Prorops sparsa,

Waichert, Cecília & Azevedo, Celso O., 2012, The genus Prorops Waterson, 1923 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Madagascar, European Journal of Taxonomy 16, pp. 1-11: 2-6

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scientific name

Prorops sparsa

sp. nov.

Prorops sparsa  sp. nov.

( Figs. 1AView Fig, 2View Fig A–H, 3A–D)


The specific epithet refers to each side of the frontal process being widely separated from each other.

Material examined (all from Madagascar)


♂, Province Diego-Suarez, Parc National Montagne d’Ambre, elevation 975 m, 21–25 Jan. 2001, 12°31’S 49°11’E, Malaise trap, M.E. Irwin , E.I. Schlinger & R. Harin’Hala coll., CASENT 2085165 ( CASC).



♀, Toamasina Province, botanic garden, near entrance to Andasibe National Park   GoogleMaps, elevation 1025 m, 8–16 Oct. 2001, 18°55’58’’S 48°24’47”E, Malaise trap, R. Harin’Hala coll., CASENT 2085656.


Province Diego-Suarez, Parc National Montagne d’Ambre, 1 ♀, elevation 960 m, 19 Mar.–5 Apr. 2001, 12°30’52’’S 49°10’53”E, Malaise trap, R. Harin’Hala coll., CASENT 2064739; 1 ♀, elevation 1125 m, 29 Jan. –11 Feb. 2001, 12°31’13’’S 49°10’45”E, CASENT 2061431; 1 ♀, 14–30 May 2001, CASENT 2085213; 1 ♂, Province Fianarantsoa, Parc National Ranomafana, radio tower at forest edge, elevation 1130 m, 24 May–4 Jun. 2002, 21°15’05’’S 47°24’43”E, Malaise trap, mixed tropical forest, R. Harin’Hala coll., CASENT 2086155; 1 ♀, Parc National Ranomafana, Belle Vue at Talatakely, elevation 1020 m, 22–28 Sep. 2001, 21°15.99’S 47°25.21’E, Malaise trap, secondary tropical forest, R. Harin’Hala coll., CASENT 2078329; 1 ♂, Vohiparara, at brokenbridge, elevation 1110 m, 25 Jul. –3 Aug. 2002, 21°13.57’S 47°22.19’E, Malaise trap in high altitude, rainforest, R. Harin’Hala coll., CASENT 2064096.


This species is recognized by having a dark castaneous color; the wing is hyaline; the head is wider than long; the mandible broad and flat; the clypeus is short and wide with the median lobe rounded; the frontal process is elongated and separated; the mesoscutum has parapsidal sulcus almost complete; the propodeum without carina; and the forewing has radial vein ( Fig. 1AView Fig).

Differential diagnosis

This species is unique among Prorops  by having the frontal process entirely divided into two arms ( Fig. 2A, GView Fig). Additionally, this species can be differentiated from the others by having the anterior margin of the pronotal disc sharp and medially depressed. The propodeal disc is fully ecarinate, which is an unusual feature in species of Prorops  .


Holotype, ♂. Body length 2.27 mm. Forewing length 1.92 mm.

COLOR. Head and mesosoma dark castaneous, metasoma castaneous; mandible dark castaneous; antenna castaneous, scape darker; legs castaneous, tibiae and tarsomeres lighter; tegula castaneous; wing subhyaline.

HEAD ( Fig. 2View Fig A–C). Mandible wide, its width 0.8x eye width; three conspicuous apical teeth, two lower ones sharpened, uppermost tooth wide. Clypeus wide, short; median lobe rounded, crossed by transverse sharp ridge, delimiting broad posterior area with sub-horizontal and slightly concave surface, and anterior surface almost vertical; median carina absent; lateral lobes slightly developed. Antenna moniliform, first four segments in ratio of about 17:10:7:9; pedicel 1.6x as long as wide; flagellar pubescence suberectsubappressed, setae around 0.7x as long as segment diameter. Eye 1.45x as long as wide; setae sparse, minute. Frons coriaceous; punctures sparse, small, shallow; frontal line sulcate, 0.36x LH; frontal process entirely bifid, arms widely separated from each other, extending forward 0.35x torular diameter; cross-section elliptical, vertical, apex badly excavated dorsally; torulus circular, vertical. WH 1.26x LH; WF 0.66x WH; WF 1.65x HE; OOL 1.29x WOT; frontal angle of ocellar triangle acute, distance between posterior ocelli 0.35x WOT; distance from posterior ocellus to vertex crest 0.8x DAO. Vertex crest profile broadly convex. VOL 0.59x HE.

