Careproctus lycopersicus , James Wilder Orr, 2012

James Wilder Orr, 2012, wo New Species of Snailfishes of the Genus Careproctus (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) from the Bering Sea and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, with a Redescription of Careproctus ovigerus, Copeia 2012 (2), pp. 257-265: 257-261

publication ID 10.1643/Ci-11-046

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Careproctus lycopersicus

new species

Careproctus lycopersicus  , new species

Tomato Snailfish

Figures 1 A, 2 A

Holotype.— UW 119819, 151 mmView Materials, 172 mm TL, female, 56.0153 °N, 168.8771 °W, 1096 m depth, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 200801, haul 178, D. E. Stevenson, 30 July 2008.GoogleMaps  Paratypes.— Six specimens, 87–149 mm: Bering Sea: UW 119817, 149 mmView Materials, 170 mm TL, female, 60.2644 °N, 179.1675 °W, 877 m depth, F/V Morning Star, cruise 200001, haul 84, J. W. Orr, 12 July 2000; UW 119815View Materials, 87 mm, 102 mm TL, female, 56.5081 °N, 172.4174 °W, 941 m depth, F/V Morning Star, cruise 200001, haul 47, G. R. Hoff, 1 July 2000; SIO 11-371 (ex UW 119814View Materials), 128 mm, 145 mm TL, female, 56.5118 °N, 172.3935 °W, 923 m depth, F/V Morning Star, cruise 200202, haul 115, D. E. Stevenson, 14 July 2002; UW 119813, 102 mmView Materials, 117 mm TL, female, 58.5291 °N, 175.0591 °W, 1038 m depth, F/V Morning Star, cruise 200202, haul 106, D. E. Stevenson, 11 July 2002. Aleutian Islands: UW 119816, 116 mmView Materials, 133 mm TL, male, 52.6504 °N, 172.244 °W, 397 m depth, F/V Dominator, cruise 199701, haul 74, R. C. Harrison, 26 June 1997; UW 119818View Materials, 91 mm, 114 mm TL, female, 56.0206 °N, 168.9360 °W, 1157 m depth, F/V Vester- aalen, cruise 201001, haul 119, S. Kotwicki, 1 July 2010.

Non-type material.— Three specimens in poor condition: UW 119812View Materials, 2, 145 – 152 mm, females, 60.2539 °N, 179.2123 °W, 996 m depth, F/V Morning Star, cruise 200202, haul 80, L. L. Britt, 28 June 2002; UW 118522View Materials, ca. 140 mm TL, 56.6981 °N, 173.2926 °W, 304 m, F/V Morning Star, cruise 200001, haul 113, J. W. Orr, 17 July 2000.

Diagnosis.— Careproctus lycopersicus  is distinguished from all other species of Careproctus  by the combination of broad rows of strongly trilobed teeth on both the premaxilla and dentary (vs. simple or weakly trilobed teeth on both jaws), a large gill opening extending ventrally to pectoral rays 8–12 (vs. smaller gill opening above the pectoral fin or extending to less than five pectoral-fin rays), and a large pelvic disk ≥ 30 % HL (vs. smaller pelvic disk, less than 25 % head length). It is most similar to C. ovigerus  , which can be distinguished from C. lycopersicus  by its simple, canine teeth on both jaws, and to C. kamikawai  , new species, which can be distinguished by its subterminal mouth, slight dorsal-fin lobe, black peritoneum, smaller pelvic disc, slender caudal base, and more anterior position of the pelvic disc, anus, and anal-fin origin.

Description.— Body robust, tapering strongly posteriorly, moderately compressed; depth at anal-fin origin 50.2 –72.0 (71.1)% HL. Head large 28.1–32.1 (29.2)% and robust, dorsal profile gently sloping from nape to snout. Snout blunt, slightly projecting anterior to lower jaw. Mouth terminal, large; upper jaw 42.4–48.6 (43.4)% HL, maxilla extending to mid orbit or to the posterior rim of orbit, oral cleft extending to anterior rim or anterior portion of orbit. Premaxillary tooth plates matching mandibular tooth plates. Premaxillary and mandibular teeth strongly trilobed ( Fig. 2View Fig. 2 A) in 38– 60 oblique rows of 9–20 teeth forming broad bands. Diastema absent at symphysis of upper and lower jaws. Orbit rhomboidal, eyeball relatively small, 17.5–24.4 (23.4)% HL, dorsal margin well below dorsal contour of head, suborbital depth to upper jaw 42.2–80.4 (66.0)% OL; pupil round. Interorbital space broad, fleshy distance 29.1– 34.8 (30.0)% HL, bony distance 15.4–24.6 (19.8)% HL, slightly convex. Snout longer than orbit, 109.1–176.1 % OL, 26.7–32.8 (30.2)% HL. Nostril single, with well-developed tube at level with middle of orbit; nostril tube length 2.7–4.7 (4.7)% HL.

Pores of cephalic lateralis system of moderate size, pore pattern 2-6 - 7 - 1, chin pores paired. Interorbital pore absent. Free neuromasts about 4–5, small and difficult to discern, originating from above gill slit and extending to mid body above anus.

