Martínez-Alava, Javier O., Serna, Francisco & Norrbom, Allen L., 2017, New records of Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia, with discussion on the morphological variations of some species, Zootaxa 4273 (4), pp. 549-558: 553-556

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Rhagoletis  sp., psalida  group

( Figs. 4–7View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7)

First record from Colombia.

Material examined. COLOMBIA: Cundinamarca: Bogotá, Barrio Argelia II, N04°34' W74°11', 2553 m, 22–Abr –2014, T. Cárdenas, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1019]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, N05°00'03" W74°28'29", 1537 m, 10–Nov – 2003, W. Pérez, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1059]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, Monserrate ( Arrayán ), N4°36' W74°03', 3161 m, 15–Ago – 1943, H. Osorno, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1610]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, Universidad Nacional , N4°38' W74°05', 2558 m, 21–May – 2014, E. Espitia, 1♂ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1610]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, Universidad Nacional, Greenhouses , N4°38'10.59'' W74°05'18.35'', 2557 m, 7–Ago –2014, J. Martínez, 2♀ and 5♂ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1611]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, Universidad Nacional , greenhouses, N4°38'10.59'' W74°05'18.35'', 2557 m, 22–Ago –2014, J. Martínez, 1♀ and 2♂ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1611]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, Universidad Nacional , greenhouses, N4°38'10'' W74°05'18.21'', 2557 m, 16–Mar –2015, L. Pérez, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1610]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, Universidad Nacional , greenhouses, N4°38'10.59'' W74°05'18.35'', 2557 m, 1–Sep –2015, J. Martínez, 3♀ and 4♂ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1611]GoogleMaps  ; Bogotá, Universidad Nacional , greenhouses, N4°38'10.59'' W74°05'18.35'', 2557 m, 1-Sep-2015, J. Martínez, 31♀ and 24♂ [ UNAB No. Catal. 687]; Chía, Vereda Bojacá, flower crop, La Fontana, N04°51'49" W74°03'48", 2646 m, 10–Abr –2002, B. Romero, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1059]; Madrid, Vereda Puente Piedra, N4°49' W74°13', 2554 m, 16–Nov –2009, L. Arévalo, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1610]; Mosquera, Finca Centro Agropecuario Marengo, N04°43'50" W74°16'02", 2530 m, unknown date and collector, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1059]; La Mesa, N04°38'05" W74°27'57", 1298 m, 11–Sep – 2003, M. Rios, 1♀ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1059]GoogleMaps  . Meta: Acacías, Barrio Las Acacias, Kra. 31 Empty lots, N3°59' W73°46', 548 m, 29–Nov –2009, J. Jiménez, 2♂ [ UNAB No. Catal. 1610].GoogleMaps 

Distribution. The psalida  group is known from Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela ( Norrbom et al. 1999). Here, we report a species of this group for the first time from Colombia, from the departments of Cundinamarca (the Bogotá savanna, in the Cordillera oriental high –plateau), and Meta (eastern foothills of the Cordillera oriental), between 1298 and 3161 m altitude in the former, and at 548 m in the latter.

Host plant. Unknown.

Comments. Three species are currently recognized within the Rhagoletis psalida  group: R. metallica ( Schiner, 1868)  , R. psalida Hendel, 1914  , and R. rhytida Hendel, 1914  ( Foote 1981); however, their status is uncertain (Norrbom, unpublished). The group itself is distinctive, but the key of Foote (1981) does not appear to work very well to distinguish the species, and the characters that he considered diagnostic appear to vary in local populations.

A thorough revision of this group, including an investigation of the host plants, is needed. Specimens from Colombia vary in attributes used in the key of Foote (1981) to distinguish R. rhytida  and R. metallica  , as follows:

Scutellar dorsum shape. In the Foote (1981) ´s key, it is stated that R. rhytida  has at least the anterior half of the scutellar dorsum flat, with longitudinal wrinkles, whereas R. metallica  has all of the dorsal scutellar surface flat and smooth. However, it is unclear how Foote determined this character state to be present in the latter species, as he did not examine the holotype and the publications he cited of the authors who did examine it ( Schiner 1868, Hardy 1968) do not mention this character. The Colombian specimens have the scutellum almost entirely flat, slightly convex posteriorly, with the dorsal surface with weak to noticeable longitudinal wrinkles ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 A –B).

Abdominal markings. According to Foote (1981), female abdominal tergites II –V, and male tergites II –IV of R. rhytida  have narrow yellow bands on their posterior margins, whereas at least the female of R. metallica  lacks these bands. All analyzed males from Colombia have the aforementioned condition ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C). Conversely, although some Colombian females have bands from syntergite I+II to tergite V, as indicated by the description of Foote (1981) ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A), but in others (males and females) there are no bands on any tergites. Specimens from Bogotá, D.C. (Cundinamarca), have bands only on syntergite I+II ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 B), and in both males and females these bands may be yellowish or whitish ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 A –C).

Wing pattern. All bands in the Colombian specimens are narrow. The subbasal, discal and subapical bands are uninterrupted (subapical band interrupted at the level of vein R4 + 5 in 1 of 91 specimens examined). The discal and subapical bands are not connected posteriorly (except connected near to posterior wing margin in cell cu 1 in 1 of 91 specimens examined). The anterior apical band is strongly tapered proximally and is narrowly connected to the subapical band ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B), or is separated and represented by an isolated spot on the apex of vein R4+5 ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A), in several specimens extending to the apex of vein M ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B,C). The posterior apical band is represented by a single spot on the middle of the apical sector of vein M, sometimes extending almost to the posterior wing margin. The accesory costal band is present ( Figs. 6View FIGURE 6 A –C).


Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Agronomia