MESOSOMA ( Fig. 2D, EView Fig). Thorax mostly coriaceous; punctured as frons. Pronotal disc with anterior margin sharp, not carinate, depressed medially. Notaulus absent. Parapsidal line almost complete, evenly slightly arched. Transscutal suture very narrow. Scutellar disc wide; scutellar groove absent; pits absent. Mesopleural pit conspicuous. Propodeum entirely coriaceous, disc 1.5x as wide as long, slightly narrowing posterad; anterior, posterior, discal and lateral carinae absent; spiracle placed laterally, lateral of propodeum with conical basal-posterior spine. Forewing with radial vein long, length 0.5x total forewing length, basal vein wide.

METASOMA. Mostly polished, about 1.4x as long as mesosoma. Hypopygium with median stalk 0.71x as long as plate, posterior margin narrowly straight, lateral margins strongly convergent posterad.

GENITALIA ( Fig. 4View Fig A–D). Paramere with subtriangular aspect in lateral view, wide, progressively narrowing apicad, apex acute; cuspis strongly setose, base wide, progressively narrowing to rounded apex; as high as ¾ of paramere; aedeagus with subrectangular aspect in dorsal view, with pair of apical lobes, apical margin rounded with inner corner acutely produced, apex almost aligned with cuspis apex; apodeme not

extending beyond genital ring, base not dilated, bifurcated, inner arm slightly laterad and longer than outer arm.

Allotype, ♀. Similar to males, except for: Body length 3.46 mm. Forewing length 2.0 mm.

HEAD ( Fig. 2View Fig F–H). Clypeus with median lobe subangulate, not crossed by transverse ridge, surface slightly convex, inclined. First four antennal segments in ratio of about 21:8:6:7. Eye 1.16x as long as wide; setae sparse, small. Frontal line 0.24x LH. Frontal process extending forward 1.1x torular diameter, apex strongly excavated dorsally with borders denticulate, tip curved dorsad. WH 1.0x LH; WF 0.72x WH; WF 1.84x HE; OOL 2.13x WOT; frontal angle of ocellar triangle very acute, distance between posterior ocelli 0.27x WOT. Vertex crest profile broadly convex. VOL 0.78x HE.

MESOSOMA. Propodeal disc 1.7x as wide as long.

METASOMA. About 2.1x as long as mesosoma.


There is little variation among females. The general color can be lighter or darker; the general texture can be slightly more marked; the vertex crest profile can be straight or broadly concave; the frontal angle can be almost right; the frontal line can reach the anterior ocellus; the frontal process can be wider; the anterior margin of the pronotal disc can be rounded; the parapsidal lines can be absent anteriorly; and the basal-posterior spine of the propodeal disc can be absent.

The variation among the males is also tenuous. The general color can be lighter; the transverse ridge of the median clypeal lobe can be absent; the vertex crest profile can be straight; the frontal angle can be almost right; the frontal line can reach the anterior ocellus; and the frontal process can be shorter.

The sexual dimorphism is inconspicuous. The main differences are that females have the median clypeal lobe subangulate with a transverse ridge; the scape is proportionally longer in relation to other antennomeres; the eyes are wider with setae more conspicuous; the frontal process is proportionally longer with texture coarser; the frontal angle of the ocellar triangle is acuter; the vertex is more invaginate; and the metasoma is proportionally much longer than the mesosoma.


Madagascar (Toamasina, Diego-Suarez, Fianarantsoa).


USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences