Scinax rossaferesae, Conte, Carlos E., Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia, Crivellari, Lucas B. & Berneck, Bianca V. M., 2016
Conte, Carlos E., Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia, Crivellari, Lucas B. & Berneck, Bianca V. M., 2016, A new species of Scinax Wagler (Anura: Hylidae) from Paraná, Southern Brazil, Zootaxa 4193 (2), pp. 245-265: 246-259
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Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov.
Holotype. CFBH 21027View Materials, adult male, from Parque Estadual do Cerrado (24°14'47.16" S; 49°45'7.39" W), municipality of Jaguariaíva, state of Paraná, Brazil, collected on October 21, 2008 by B.V.M. Berneck, R. Recoder, M.V. Segalla, and P.H. Valdujo.GoogleMaps
Paratypes. Eleven adults collected in two localities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. All are males unless otherwise stated: MZUSP 157140–157142View Materials , MHNCI 9226–9228View Materials from Parque Estadual Guartelá (24°37'49.54" S; 50°17'30.61" W), municipality of Tibagi, state of Paraná, Brazil, collected on March 30, 2011 and September 29, 2013GoogleMaps . MHNCI 9841, 9843–9844, CFBH 39390View Materials (female), 39391 from Parque Estadual Vila Velha (24°14'02'' S; 49°59'28'' W), municipality of Ponta Grossa, state of Paraná, Brazil, collected on March 30, 2011 and October 10, 2011GoogleMaps .
Diagnosis. The new species is diagnosed by the following set of characters: 1) SVL 27.8–31.6 mm in males; 2) subovoid snout in dorsal view and slightly acuminate in profile; 3) head slightly longer than wide (HL\HW=1.1– 1.2); 4) small-sized tympanum (1.2–1.44 mm); 5) single, median, subgular vocal sac that does not reach the pectoral region; 6) pointed tubercles absent on the lower jaw; 7) tibia length/snout-vent length = 0.50–0.53; 8) conspicuous pointed tubercle absent on the heel; 9) webbing on the feet always reaching the base of penultimate phalanx between toes II and V, and not surpassing, anteriorly, the proximal half of antepenultimate phalanx in Toe IV; 10) dorsum with a pale yellow, light to dark gray from dark brown, or black background, with round, irregular, and elongate darker blotches; 11) dorsal surface of the shanks with irregular and transversal darker markings; 12) posterior hidden surfaces of thighs light brown, light to dark gray, or black, with lighter, large and irregular blotches (yolk yellow in living specimens); 13) iris golden yellowish, with many darker reticulations; and 14) advertisement call composed of a single pulsed note, with 7–13 pulses per note, and a duration of 0.16– 0.25 s (0.25 ± 0.04).
Description of holotype. Head slightly longer than wide HL\HW=1.1; HL 38.5% of SVL ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). Snout subovoid in dorsal view and slightly acuminate in profile ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A). Nostrils dorsolateral, elliptical, and slightly protruded; distance between nostrils equal to 63.3% of IOD. Canthus rostralis evident and convex; loreal region slightly concave. Upper lip slightly flared. Internarial region concave. Eyes protuberant; ED almost equal to IOD and END. Tympanum rounded; TD equal to 50% of ED. Tympanic annulus rounded with supratympanic fold evident, reaching from near the posterior corner of the eye to anterior margin of the insertion of the arm; covering a small portion of the posterior upper margin of the tympanic annulus ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A). Vocal sac singular, evident, subgular, and that ventrally does not reach the pectoral region ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B). Vocal slits longitudinal, large, and semiovoid; originating on the side of the tongue and ending at the corner of mouth. Tongue ovoid, attached anteriorly, laterally is barely free, and shallowly notched posteriorly. Vomerine teeth in two series: right series with four and the left with three teeth each; slightly curved and located between and slightly posterior the choanae. Choanae ovalshaped and separated by a distance slightly smaller than four times their diameter.
Axillary membrane absent. Upper arm more slender than forearm. A series of small, round, low, and enameled ulnar tubercles present (on right forearm: seven tubercles; on left forearm: six tubercles in a row). Fingers slender; relative lengths I <II ≈ IV<III ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B). Finger discs elliptical, wider than they are long, while the disc of Finger I is smaller than the other discs. Subarticular tubercles single, rounded on fingers III and IV, conical on fingers I and II. Supernumerary tubercles single, small, and rounded. Inner metacarpal tubercle single, flat, and slightly elliptical; outer metacarpal tubercle flat, bilobed, the two parts are elliptical shaped. Webbing absent between fingers I and II; basal between fingers II, III, and IV. Thin, wide, slightly developed, light colored nuptial pad ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A –B), so that it is possible to see some acini under skin, covering almost the entire base of Metacarpal I, and obscuring the outer margin and a small portion of the base of the inner metacarpal.
Thighs slender, TL 50.3% of SVL; tibia as wide as thighs; THL 47.8% of SVL; FL 44.2% of SVL. Toes slender, discs elliptical, wider than long. Relative toe length I<II<V≈ III<IV. Subarticular tubercles single, flat, and rounded. Supernumerary tubercles single, small, flat, and nearly rounded. Inner metatarsal tubercle single, flat, rounded, five times the size of outer metatarsal tubercle; outer metatarsal tubercle small, and rounded. Webbing formula I 2 -−2 1/2 II 1 1/2−2- III 1 3/4 −3 IV 3 -−1 1/ 2 V ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C). A series of small, round, flat, and enameled tarsal tubercles present (right forearm: six tubercles; left forearm: seven tubercles in row). Three discrete, low tubercles, next to the tibiotarsal articulation on tarsi; small, rounded and flat tubercles on heel.
Skin on dorsum densely granular, with rounded tubercles and few larger conical tubercles (twice as large as the small ones) scattered on dorsum, less frequent in the internarial region. Dorsal skin on forelimbs slightly granular, and smooth on hindlimbs. Small tubercles mainly on flanks and between the tympanum and eyes. Gular region covered with small, rounded, and enameled tubercles homogenously distributed; pectoral region, abdomen and subcloacal regions densely covered by granules. Ventral surfaces of forelimbs, tibiae and tarsi smooth; thighs covered by granules. Cloacal opening at upper level of thighs. Pectoral fold with pre- and post-axillary elements present ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B).
Coloration in life of the holotype. There are no notes of coloration in life of the holotype.
Coloration in preservative of the holotype. Dorsal surface with a grayish background with irregular and elongate dark gray blotches; interocular region with a V-shaped dark gray blotch. Dorsal surface of fore- and hindlimbs light gray with irregular transverse dark gray markings. Dorsal surface of hands light gray with dark gray dots and dark gray blotches on fingers III and IV. Dark gray blotches on dorsum and transverse markings on limbs with white margins. Canthus rostralis dark gray, loreal region similar to dorsum. Upper lip whitish with dark gray blotches. Tympanic membrane conspicuously spotted. Flanks lighter with irregular dark gray blotches. Hidden posterior area of thighs dark gray, with lighter, large, and irregular blotches; hidden anterior area of thighs, shanks, and inguinal region light beige. Ventrally, soles, palms, shanks and bordering areas of forearms and tarsi light beige conspicuously spotted with dark gray dots; thighs, arms, abdomen, and gular and pectoral regions finely spotted with grayish brown dots.
Measurements of the holotype (mm). SVL 27.8; HL 10.7; HW 9.2; IND 1.9; IOD 3.0; ED 2.8; END 3.1; NSD 1.9; TD 1.4; TL 14.0; FL 12.3; THL 13.3; 3FD 1.0; 4TD 1.1.
Variation in the type series. Some measurements are presented in Table 1. Ulnar tubercles can be arranged in line (eight individuals; between four and six tubercles), or scattered (two individuals; five and seven tubercles). Tarsal and calcar tubercles are absent in one individual ( MHNCI 9843). Internal tarsal fold varies from a discrete flat and ovoid tubercle on the tibiotarsal articulation to an elongate fold that reaches approximately the inner metatarsal tubercle. The skin on dorsum is slightly smooth, with small, scattered, and rounded tubercles, mainly on flanks, posteriorly to eyes, and sacral region in four individuals ( MHNCI 9841, 9226; MZUSP 157141–157142). Dorsum smooth, with few small, scattered, and flat tubercles on the sacral region and tympanic fold in one individual ( MNHCI 9228). Conical tubercles larger than the round tubercles are absent in four individuals ( MNHCI 9226, 9228, 9841, 9843).
The number of vomerine teeth in males varies between three and seven on both right and left processes. In one male paratype (MHNCI 9228), the right process is absent. Webbing formulae among paratypes varies as follow: I (2- − 2) − (2 2/3 − 2+) II (1 3/4 − 1 1/2) − (3+ − 2 1/2) III (1 3/4 − 1 1/2) – (3+ − 3) IV (3+ – 2 1/2) – (1 1/2 − 1+) V. The nuptial pad bears the same pattern of the holotype in four males; but it can be either wider and thicker (MHNCI 9226, 9228) or thinner (MHNCI 9227, 9843; MZUSP 157140, 157142) than that of the holotype; and in some individuals, it covers half of the dorsal surface of Metacarpal I, whereas it does not cover the base of the inner metacarpal tubercle ventrally in two individuals (MHNCI 9227, 9841).
The only known female (SVL 33.7 mm) is larger than the males (27.8–31.6 mm), and has a snout slightly more pointed than the males in dorsal view; gular region without iridescent tubercles in life; and nuptial pad absent.
Coloration in life is based on field notes and photographs taken from paratype MHNCI 9843 ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4) and an unvouchered specimen ( Fig. 9AView FIGURE 9. A). Dorsum with a background ranging from light yellow to yellowish brown, with irregular and elongate light to dark brown blotches; interocular region with a V-shaped light to dark brown blotch. Small light yellowish blotches on dorsum, and fore- and hindlimbs in MHCNI 9843 ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 B). Tympanic membrane finely spotted. Loreal region similar to dorsum. Upper lip light yellow with dark gray blotches ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 A). Flanks and inguinal region lighter with irregular light to dark gray blotches. Hidden areas of thighs and shanks light to dark beige, with small and irregular yolk yellow blotches. Ventrally, soles, palms, shanks and bordering areas of forearms and tarsi beige conspicuously spotted with dark gray dots ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 C –D). Abdomen light beige, with round and flat whitish tubercles. The iris is golden yellow, with many darker reticulations ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 A).
In preservative, the dorsal color pattern of head, body and limbs can be pale yellow, light to dark gray from dark brown, or black, with round, irregular, and elongate darker blotches (Fig. 5). White pigments in the margins of dark blotches on dorsum and transversal markings on limbs are either absent (Figs. 5A, D, and G) or fragmented (like small blotches; Figs. 5C, E –F). The V-shaped dark blotch in the interocular region is either smaller (Fig. 5A) or larger (reaching the upper eyelid; Fig. 5H) than the holotype. Upper lip can be pale yellow ( MHNCI 9843), whitish cream with dark gray blotches ( CFBH 39391) or conspicuously black pigmented ( MHNCI 9228). Transversal markings on limbs are somewhat indistinct in the male paratype MHNCI 9843. Flanks and inguinal region immaculate light beige (e.g. MHNCI 9843) or with dark irregular blotches (e.g. CFBH 39391). Hidden surfaces of thighs and shanks light brown, light to dark gray, or black, with lighter, large and irregular blotches (yolk yellow in life). In some individuals, the anterior hidden surface of thighs and hidden surfaces of shanks are light beige, finely pigmented with some light brown dots (e.g. MHNCI 9228, 9843).
Ventrally, margins of the gular region, arm insertion, and bordering areas with the dorsal coloration can be creamy white, light to dark brown, or black. Soles and palms can be finely or conspicuously pigmented with dark brown dots. Pectoral region with small dark blotches in some individuals.
