fuente, 1930: 123 (faunistic catalogue); Obenberger, 1930: 501 (catalogue); Schaefer, 1934: 130 (taxonomy); 1936: 318, 322, 325, 328, 338, 339, 345 ( Fig. 41View FIGURES 40‒43) (faunistic catalogue); 1937: 49 (biology); 1938: 206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212 (Figs. 77,78), 214, 216, 218, 281 (faunistic catalogue); Obenberger, 1938: 192 (taxonomy); Kaszab, 1940: 92 (faunistic catalogue); Schaefer, 1940: 23, 25 (faunistics); Théry, 1942: 77, 90 ( Fig.63View FIGURES 62‒65) (monograph); Schaefer, 1944: 100, 104 (taxonomy); Peyerimhoff, 1948: 72 (faunistics); Gridelli, 1949: 171 (faunistics); Richter, 1949: 152 (subg. Cyclanthaxia  ) (monograph); Schaefer, 1950: 268, 487 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy; biology); Hervé, 1953: 562, 563 (biology); 1954: 392 (biology); 1955: 425 (biology); 1956: 331, 335 ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1‒9) (biology); Kocher, 1956: 136 (faunistic catalogue); Baudon, 1957: 251 (faunistics, taxonomy); Hervé, 1957: 817, 818, 819, 820, 823 (Fig.), 824 (faunistics, biology); Cassola, 1968: 30, 31 (faunistics); Novak, 1970: 22 (faunistics); Drovenik & Hladil, 1984: 12, 17 (faunistics); Pupier, 1993: 35 (faunistics); Vlad-Anonie & Ruicănescu, 1996: 229 (taxonomy); Sparacio, 1997: 53 (faunistic catalogue); Ruicănescu, 1998: 252 (faunistics); Muñoz et al., 1999: 199 (faunistics); San Martin et al., 2000: 78 (faunistics); Verdugo Páez, 2005: 118 (faunistic catalogue); Ruicănescu, 2008: 209 (taxonomy).

Anthaxia midas Gory & Laporte  ” sensu Schaefer, 1938: 207 (faunistic catalogue).

Anthaxia midas sensu Obenberger  : Richter, 1949: 152 (monograph); Schaefer, 1950: 487 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy; biology); Cobos, 1986: 308 (syn. of oberthuri  ) (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy).

Anthaxia midas sensu Schaefer  : Richter, 1949: 152 (monograph).

Anthaxia midas  sensu lato: Sakalian, 2007: 15 (taxonomy).

Anthaxia craesa sensu Gory & Laporte (1839: 15, Pl. 4, Fig. 19)  (monograph); Obenberger, 1917: 6, 19, 45, 81, 130, 131, Table A, Fig. 5View FIGURES 1‒9 (monograph); Richter, 1949: 152 (monograph).

Anthaxia croesa: Kiesenwetter, 1857: 90  (faunistics; taxonomy); Jacquelin Du Val, 1861: 141 (catalogue, systematics); Marseul, 1863: 136 (catalogue); Théry, 1942: 90 (monograph); Schaefer, 1950: 268, 269, 487 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy; biology); Cobos, 1986: 164 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy); Curletti, 1994: 94 (faunistic catalogue); Ruicănescu & Serafim, 1996: 73 (faunistics); Bellamy, 2008: 1426 (catalogue).

Anthaxia croesus: Marseul, 1857: 93  (catalogue); 1865: 207, 229, 230, 235 (monograph); Saunders, 1871: 52 ( croesus sensu Gory & Laporte  syn. of cresus (Villers))  (catalogue); Kerremans, 1892: 124 (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue); Barthe, 1902: 10 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue); Mayet, 1902: 117 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistics); Kerremans, 1903: 176 (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue); Schilsky, 1909: 113 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue); Csiki, 1911: 165 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue); Jakobson, 1913: 792 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue); Obenberger, 1926: 647 (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue); Luigioni, 1929: 587 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue); Fuente, 1930: 123 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue); Obenberger, 1930: 502 (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue); 1938: 206 ( Croesus sensu Gory & Laporte  , préocc. Villers), 208, 209, 216, 281 (faunistic catalogue); Schaefer, 1940: 23 (faunistics); Théry, 1942: 90 (monograph); Peyerimhoff, 1948: 72 (faunistics); Richter, 1949: 152 (monograph); Schaefer, 1950: 269 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy; biology); Cobos, 1986: 308 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy); Curletti, 1994: 94 (faunistic catalogue); Ruicănescu & Serafim, 1996: 73 (faunistics); Bílý, 1997: 28, 61, 148 (catalogue); Bellamy, 2008: 1426 (catalogue).

Anthaxia (Cyclanthaxia) croesus (Villers)  m. spathuligera: Richter, 1949: 149  , 250 (monograph).

Anthaxia salicis var. spathuligera Obenberger, 1924: 27  , Type locality: “Trebinje, Hercegovina”.

Anthaxia salicis var. spathuligera: Obenberger, 1926: 647  (spathulifera [sic!]) (catalogue); Schaefer, 1938: 211 (var. of salicis  ), 213 (ab. of salicis  ), 218 (var. of salicis  ), 28 (ab. of salicis  ) (faunistic catalogue).

Anthaxia salicis spathuligera: Cobos, 1958: 87  (taxonomy).

Anthaxia midas spathuligera: Obenberger, 1930: 529  (catalogue); 1938: 192, 193 (taxonomy); Schaefer, 1944: 100 (taxonomy); 1950: 269 (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy; biology); Muñoz et al., 1999: 199 (faunistics).

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas spathuligera: Cobos, 1986: 164  (ssp. of midas  ), 309 (syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy); Bílý, 1997: 28, 117, 164 (catalogue); 2006: 372 (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue); Bellamy, 2008: 1426, 1477 (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue).

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) spathuligera: Sakalian, 2007: 11  , 13, 14 ( Fig 5View FIGURES 1‒9 /1), 15, 16 (full species) (taxonomy); Kubáň et al., 2016: 21, 501 (catalogue).

Anthaxia midas muelleri Obenberger, 1925: 56  (Mülleri [sic!]). Type locality: “Istria”.

Anthaxia midas muelleri: Obenberger, 1926: 647  (Mülleri [sic!]) (catalogue); Porta, 1929: 393 (Mülleri [sic!]) (faunistic catalogue); Obenberger, 1930: 502 (Mülleri [sic!]) (catalogue); Schaefer, 1938: 208, 209, 281 (Mülleri [sic!], syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue); Obenberger, 1938: 192 (Mülleri [sic!]) (taxonomy); Gridelli, 1949: 171 (Mülleri [sic!]) (faunistics); Schaefer, 1950: 269 (Mülleri [sic!]) (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy; biology); Cassola, 1968: 31 ( mülleri  [sic!]) (faunistics); Cobos, 1986: 309 ( mülleri  [sic!], syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue; taxonomy); Curletti, 1994: 94 ( mülleri  [sic!], syn. of midas  ) (faunistic catalogue).

Anthaxia midas var. muelleri: Luigioni, 1929: 587  (Mülleri [sic!]) (faunistic catalogue).

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas muelleri: Ruicănescu & Serafim, 1996: 73  ( mülleri  [sic!], syn. of midas  ) (faunistics); Bílý, 1997: 28, 94, 161 ( mulleri  [sic!]) (catalogue); Bílý, 2006: 59, 372 (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue); Sakalian, 2007: 14 ( muelleri  , mülleri  [sic!]) (taxonomy); Bellamy, 2008: 1426, 1432, (syn. of midas  ) (catalogue); Kubáň et al., 2016: 21 (syn. of spathuligera  ), 501 (catalogue).

Misidentification: Anthaxia midas Kiesenwetter, 1857 sensu Tenenbaum (1915: 85)  : in fact Anthaxia (H.) croesus ( Villers, 1789)  .

Misidentification: Anthaxia midas Kiesenwetter, 1857 sensu Curletti, 1994: 94  , 228 ( Fig. 77View FIGURES 74‒77), 269, 277, 296, 298 (in fact Anthaxia (A.) oberthuri Schaefer, 1938  stat. nov.) (faunistic catalogue); Gobbi, in Gobbi & Platia, 1995: 14 (faunistic catalogue); Curletti et al., 2003: CD-Rom, species nr. 83 (faunistic catalogue); Curletti, 2005: CD-Rom: species code nr. 0 52.117.0.014.0.001 (faunistic catalogue); Baiocchi, 2008: 325, 327, 328 ( Figs 4, 5View FIGURES 1‒9), 329 ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 10‒20), 330, 331 (taxonomy).

Misidentification: Anthaxia midas: Kaufmann, 1914: 55  (wrong interpretation of Viertl (1894: 49), in fact Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia) olympica Kiesenwetter, 1880  ) (faunistic catalogue).

Misidentification: Anthaxia midas mulleri Obenberger, 1925 sensu Curletti et al., 2003  : CD-Rom, species nr. 84 (in fact Anthaxia (A.) oberthuri Schaefer, 1938  ) (faunistic catalogue).

Type specimens studied. Anthaxia (A.) midas  : lectotype by present designation (♂, MNHN: Figs. 10, 11, 18View FIGURES 10‒20; original labelling: Fig. 12View FIGURES 10‒20); paralectotype [former holotype of A. midas  , actually a specimen of A. oberthuri  ]: (♂, ZSMG: Figs. 13, 14, 16, 17View FIGURES 10‒20; original labelling: Fig. 15View FIGURES 10‒20); Anthaxia (A.) spathuligera  : (originally described as A. salicis var. spathuligera  ) lectotype by present designation (♂, NMPC inv. 22252: Figs. 21, 22, 24, 25View FIGURES21‒30, 115View FIGURES110‒115; original labelling: Fig. 23View FIGURES21‒30); Anthaxia (A.) midas muelleri  : lectotype by present designation (♀, NMPC inv. 22251: Figs. 28, 29View FIGURES21‒30; original labelling: Fig. 30View FIGURES21‒30).

Additional material studied. Croatia: Croatia Ljubovo, 730m Elev., 44.6433°N 15.4919°E, 18‒20.5.2015 M.Kafka lgt.(29 exx. MKCN; 4♂♂4♀♀ DBCR); Croatia bor., Ljubovo 900 m.n.m, 24.5.2014, Z.Minarik lgt. (1ex. MKCN); Croatia bor. mont., Ljubovo env. 980m, J.Bradka lgt. 23.‒25.5.2014 (2 exx. VHCN); 13877 // croesus De Villers  , croesa Gory Lap., Zara Schmidt  (1♂ MFNB); JUGOSLAVIA, DUBROVNIK 7.77, J. Navrátil lgt. (1ex. MKCN); JUGOSLAVIA, DUBROVNIK v.1977, J. HLADIL leg. (2♂♂ VKCB; 1♂PBCK); same data, 5 72 (1♀ HMCM); same data, ex larva 1983 (1♀ VKCB); Croatia (HR) Velebit env. Susanj M. VI.2005 leg. Zirkel (1ex. MNCA); CROAZIA VELEBIT, OSTARIJE, 3 5 87 L.PAD. MA? (1♀ GMCC); Croatia, Gorski Kotar, Zeleni Vir, 45.426124, 14.892392, 8.6.2009, leg. T. Koren (1♀ TKCZ); Croatia, Velebit, Paklenica, Paklenica Mountain home surroundings, 44.345847, 15.482083, 1.5.2008, leg. T. Koren (1♂ TKCZ). Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ilijaš [15 km NW of Sarajevo], Misoča river, Apfelbeck coll. (1♀ VKCB); Jablanica, 6.vi.1905 (1♀ VKCB). Montenegro: JUGOSLAVIA, PETROVAC, 16 6 73, J. HLADIL lgt. (1♂ GMCC); same data, vi.1974 (1♀ SBCP); same data, 1975 (1♂1♀ SBCP); same data, v. 75 (1♂ PBCK; 1♀ HMCM; 1ex. MKCN); same data, v.1976 (1♂ SBCP); same data, v.1984 (1♂2♀♀ SBCP); same data, 3/84 (1♂3♀♀ GMCC); same data, 6.86 (1ex. MKCN); same data [date not readable] (1♂1♀ MNCA); JUGOSLAVIA, PETROVAC 1984, J. HLADIL lgt. ex larve (1♂ MOCO); JUGOSLAVIA, Petrovac VI.74, lgt. Navrátil (4♂♂5♀♀ FNCB; 1♂1♀ NMPC; 1ex. MKCN); Montenegro 2014, Gornje Stravce env. Zijovo, 22.5.2014, P. Hubený lgt. (1 ex. PHCC). Macedonia: Maced. occ. Monast., St. Johan Bigorsky env., 13. VI.1994, leg. O. Hovorka (1ex. MKCN); MAKEDONIA—SW, N.P. Galicia—26.6., 600— 1500m 2014, J.Halada&M. Fabianova (1ex. MKCN); Veles [as Titov Veles], vi.1974, F. Navrátil leg. (2♂♂2♀♀ FNCB); Kozhuf plain, vi.1974, F. Navrátil leg. (1♂6♀♀ FNCB). Bulgaria: Bulgaria SW, STRUMA river valley, gara Yavorov railway station (0.8 km E), 41°44'54"N 23°09'48"E, swept, 210 m, 1.‒8.vii.1982, Vít. Kubáň leg. (1♂ VKCB). Greece: Epirus: N GREECE 2.‒17.6.12, Konitsa env. 1100m, Krajčík and Hampl lgt. (1ex. MKCN); GREECE, Ioanina, Distrato 1400m, 6.VI.1986, leg. G. Novak (1 ex. FICN; 1 ex DGCC); GRECIA, Ioanina, Oros Timfi, Vrissohori dint., 29‒30.VI.1993, leg. G. Gobbi (1 ex. FICN); VRISSOHORI GRECIA, M. TIMFI 1000m 30.VI.93, MAROZZINI LEGIT (1♂ DBCR). Macedonia: Greece centr., Thessalia, Pindos mts. E part, Kria Vrisi, 5−8.5.2008, Z. Malinka lgt. (1ex. MKCN); GREECE Thessalia N, Pindos mts, Kría Vrísi, 39°40'N 21°32'E, 800‒850 m: 9.v.2006, Z. Kraus leg. (1♂ MOCO); same data, 26.‒28.v.2006, (2♂♂ VKCB); GRAECIA, Thessalia bor., Kría Vrísi, 800‒850 m, 5.‒8.v.2008, 39°40’N 21°32’E, Zdeněk Kraus leg. (15♂♂7♀♀ NMPC); GREECE Thessalia. bor., Pindos mts. Kria Vrisi, 39°40‘44‘‘S;21°32‘28‘‘V, 11.‒13.v.2009 M. Obořil (122♂♂25♀♀ MOCO; 7♂♂3♀♀ DBCR; 49exx. MKCN; 1♂ ALCB); Katerini env., Agios Dimitros (8 km NE), 26.‒28‒v.1990, P. Zábranský leg. (1♂ VKCB). Peloponnese: GR—Peloponneso m.700, Kalavrita (Akhaia) // 1‒5‒2001, Leg. D. Gianasso (1ex. DGCC); GRECIA, Achaia, Metochi dint., 2.V.2011, leg. F. Izzillo (2 exx. FICN); GRECIA, Laconia, Sparti, strada Sotira—Soha, 750 m, 7.V.2012, leg. G. L. Agnoli (1 ex. GACB); GRECIA, Messinia, Haravgi, Polilimnio, 2.V.2013, leg. F. Izzillo (3 exx. FICN); GREECE Peloponnese, (Messinia) HARAVGHI, loc. POLILIMNIO, 36°59’N 21°51’E, 3.V.2013 A.Liberto leg. (1♂3♀♀ ALCR); GREECE (Peloponissos), (Messinia) Polilimnio, 2.V.2013 A.Liberto leg. (1♂1♀ DBCR). Thessaly: Thessalia Pindos Mts. Kalambaka Kastania 1350 m 26.5.2001 A. & F. Riedel leg. (1♂ MNCA); Griechenland, Mt. Ossa ca. 900 m, Mai 1982 leg. J. Wolf (1♂1♀ MNCA; 1♂ DBCR; 1♂ PBCK); Griechenland, Mont Ossa ca. 900m., bei Stomion, Mai 1982 leg. J. Wolf (1♂PBCK); Graecia, Mont Ossa, ca. 800m., leg. J. Wolf 8.5.82 (1♂PBCK; 1♀ DBCR); GREECE, Ossa Oros, 29.IV.2003, leg. Minetti R. (1♀ ALCB); GR. A V.86, M. OSSA, lg. Biachat (1♀PBCK); GR/Makedonia, Ossa Oros, 23.5.‒2.6.1988, leg.H.Mühle (1♂ HMCM); same data, 5.6.82 (1♂ HMCM); GR—Thessalia, Mt. Ossa, env. Stomio, 1.‒20.5.1987, leg. V+C. Brachat (1♂1♀ HMCM); Greece, Mont Ossa, 15‒06‒2007 (1♂ SHCT); same data, 20.V.2006 (1♂ SHCT); Griechenland, Mont Ossa ca. 900m., Mai 1982 leg. J. Wolf (1♂ DBCR).

Additional data from literature. Croatia: Hvar ( Novak, 1970: 22); Meleda ( Obenberger, 1917: 131). Greece: Makhedonia: Serrai, Kerkini ( Mühle et al., 2000: 129); Thessalia: Trikala, Kastanea ( Mühle et al., 2000: 129); Peloponnisos: Arkadia, Gortys ( Mühle et al., 2000: 129). Montenegro: Sutomore, Rumija ( Drovenik & Hladil, 1984: 12, 17). Romania: Caraș-Severin: Băile Herculane ( Ruicănescu & Serafim, 1996: 73); Herkules Bath ( Ruicănescu, 2008: 209). Bulgaria: Haskovo: Ivailovgrad Dam, 150 m. ( Sakalian, 2007: 14).

Morphology and variability. The size of A. midas  is rather variable and in males it ranges from 5.6 x 2.5 mm to 8.1 x 3.7 mm, while for females it ranges from 5.9 x 2.6 mm to 8.3 x 3.8 mm, with an average length to width ratio of 2.2 times longer than wide.

The background colour of the pronotum is consistently cobalt blue in the great majority of specimens, differing from A. oberthuri  where it usually tends to be more greenish-blue. The pronotal discal spots are always connected to the dark anterolateral area. The elytral background colour is usually vermilion red, on average slightly brighter than in A. oberthuri  .

The most significant character on which Obenberger (1924; 1926; 1930) and Schaefer (1938) had already separated the Balkan populations from the Western Mediterranean ones, is the shape of the basal green elytral macula. According to their observations, and differing from A. oberthuri  , in A. midas  the green stripe that runs along the elytral base should not reach to the humeral angles, and the sutural part is supposed to be always distinctly sagittate. In our study we noticed that the colouration of the elytral base is instead somewhat variable, and occasionally, as in the case of the lectotype ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 10‒20), it also reaches to the humeri. In addition, it is also possible to find specimens with a reduced extension of the sutural green part. Schaefer (1938: 207‒208) had noticed also some differences in the vertex and in the pronotal anterior margin, but these latter characters are considered to be intraspecific variability that Schaefer could not evaluate, having probably studied just a single specimen from the Balkans, namely the specimen of Gory & Laporte.

The differences that we have observed in the aedeagus instead, undoubtedly separate the two species. In fact, in A. midas  the parameres are narrowly tapered until the very sharp apex ( Figs. 18View FIGURES 10‒20, 24View FIGURES21‒30, 103View FIGURES100‒109). The median lobe is more slender and scarcely serrate if compared to A. oberthuri  , but most importantly, the lower lamella is finely spiny on the apex ( Fig. 114View FIGURES110‒115), compared to the smooth apex of A. oberthuri  ( Fig. 113View FIGURES110‒115).

Bionomy and distribution. Data on the presence of A. midas  in the large territory currently known as the Balkans are rather scarce and fragmentary, and also the distribution given in some catalogues and papers, includes countries where the species is actually not present, at least on present knowledge.

The first generic report of A. midas  from the Balkans is by Kiesenwetter (1857: 90), who included Dalmatia in its distribution. Croatia was also cited by Obenberger (1917: 131), whom generically reported A. croesus sensu Gory & Laporte  (not Villers) from Istria, and from the island of Meleda. Some years later, Obenberger described A. midas muelleri  , also from Istria, but without stating a precise locality. The species was recorded from Hvar, a Croatian island, by Novak (1970: 22), and several specimens were collected by Hladil and Navrátil in the area around Dubrovnik. More recently, the species has been collected also in more continental localities like Ljubovo (MKCN), Gorsky Kotar and the Velebit National Park (TKCZ).

Citations for Slavonia refer to the historical eastern region of Croatia, and must not be confused with Slovenia, where the species seems to have never been found. In addition to the type of A. spathuligera  , a few more specimens that we studied (VKCB) confirm its presence also in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The presence in Montenegro is confirmed by data published by Drovenik & Hladil (1984: 12, 17) and by a number of specimens collected in Petrovac by Hladil and Navrátil. Studied material confirm its presence also in Macedonia.

The data published by Sakalian (Sakalian & Langourov, 2001: 152; Sakalian, 2003: 118; 2007: 14) confirm the presence in Bulgaria, while, as Ruicănescu writes ( Ruicănescu & Serafim, 1996: 73; Ruicănescu, 2002: 128; 2008: 209; 2013: 81), the single record for Romania needs confirmation. The species is probably present also in southern Serbia and Albania, while with regard to Austria and Hungary, the presence of A. midas  in these countries must be excluded. In fact, although reported for Austria in some works, to our knowledge, not a single specimen has ever been collected there, and Obenberger (1930: 502) had already given its presence there as dubious.

Muskovits & Hegyessy (2002: 183) excluded the presence of the species in Hungary. In fact, according to Kubáň (pers. comm.) the citation by Kaufmann (1914: 55) for the area of Pécs is wrong, and is a misinterpretation of data published in the work of Viertl (1894: 49), who had reported A. croesus (Villers)  from there. Actually, the report by Viertl referred to Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia) olympica Kiesenwetter, 1880  , and the mistake is certainly due to the confused taxonomy of A. croesus  sensu lato, as happened with Tenenbaum for his report of A. oberthuri  from Spain.

Greece is the country where A. midas  has been most collected recently, and known localities are scattered over most of the country ( Mühle et al., 2000: 129). At present, it is not known if the species is present also in Greek Thrace and in European Turkey. Data on the distribution of A. midas  in the rest of Turkey ( Bílý, 2006: 372; Kubáň et al., 2016: 501 (as sphatuligera  ) regard A. (Anthaxia) cebecii  sp. nov.

Concerning the biology of the species, we have observed the larval development only in Acer  spp., and in our opinion, reports from Platanus  spp. ( Platanaceae  ) need confirmation ( Mühle et al., 2000: 129; Muskovits & Hegyessy, 2002: 183; Sakalian, 2003: 118; Izzillo, 2010: 4; Cebeci & Tezcan, 2011: 208).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Buprestidae

Genus

Anthaxia

Loc

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas Kiesenwetter, 1857

Baiocchi, Daniele & Magnani, Gianluca 2018
2018
Loc

oberthuri

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

Anthaxia midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
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midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

midas

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

Anthaxia (A.) oberthuri Schaefer, 1938

Baiocchi & Magnani 2018
2018
Loc

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) spathuligera

: Sakalian 2007: 11
2007
Loc

spathuligera

: Sakalian 2007
2007
Loc

Anthaxia midas mulleri

Obenberger, 1925 sensu Curletti et al. 2003
2003
Loc

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas muelleri: Ruicănescu & Serafim, 1996 : 73

: Ruicanescu & Serafim 1996: 73
1996
Loc

muelleri

: Ruicanescu & Serafim 1996
1996
Loc

Anthaxia midas

Kiesenwetter, 1857 sensu Curletti 1994: 94
1994
Loc

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas spathuligera:

Cobos 1986: 164
1986
Loc

Anthaxia salicis spathuligera

: Cobos 1958: 87
1958
Loc

spathuligera:

Richter 1949: 149
1949
Loc

Anthaxia (A.) oberthuri

Schaefer 1938
1938
Loc

Anthaxia midas spathuligera:

Obenberger 1930: 529
1930
Loc

Anthaxia midas var. muelleri:

Luigioni 1929: 587
1929
Loc

Anthaxia salicis var. spathuligera:

Obenberger 1926: 647
1926
Loc

Anthaxia midas muelleri:

Obenberger 1926: 647
1926
Loc

Anthaxia midas muelleri

Obenberger 1925: 56
1925
Loc

Anthaxia salicis var. spathuligera

Obenberger 1924: 27
1924
Loc

Anthaxia midas

Kiesenwetter, 1857 sensu Tenenbaum 1915: 85
1915
Loc

Anthaxia midas

: Kaufmann 1914: 55
1914
Loc

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas:

Barthe 1902: 10
1902
Loc

Anthaxia (Haplanthaxia) olympica

Kiesenwetter 1880
1880
Loc

Anthaxia midas:

Jacquelin Du Val 1861: 141
1861
Loc

Anthaxia (Anthaxia) midas Kiesenwetter, 1857 : 90

, Kiesenwetter 1857: 90
1857
Loc

Anthaxia croesa:

Kiesenwetter 1857: 90
1857
Loc

Anthaxia croesus:

Marseul 1857: 93
1857
Loc

croesus sensu Gory & Laporte

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839
Loc

croesus (Villers))

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839
Loc

croesus (Villers))

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839
Loc

croesus sensu Gory & Laporte

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839
Loc

Anthaxia craesa

sensu Gory & Laporte 1839
1839
Loc

croesus sensu Gory & Laporte

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839
Loc

Croesus sensu Gory & Laporte

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839
Loc

Anthaxia (Cyclanthaxia) croesus (Villers)

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839
Loc

Anthaxia (H.) croesus ( Villers, 1789 )

sensu Gory & Laporte. 1839
1839