Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) schmidti Barger, Thatcher & Nickol, 2004
Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel, Sereno-Uribe, Ana L., León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce De & García-Varela, Martín, 2015, Checklist of the species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in fishes and turtles in Middle-America, and their delimitation based on sequences of the 28 S rDNA, Zootaxa 3985 (1), pp. 98-116: 106-111
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|Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) schmidti Barger, Thatcher & Nickol, 2004|
( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 i)
Mexico: TABASCO: 24 km to S of Villahermosa; Trachemys venusta (Barger 2004; Barger et al. 2004). Pantanos de Centla (18 ° 28 ’ 18.9 ’’N 92 ° 39 ’ 14.9 ’’W). Trachemys scripta ( Martínez-Aquino et al. 2009; García-Varela et al. 2011).
Species delimitation through phylogenetic analysis and genetic divergence. To demonstrate the species boundaries among the species reported in this checklist, we sequenced a total of 269 individuals of the species: N. (N.) brentnickoli (81 individuals from 16 localities); N. (N.) roseum (two individuals from two localities); N. (N.) mamesi (22 individuals from seven localities); N. (N.) golvani (80 individuals from 11 localities); N. (N.) mexicoensis (47 individuals from eight localities); N. (N.) schmidti (five individuals from one locality); N. (N.) emyditoides (26 individuals from three localities); N. (N.) panucensis (four individuals from two localities); and N. (N.) chimalapasensis (two individuals from one locality). Additionally sequence of N. saginata plus Floridosentis mugilis and Floridosentis pacifica were aligned together, composing a data set of 806 bp with 274 terminals. Nucleotide frequencies for 28 S rDNA data set were 0.246 (A), 0.178 (C), 0.276 (G), and 0.298 (T). Phylogenetic analyses of the available sequences for the genus Neoechinorhynchus through the Bayesian consensus tree yielded the same branch pattern as the ML tree ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Both trees yielded that the ten species of Neoechinorhynchus are monophyletic with strong nodal support ranging from 72 to 100 % of bootstrap, and 1.0 of posterior probability ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Both trees yielded three major clades. The first clade contained four species N. (N.) roseum , N. saginata , N. (N.) schmidti and N. (N.) emyditoides . The second clade was composed of two species N. (N.) golvani and N. (N.) panucensis and had 100 % bootstrap support and 1.0 posterior probability. The third clade was composed of four species N. (N.) chimalapasensis , N. (N.) brentnickoli , N. (N.) mamesi and N. (N.) mexicoensis and received reliable bootstrap support and high values of posterior probability ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3).
67- 76 N. (N.) brentnickoli 10 D. latifrons Laguna de Tres Palos, Guerrero, México FJ388991View Materials, 8178 FJ 968156View Materials - FJ 968159View Materials, KR086219View Materials - KR086223View Materials *
82 N. (N.) roseum 1 Achirus mazatlanus Laguna el Caimanero, Sinaloa, México FJ 388999View Materials 6762, 633, 634 83 N. (N.) roseum 1 Citharichthys gilberti Estero La Tovara , Nayarit, México FJ 389000View Materials 6763 84- 86 N. (N.) mamesi 3 D. latifrons Puente Manialtepec , Oaxaca KR086229View Materials - KR086231View Materials *
......continued on the next page TABLE 1. (Continued)
Samples Species N Host Locality GenBank Specimensdeposited
( DNAAbout DNA) CNHE
KR086241View Materials *
117- 127 N. (N.) golvani 11 Vieja pearsei Presa Chicoasen , Chiapas, México FJ 388995View Materials, FJ 968136View Materials - FJ968138View Materials, 6755 KR086248View Materials - KR086254View Materials *
KR086256View Materials *
133- 143 N. (N.) golvani 11 Parachromis Lago Canitzan, Tenosique , Tabasco, FJ 388994View Materials, FJ 968139View Materials, FJ968140View Materials, 6767 friedrichstalii México KR086257View Materials - KR086264View Materials *
144- 153 N. (N.) golvani 10 Cichlasoma Río Carrizal , Tabasco, México FJ 388993View Materials, FJ 968134View Materials, FJ968135View Materials, 6754 urophthalmum KR086265View Materials - KR086271View Materials *
......continued on the next page TABLE 1. (Continued) The sequence divergence estimated among the nine species herein considered, plus an additional sequence available for a species that occurs in freshwater fishes in North America ( N. saginata ) ranged from 3.2 % to 48.7 % ( Table 2). Instead, the intraspecific genetic divergence varied markedly among all the isolates sequenced for each acanthocephalan species and it was never higher than 3 % for all intraspecific comparisons. For instance, the divergence among 81 specimens of N. (N.) brentnickoli obtained from a wide geographic range, in 16 localities (localities 1-16 in Fig. 1View FIGURE 1) across the Pacific coast of northwestern Mexico, varied from 0 to 0.7 % ( Table 2). In other example, N. (N.) roseum corresponding to two individuals of two localities 1) Laguna el Caimanero, Sinaloa and 2) Estero La Tovara, Nayarit (localities 17-18), had genetic divergence from 0 to 0.04 %. The species N. (N.) mamesi comprises 22 individuals from seven localities from Mexico, one of Guatemala and two from Costa Rica (localities 19-25 in Fig. 1View FIGURE 1), showing a genetic divergence from 0 to 1.3 %. N. (N.) golvani shows genetic divergence from 0 to 1.5 % among 80 specimens from 11 localities (see localities 26-36). The species N. (N.) mexicoensis corresponding to 47 individuals from eight localities (localities 37-44) from Gulf of Mexico shows a genetic divergence ranged from 0 to 3 %. N. (N.) schmidti shows low genetic divergence ranged from 0-0.02 % of specimens analyzed from the same locality. The species N. (N.) emyditoides corresponding three localities: 1) Lago de Catemaco, Veracruz, 2) Río Papaloapan, Tlacotalpan, Veracruz and 3) Presa la Herradura, Monterrey (localities 46-48), showed a genetic divergence from 0 to1.3 %. The specimens of N. (N.) panucensis are from Axtlan de Terrazas, San Luis Potosí, and Río Pantepec, Veracruz (localities 49-50), both localities are near of the type locality of N. (N.) panucensis . The genetic divergence among four isolates of N. (N.) panucensis ranged from 0.02–0.05 %. Finally, the two specimens of N. (N.) chimalapasensis showed a genetic divergence equal to zero (locality 51).
1 2 3 4 5
1. N. (N.) brentnickoli (n = 81) 0–0.7 42–43 8.1–9.8 21.9–23.7 7.3–10 2. N. (N.) roseum (n = 2) 0–0.04 40.9–42.9 41.1–43.1 39.7–43.2 3. N. (N.) mamesi (n = 22) 0–1.3 21–23.6 2.40–5.50 4. N. (N.) golvani (n = 80) 0–1.5 21.0– 24.6 5. N. (N.) mexicoensis (n = 47) 0–3.0 6. N. (N.) schmidti (n = 5)
7. N. (N.) emyditoides (n = 26)
8. N. (N.) panucensis (n = 4)
9. N. (N.) chimalapasensis (n = 2)
10. N. saginata (n = 1)
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