Advertisement call. Air temperature and relative humidity during recordings were 17°C and 80%, respectively. The advertisement call of Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. [two males (MHNCI 9843, CFBH 39391), n = 76 calls; Fig. 6View FIGURE 6] consists of a single pulsed note with duration of 0.16–0.25 s (0.26±0.04); each note is composed of 7–13 pulses, with a duration of 0.02–0.03 s (0.02±0.0). The notes are separated by an interval of 0.61–2.49 s (1.40±0.38). The minimum and maximum frequencies of calls are 1492–1733 Hz (1588.1±63.9) and 4461–5165 Hz (4792.4±190.0), respectively. Dominant frequency is 2702.3–3002.7 Hz (2879.0±59.1). Call rate is 0.52–1.54 call/s (0.88±0.2), and pulse rate is 32.7–52.9 pulse\s (41.1±3.0). The first pulse has duration of 0.01–0.02 s (0.01±0.0), minimum frequency of 1210–1612 Hz (1504.2±98.8), and maximum frequency of 2917–4152 Hz (3724.0±334.0).
Tadpoles. The tadpole is unknown.
Comparison with other species. Comparisons with congeneric species is first based on obvious differences in the size of adults, that is, no overlapping nor a minimal gap between size ranges, followed by more detailed comparisons with species that cannot be differentiated by size, or in case of conspicuous external morphological characters.
The SVL in males (27.8–31.6) promptly distinguishes the new species from larger species like Scinax acuminatus , S. castroviejoi , S. eurydice , S. dolloi , S. fuscovarius , S. hayii , S. iquitorum , S. perereca , and S. sateremawe (combined SVL 34.0–52.0; see Bokermann 1968; Lutz 1973; Cei 1980; De la Riva 1993; Pombal et al. 1995b; Moravec et al. 2009; Pugliese et al. 2009; Sturaro & Peloso 2014); and from smaller species like S. altae , S. cabralensis , S. exiguus , S. fuscomarginatus , S. madeirae , and S. villasboasi (combined SVL 15.7–26.7; see Duellman 1970; Duellman 1986; Drummond et al. 2007; Brusquetti et al. 2014).
The snout, subovoid in dorsal view and slightly acuminate in profile of Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov., differs it from S. crospedospilus (elongate in dorsal view; Lutz 1973), S. nasicus , S. similis (round in dorsal view and in profile in these species), S. squalirostris (much more elongate in dorsal view and much more acuminate in profile; Lutz 1973), and S. fuscomarginatus , and S. rogerioi (protruding in profile in these species; Pugliese et al. 2009; Brusquetti et al. 2014). Also, it differs from S. nasicus and S. similis by having longer shanks (TL/SVL= 0.50–0.53 in the new species, n = 11; TL/SVL= 0.43–0.48, n = 20 in S. nasicus , and TL/SVL= 0.45–0.48 in S. similis , n = 19). The vocal sac single, median, subgular, and ventrally not reaching the pectoral region differentiates the new species from S. baumgardneri , S. exiguus , S. fuscomarginatus , S. madeirae , S. manriquei , S. staufferi , S. villasboasi , and S. wandae (large vocal sacs that reach the anterior pectoral region; Barrio-Amorós et al. 2004; Brusquetti et al. 2014); and S. camposseabrai , S. karenanneae , and S. sateremawe (bilobed vocal sacs; Pyburn 1993; Caramaschi & Cardoso 2006; Sturaro & Peloso 2014).
Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. differs from all species in the S. rostratus Group (sensu Faivovich 2002, Faivovich et al. 2005) by the absence of a conspicuous pointed tubercle on the heel and pointed tubercles on the lower jaw, and also by its slightly acuminated snout in profile (elongate, pointed snout in profile; Duellman 1972).
The new species has less extensive webbing on the feet (see variation in the type series) than most species of the Scinax ruber Clade. Its webbing always reaches the base of penultimate phalanx between toes II and V, and not surpassing anteriorly the proximal half of antepenultimate phalanx in Toe IV (surpassing the base of penultimate phalanx between toes II and V; and surpassing the proximal half of the antepenultimate phalanx in Toe IV in the other species of the S. ruber Clade; e.g. S. haddadorum , S. nasicus , and S. rogerioi ; Cope 1862; Pugliese et al. 2009; Araujo-Vieira et al. 2016). The exceptions are S. caldarum , S. curicica , S. duartei , S. granulatus , S. maracaya , S. pinima , S. similis , S. squalirostris , S. tigrinus , S. uruguayus , and S. villasboasi ( Bokermann & Sazima 1973; Cardoso & Sazima 1980; Carvalho-e-Silva & Peixoto 1991; Pugliese et al. 2004; Nunes et al. 2010; Brusquetti et al. 2014).
The dorsal color pattern which consists of a pale yellow, light to dark gray from dark brown, or black background, with round, irregular, and elongate darker blotches differentiates the new species from Scinax altae , S. fuscomarginatus , S. madeirae , S. pachycrus , S. quinquefasciatus , S. ruber , S. squalirostris , S. staufferi , and S. villasboasi (dorsum with a variable number of dorsal and/or lateral stripes; Duellman1970; Duellman 1972; Duellman & Wiens 1993; Lutz 1973; Heyer et al. 1990; Carvalho-e-Silva & Peixoto 1991, Brusquetti et al. 2014), S. alter , S. auratus , S. cretatus , S. imbegue , S. juncae , and S. tymbamirim (light or dark continuous or broken dorsal stripes, sometimes delimiting a central darker area; Bokermann 1969; Lutz 1973; Nunes & Pombal 2010; 2011; Nunes et al. 2012), S. blairi (few brown markings and blotches, or small scattered dark dots; Fouquette & Pyburn 1972), S. boesemani (dorsum with or without small white and brown dots; Lescure & Marty 2000), S. cabralensis (dorsum with small dark spots homogeneously distributed; Drummond et al. 2007), S. caldarum , S. curicica , and S. duartei (two irregular longitudinal stripes arising from an interocular marking; Pugliese et al. 2004), S. chiquitanus (small and scattered grayish dots and marks; De la Riva 1990), S. danae (small scattered dark brown dots), S. elaeochrous (dorsum with darker markings and dots, sometimes forming irregular longitudinal stripes; Duellman 1970), S. ictericus (dorsum with or without dark brown interocular marking and irregular mostly transverse marks; Duellman & Wiens 1993), S. iquitorum (small and scattered dark brown dots and blotches; Moravec et al. 2009), S. lindsayi (a few small scattered reddish brown dots and blotches), and S. maracaya (large dark blotches; Cardoso & Sazima 1980).
The dorsal surface of the forelimbs and thighs with irregular, transverse darker markings; and the posterior hidden surface of thighs light brown, light to dark gray, or black, with lighter, large and irregular blotches, which are yolk yellow in live specimens, differ the new species from Scinax montivagus (dorsal markings absent on forelimbs and thighs; and posterior hidden surface of thighs immaculate beige without yellow coloration in live specimens; Juncá et al. 2015).
The yellowish gold iris, with many dark reticulations distinguishes Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. from S. cruentommus (silvery bronze iris with a median horizontal red streak; Duellman 1972), S. funereus (greenish bronze with brown flecks; Duellman & Wiens 1993), S. oreites (dull bronze with median horizontal brown streak; Duellman & Wiens 1993), and the species in the S. uruguayus Group (bicolored iris; Bokermann & Sazima 1973; Faivovich et al. 2005).
The advertisement call of the new species composed of a single pulsed note differs it from Scinax cabralensis , S. manriquei , and S. rupestris (combined number of notes/call: 3–14; Barrio-Amorós et al. 2004; Drummond et al. 2007; Araujo-Vieira et al. 2015).
The number of pulses, 7–13 pulses per note, also differs it from Scinax alter , S. blairi , S. fuscomarginatus , S. hayii , S. pachycrus , and S. perereca (combined number of pulses: 14–120; see Pombal et al. 1995a; Fouquette & Pyburn 1972; Toledo & Haddad 2005; Brusqueti et al. 2014; Carneiro et al. 2004); and from S. castroviejoi and S. juncae (combined number of pulses: 2–5; see De La Riva et al. 1994; Nunes & Pombal).
