Runcinioides Mello-Leitão, 1929

Faleiro, Bárbara T. & Santos, Adalberto J., 2019, Revision of the crab-spiders of the genus Runcinioides Mello-Leitão, 1929 (Araneae, Thomisidae), Zootaxa 4567 (1), pp. 25-46: 26-29

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4567.1.2

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:13DBDF5F-66C4-4A8E-9A97-9F55BC0A59FB

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AB87B1-FFD2-C136-84F6-F8847B6C66A5

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scientific name

Runcinioides Mello-Leitão, 1929
status

 

Genus Runcinioides Mello-Leitão, 1929 

Runcinioides Mello-Leitão, 1929: 211  . Mello-Leitão 1944: 319; Mello-Leitão 1947: 276; Caporiacco 1954: 140; Lehtinen 2004: 151; Lehtinen & Marusik 2008: 190. Misumenops  ad part. Rinaldi 1988: 20.

Type species: Runcinioides argenteus Mello-Leitão, 1929  , by subsequent designation ( Roewer 1955).

Diagnosis. Runcinioides  is included in the Misumenini tribe sensu Lehtinen (2004) and shares some characteristics of the group, like the presence of a coupling pocket in the epigyne and male legs I and II with brownish annulations. Males of Runcinioides  can be distinguished from all other Misumenini by the presence of a long embolus originating in 4-6 o’clock position in ventral view of the left palp, that runs widely separated from the tegulum in the distal half of the bulb ( Figs 2cView FIGURE 2, 4eView FIGURE 4, 6aView FIGURE 6, 8cView FIGURE 8, 9cView FIGURE 9, 11eView FIGURE 11, 14aView FIGURE 14). The female can be distinguished by the presence of a large, non-sclerotized and flexible coupling pocket (= hood sensu Benjamin 2011) ( Figs 2aView FIGURE 2, 3eView FIGURE 3, 5View FIGURE 5 a–c, 9a, 10e, 13a–c), and by the long and coiled stalk of the spermathecae and copulatory ducts ( Figs 2bView FIGURE 2, 3fView FIGURE 3, 5View FIGURE 5 d–e, 9b, 10f, 13d–e).

Description. Small to medium sized spiders (total length: males 2.62–5.04; females 2.92–9.74). Males usually smaller than females, the size dimorphism more accentuated in R. litteratus  . Carapace and opisthosoma covered with spiniform setae, especially in R. argenteus  ( Figs 3View FIGURE 3 a–c, 4a–c, 10a–c, 11a–c). Male and female with a line of marginal setae on the carapace, more conspicuous in the males ( Figs 4cView FIGURE 4, 11cView FIGURE 11). Leg formula I-II-IV-III. Two tarsal claws, retroclaw with four ( R. litteratus  ) to five ( R. argenteus  ) large teeth and one small basal tooth ( Figs 6fView FIGURE 6, 14fView FIGURE 14), proclaw with four ( R. litteratus  ) to five ( R. argenteus  ) larger teeth and numerous small basal teeth ( Fig. 14fView FIGURE 14). Distal tarsus with few pseudotenent setae and some twisted setae ( Figs 6fView FIGURE 6, 14fView FIGURE 14). Macrosetae on the lateroventral side of tibia and metatarsus I and II more conspicuous in the female ( Figs 3View FIGURE 3 a–b, 10a–b,) than in the male ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 a–b, 11a–b). Carapace with two longitudinal dark bands ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1, 3View FIGURE 3 a–c, 4a,c, 8b, 10a,c, 11a,c, 12), male legs I–II with dark rings ( Figs 1cView FIGURE 1; 4View FIGURE 4 a–b; 11a–b) and opisthosoma usually with dorsal dark spots ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 b–d, 4a, 8b, 10a, 11a, 12c–f). Male palp larger compared to other genera of Misumenini; without ITA; promargin of the RTA with apical, transverse ridges ( Figs 6eView FIGURE 6, 14eView FIGURE 14); retrolateral margin of the cymbium with a large tutaculum, which ends in a transverse groove ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 c–d, 4d–e, 6a–b, d, 9d, 11f, 14d); tegulum round, very sclerotized, with a marginal deep slit delimited by a ridge, which is more pronounced prolaterally ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 c–d, 4e–f, 6a–b, d, 9c–d, 11e–f, 14a,d); embolus long, originating at 4 o’clock, with clockwise direction in the left palp ( Figs 2cView FIGURE 2, 4eView FIGURE 4, 6aView FIGURE 6, 8cView FIGURE 8, 9cView FIGURE 9, 11eView FIGURE 11, 14aView FIGURE 14). Epigyne with two small cavities caudal to the posterior margin of the coupling pocket, henceforth called “anchor openings” ( Figs 2aView FIGURE 2, 3eView FIGURE 3, 5aView FIGURE 5, 9aView FIGURE 9, 10eView FIGURE 10, 13View FIGURE 13 a–b); copulatory openings aside the coupling pocket ( Figs 5View FIGURE 5 a–c, 13c). spermathecae with large spermathecal glands (= “head of spermathecae”) ( Figs 2bView FIGURE 2, 3fView FIGURE 3, 5View FIGURE 5 d–f, 9b, 10f, 13d–f); copulatory ducts hyaline, with several loops before attachment to the long and tubular stalk of the spermathecae ( Figs 2bView FIGURE 2, 3fView FIGURE 3, 5View FIGURE 5 d–e, 9b, 10f, 13d–e); fertilization ducts adhered to the posterior plate and attached to the base of the spermathecae ( Figs 2bView FIGURE 2, 3fView FIGURE 3, 5dView FIGURE 5, 9bView FIGURE 9, 10fView FIGURE 10, 13View FIGURE 13 d–e). Male spinnerets ( Fig. 7aView FIGURE 7): ALS with one major ampullate gland spigot and a nubbin on prolateral margin and numerous piriform gland spigots on retrolateral margin ( Fig. 7bView FIGURE 7); PMS with three anterior aciniform gland spigots and one nubbin, one central tartipore and one posterior minor ampullate gland spigot and a nubbin ( Fig. 7cView FIGURE 7); PLS with numerous aciniform gland spigots ( Fig. 7dView FIGURE 7).

Remarks. We have examined the female type specimens of Runcinioides pustulatus  (MNHN 9401) and R. souzai  (MZSP 73), and found their genitalia significantly different from the remaining species of the genus. For instance, both are devoid of the characteristic non-sclerotized and flexible coupling pocket mentioned above. In addition, the recently discovered males of both species do not match the genus diagnosis presented above, and their palp morphology is consistent with characters of other thomisid genera (R.A. Teixeira, pers. comm.). Thus, we decided not to include those species in this revision, and provisionally they should be treated as incertae sedis.

Distribution. Eastern Brazil, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to Rio Grande do Sul ( Figs 15View FIGURE 15 a–b). There are two literature records outside Brazil, from French Guiana ( Caporiacco 1954), but since we could not find the specimens, these records remain doubtful.

Composition. Two species, R. argenteus  and R. litteratus  .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Thomisidae

Loc

Runcinioides Mello-Leitão, 1929

Faleiro, Bárbara T. & Santos, Adalberto J. 2019
2019
Loc

Runcinioides Mello-Leitão, 1929 : 211

Lehtinen, P. T. & Marusik, Y. M. 2008: 190
Lehtinen, P. T. 2004: 151
Rinaldi, I. M. P. 1988: 20
Caporiacco, L. 1954: 140
Mello-Leitao, C. F. 1947: 276
Mello-Leitao, C. F. 1944: 319
Mello-Leitao, C. F. 1929: 211
1944