Gill opening large, 38.2–46.4 (45.9)% HL, upper margin at or just above level of dorsal rim of orbit, extending ventrally to pectoral-fin ray 8–12 (ray 8). Gill rakers 7–10 (10), all on lower part of arch. Opercular flap rounded to slightly angular (rounded). Branchiostegal rays six.

Dorsal-fin rays 42–45 (42; Table 1), anterior dorsal lobe absent, tips of all rays slightly exserted. Anteriormost dorsalfin pterygiophore inserted between neural spines 3 and 4, bearing a single small ray. Predorsal length 28.8–31.9 (30.5)%.

Anal-fin rays 34–38 (35; Table 1), 0–2 anal-fin pterygiophores anterior to first haemal spine, each bearing a single ray, tips of all rays slightly exserted. Anal-fin origin below vertebrae 13–14 (caudal vertebrae 2–3), preanal length 40.5–47.3 (47.2)%. Pectoral fin deeply notched, with 33–38 (35) rays ( Table 1). Upper lobe of 23–31 (28) rays extending beyond anus usually to anal-fin origin, dorsalmost rays lengthening to rays 8–10, more ventral rays gradually shortening to shortest ray of notch. Lower lobe moderately elongate, with 7–10 rays, extending to anus or just beyond; dorsal rays gradually lengthening to thick and fleshy rays 2–5, ventral rays gradually shortening to ventralmost ray near pectoral symphysis. Tips of rays 5–50 % free of membrane, rays of lower lobe more strongly exserted. Notch poorly defined, rays in notch slightly more widely spaced than rays of lobes, more widely spaced ventrally. Uppermost pectoral-fin ray level with region between ventral rim of orbit and cleft. Insertion of lowermost pectoral-fin ray below posterior part of orbit. Proximal pectoral radials four (3 + 1), robust: radials 1–2 notched and hour-glass shaped, radial 3 crescent shaped ( Fig. 2View Fig. 2 A). Interradial fenestrae 3, elliptical, elongate, extending between scapula and proximal radials 1–3. Scapula broadly Y-shaped with robust helve; coracoid with broad triangular head and long thin helve, angled anteriorly. Distal radials absent, rays articulating directly with pectoral cartilage.

Pelvic disk large, length 29.9–44.3 (33.9)% HL, round, slightly longer than wide, width 27.9–38.4 (38.4)% HL, anterior lobe moderately developed, flat with margins often slightly upturned, distance from tip of lower jaw to pelvic disc 14.6–17.5 (14.6)%. Anus posterior to gill slit, closer to pelvic disk than to anal-fin origin; distance from tip of lower jaw to anus 29.3–34.4 (32.1)%, greater than HL.

Caudal-fin rays 12–14 (1–2 + 5 / 5–6 + 0–1) (13, 2 + 5 / 6 + 0; Table 1). Membrane of posterior dorsal- and anal-fin rays attached about equidistant to caudal fin: dorsal-fin rays attached to caudal fin 30.9–53.2 (38.1)% CL; anal-fin rays 38.6–52.7 (41.0)% CL. Depth at base of caudal fin 16.3–21.3 (21.0)% CL.

Skin relatively thick, prickles absent. Pyloric caeca 8–13, length about 22.5–76.3 (24.9)% HL, in center-right side of visceral cavity.

Vertebrae 45–50 (47), precaudal 10–12 (11), caudal 34–39 (36; Table 1). Pleural ribs two, present on vertebrae 9–10 or 10–11, each long and slender. Hypural plate composed of dorsal and ventral plates divided by split about 30 % length of plate in individuals smaller than 150 mm, reduced to a weak distal notch in larger individuals. Single epural present.

Coloration.— Body and fins uniform bright red to orange-red in life ( Fig. 1 A). Body pale in preservation; caudal fin and posterior margins of the anal and dorsal fins dark in sole male. Eye black. Peritoneum pale to dusky; orobranchial cavity pale to dusky; stomach, intestines, pyloric caeca, and urogenital papilla pale.

Life history.— One specimen was a ripe male of 116 mm. All other specimens examined were females, the largest was the holotype of 152 mm, a ripe female. The smallest female with yolked eggs was 149 mm ( UW 119817View Materials). At least two sizes of eggs were present in ripe females: yolked eggs were 3.5 mm in diameter and smaller white eggs had diameters of 0.5– 1.5 mm.

Distribution.— Careproctus lycopersicus  has been collected from the Bering Sea and the eastern Aleutian Islands ( Fig. 3View Fig. 3). Collection depths range from 304 to 1096 m. The northern- and western-most record is represented by a single lot of non-type material, two specimens in poor condition.

Etymology.— Derived from the specific epithet for the tomato plant, Solanum lycopersicum  , meaning ‘‘wolf peach.’’ The specific epithet of C. lycopersicus  refers to its typically bright red tomato-like coloration.

Table 1. Proportional Morphometric and Meristic Data for Two New Liparid Species, Careproctus lycopersicus and Careproctus kamikawai, and Careproctus ovigerus. Proportions in % standard length.

  n Range Mean ± SD n Range Mean ± SD n Range Mean ± SD
Interorbital width (fleshy distance)      

Scripps Institution of Oceanography