Furthermore, the call has a duration of 0.16– 0.25 s which differentiates Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. from S. cruentommus , S. curicica , S. exiguus , S. madeirae , S. tymbamirim , and S. wandae (combined call duration: 0.35– 4.5 s; see Duellman 1972; Duellman 1986; Pugliese et al. 2004; Pombal et al. 2011; Nunes et al. 2012; Brusqueti et al. 2014); and from S. chiquitanus , S. eurydice , S. ictericus , and S. lindsayi (combined call duration: 0.01– 0.10 s; Pyburn 1992; Duellman & Wiens 1993; Pombal et al. 1995).
Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from S. granulatus by its subovoid snout in the dorsal view and slightly acuminate in profile; small-sized tympanum: 1.2–1.4; head slightly longer than wide HL\HW=1.1–1.2; and slender fingers and toes (rounded in both views; medium-sized tympanum: 1.6–2.6; head as longer as wide HL\HW=1.0; and wider fingers and toes in S. granulatus ; Figs. 7AView FIGURE 7. A –D; see also Kwet 2001: figs. 2A –B, 3A, and 5A –C).
Also, the snout slightly acuminated in profile; canthus rostralis marked; iris yellowish gold, with many darker reticulations; and posterior hidden surface of thighs light brown, light to dark gray, or black, with large and irregular yolk yellow blotches in live specimens differ Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. from S. tigrinus (snout notably more acuminate than the new species in profile; well-defined canthus rostralis; iris golden, with few darker reticulations; and posterior hidden surface of thighs with irregular flash orange-yellowish blotches in live specimens of S. tigrinus ; Figs. 7View FIGURE 7. A C –F; see also Nunes et al. 2010: figs. 2A and 4).
The holotype Scinax x-signatus Spix is considered destroyed ( Hoogmoed & Gruber 1983; Glaw & Franzen 2006), and a neotype has still not been designated (type locality: “Provinciae Bahiae”, meaning the current state of Bahia east of the river San Francisco; Spix 1824; Vanzolini 1981; see Pombal et al. 1995b). We consider that a snout, subovoid in the dorsal view and slightly acuminate in profile, and less extensive webbing on the feet (always reaching the base of penultimate phalanx between toes II and V, and not surpassing the proximal half of antepenultimate phalanx in Toe IV) in S. rossaferesae sp. nov. are character states that allows us to differentiate it from several species to which the name S. x-signatus could be applied in the state of Bahia (with a round snout in both dorsal and lateral views, toe webbing surpassing the base of penultimate phalanx between toes II and V, and webbing on the feet surpassing the proximal half of the antepenultimate phalanx in the Toe IV; Lutz 1973; Appendix 1 for examined specimens).
Natural history and geographic distribution. All localities where Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. occurs are present in natural grasslands associated with Araucaria forests of the Southern Brazilian Plateau and in the northernmost limit of Campos cerrados (sensu Maack 1948). This landscape is recognized by open fields and gallery forests of shallow and sandy soils. Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. is known from the eastern-central limit between the states of São Paulo and Paraná, both in Brazil, covering an area known as the Guartelá Canyon, which extends to the grasslands in the municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná. The new species has been recorded as Scinax sp. gr. ruber for the municipalities of Sengés, Tibagi, and Ponta Grossa, all in the state of Paraná ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8; see also Guerra & Bastos 2014; Crivellari et al. 2014).
Calling males can be found all over year. However, the call activity is concentrated from September to March, when several males were found at the same breeding site. Males generally call from the ground or perched on vegetation (e.g. Poaceae ) near or inside water. Some males can be found calling from terrestrial Phytotelmatas (e.g. Eriocaulon sp. and Eryngiun sp.). No males were found perched above 0.13 m high. The new species occurs in lentic, temporary or permanent waters in open fields or forest edges ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9. A B –C). We observed six other species of Scinax sympatric to S. rossaferesae sp. nov.: S. aromothyella Faivovich , S. fuscovarius , S. granulatus , S. perereca , S. rizibilis (Bokermann) , S. squalirostris , and S. uruguayus .
Etymology. The specific epithet used is dedicated to our colleague Dr. Denise Rossa-Feres, in recognition of her pioneering in the field of zoology. Denise has been extremely dedicated to her work, specifically to the study of tadpoles, natural history, and community ecology of amphibians, in which she has made notable contributions.
Remarks. Duellman et al. (2016) have partitioned Scinax as it has been recognized since the early 2000’s (see Faivovich 2002; Faivovich et al. 2005; Wiens et al. 2010) in three genera: Julianus (for the S. uruguayus Group as defined by Faivovich et al. 2005), Ololygon (for the S. catharinae Clade as defined by Faivovich 2002 and Faivovich et al. 2005), and Scinax (for all remaining species of the S. ruber Clade as defined by Faivovich et al. 2005). Nevertheless, we agree with Lourenço et al. (2016) in that the resurrection of Ololygon and the assembly of Julianus are unnecessary at this stage because these taxonomic changes are strictly optional, since they are not required for preserving the monophyly of Scinax , and do not stem from an actual revisionary study with substantial new data or discussions of their utility or implications. That is, the S. ruber Clade in this study comprises its two monophyletic groups currently recognized ( S. rostratus and S. uruguayus groups; Faivovich 2002; Faivovich et al. 2005).
Call duration Minimum Maximum Dominant frequency Pulse per Pulse duration
frequency frequency call
Sros 0.26±0.04 1492±63.9 (1492– 4792.3±190 2879±59.1 (2702.3– 10.6±1.5 (7– 0.02±0.0 (0.02– (0.16–0.25) 1733) (4461–5165) 3002) 13) 0.03) n =76
Advertisement call First pulse
Call repetition Pulse repetition Int. betw. calls Duration pulse Minimum Maximum rate rate frequency frequency We compared the advertisement call of the new species with those of some species of the Scinax ruber Clade that have similar dorsal pattern color ( S. granulatus , S. maracaya , and S. tigrinus ) and occur near the type locality of the new species ( S. imbegue and S. tymbamirim ), from which we have available recordings ( Table 2; Fig. 10View FIGURE 10). The set of acoustic parameters demonstrated that the advertisement calls of S. rossaferesae sp. nov. differs from those of these previously mentioned species mainly due to its dominant frequency (2702.3–3002 Hz in the new species; combined dominant frequency of 1124–1571 Hz in S. granulatus , S. imbegue , and S. maracaya ; and 4118– 4150 Hz in S. tymbamirim ). Most call parameters from the new species showed a great similarity with those of the recordings from S. tigrinus , from which the new species acoustically differs only by its higher minimum frequency (1492–1733 Hz in the new species, 802–1039 Hz in S. tigrinus ).
The known occurrence area of Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. is approximately 5.000 km 2. Nevertheless, the new species was recorded only in protected areas (as Parques Estaduais Vila Velha, Guartelá, do Cerrado, and Parque Nacional Campos Gerais). Therefore, we suggest the conservation status of S. rossaferesae sp. nov. as being “Least Concern” ( IUCN 2008). Scinax rossaferesae sp. nov. shares habitat preferences with S. granulatus , S. tigrinus , S. maracaya , and S. rogerioi . These species commonly occur in open fields in Brazil ( Bokermann & Sazima 1973; Nunes et al. 2010).
The recognition of a new species has implications on developing and proposing strategies for the conservation of open fields in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, an ecosystem which is poorly understood especially when compared with other forest areas. For example, the Parque Estadual Vila Velha is classified as an area of “extreme biological importance” (MMA 2002). However, despite its acknowledged importance, these Southern Brazilian grasslands have less than 0.5 % of their area conserved as parklands or other conservation statuses. These areas are mostly used for agriculture or livestock and practices such as the burning of pastures is commonly applied (Overbeck et al. 2007).
|Males (n = 11)||Females (n = 1)|
|14.0 – 16.5|
|12.3 – 14.8|
|12.6 – 16.0|
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