Trichardis leucocoma ( Wulp, 1899 )

Londt, Jason G. H., 2008, A review of Afrotropical Trichardis Hermann, 1906, and the description of the first Oriental representative of the genus (Diptera: Asilidae: Laphriinae), African Invertebrates 49 (2), pp. 171-171 : 188-190

publication ID 10.5733/afin.049.0210

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scientific name

Trichardis leucocoma ( Wulp, 1899 )


Trichardis leucocoma ( Wulp, 1899) View in CoL View at ENA

Figs 27, 28 View Figs 23–28

Hoplistomera leucocoma: Wulp 1899: 90–91 View in CoL .

Trichardis leucocoma: Engel 1924: 107 View in CoL ; Efflatoun 1937: 208–212, figs 150, 151 (head), 152 (wing), 153 (hind leg), 154, 155 (ơ gen.), 156 (^gen.), pl. IV, fig. 34 (whole fly); Theodor 1980: 256–258, figs 433 (head), 433a (antennal postpedicel), 434 (aedeagus), 435 (epandrium and proctiger), 436 (hypandrium), 437 (gonocoxite and dististylus), 438 (spermatheca); Oldroyd 1980: 356 (catalogue). Strobilothrix albipila Becker, 1907: 43–44 .

Trichardis leucocomus: Hull 1962: 97 ; Lehr 1988: 212 (incorrect subsequent spelling).

Triclis rufescens Austen, 1914: 267 View in CoL . Syn. n.

Redescription (based on lectotype in excellent condition):

Head: Probably orange but colour masked by strong silver pruinescence, setae white. Antenna orange except for dark red-brown style, white setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.6:1). Mystax white. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis orange with orange-brown distal half, palpi orange.

Thorax: Probably orange and red-brown but colour largely masked by strong silver pruinescence, setae white. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum dark red-brown centrally, orange laterally, entirely silver pruinose, setae white. Scutellum pruinose except for hind margin. Anepisternum lacking posterior macroseta, entirely pruinose (weakish anteroventrally). Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepimeron pruinose. Legs:Yellowish with hind tibiae and dorsal parts of all femora red-brown, pulvilli clearly much shorter than empodium. Hind femur orange-brown with ventral parts yellow, length:height ratio 4.0:1 (i.e. slender), ventral tubercles not evident. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.6×2.0 mm. Costal vein extends along most of wing margin, weakly along anal cell, absent from alula. Membrane entirely without microtrichiae.

Abdomen: Brown-orange proximally becoming red-brown, hypopygium orange, silver pruinose except for small areas anterolaterally, white setose (setulae longish). T2 orange, pruinose, pruinose except for small anterolateral areas.

ơ genitalia ( Figs 27, 28 View Figs 23–28 ): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple. Gonocoxite in ventral view without median projections and with about 6 well-developed medially directed macrosetae; mediodistal projection stout with slightly upturned distal end. Gonostylus stout with upturned straight distal end. Aedeagal prongs short, fairly stout, more or less straight, with moderately well-developed tips.

Lectotype designation: Wulp (1899: 90–91) based his description on ‘Five specimens (2 ơ 3^) from Shaik Othman.’ A holotype was not designated and so all the specimens are syntypes. While the ZSMC female is labelled ‘ Type’, I here designate one of the OXUM males as lectotype, all the other specimens are paralectotypes.

Lectotype: YEMEN: 1 ơ ‘Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W.Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden [12°50'N: 45°00'E], / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Mar. 4. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’, ‘1899 / 7716’, ‘Type Dip: 2143 / 4 / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM).

Paralectotypes: YEMEN: 1^‘ S. W. Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Apr. 1. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J. W. Yerbury.’, ‘Sammlung / F. Hermann’, ‘Type. / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc., / 1899, page 90– 1.’ [white with pink edge], ‘[red square]’, ‘ Trichardis / leucocoma / ^v. d. W.’, ‘Arabia / Hoplistomera / leucocoma . / Type. V. d. W.’ (ZSMC); 1^‘ Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W.Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden, / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Feb. 24. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’ ‘ Hoplistomera sp nov? / nearest cribrata Loew / Dipt sud afr p 121 but / distinct’ [faint pencil handwriting] ‘1899 / 7717’, ‘ Hoplistomera / leucocoma n.s.’, ‘Type Dip: 2141 / 4 / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM); 1 ơ ‘Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W. Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden, / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Feb. 17.95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’, ‘1899 / 7715’, ‘Type Dip: 2142 / 4 / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM); 1^‘ Type / v.d.Wulp, / Trans. Ent. Soc. / 1899, page 90–1.’ [white with red edge], ‘S. W.

Arabia, / 6 m. N. of Aden, / Shaik Othman. / Capt. Apr. 1. 95 / & pres. 1899 by / J.W. Yerbury.’, ‘1899 / 7714’, ‘ Type Dip: 2144 / 4 / Hoplistomera / leucocoma / v der Wulp / Hope Dept Oxford’ (OXUM).

Other material examined:

Afrotropical: NIGER: 1 ơ Aïr [18°30'N: 08°00'E], Tafidet Valley , North East of Agadez, viii.2004, Mamadou ( OXUM) GoogleMaps . YEMEN:2 ơ 1^1? Huswah , nr Aden [12°50'N: 45°00'E], 14.iv.1895, Nurse ( BMNH) GoogleMaps ; 1 ơ 2^Lodar [13°56'N: 45°56'E], 16.v. 1967, 800 m, Guichard ( BMNH) GoogleMaps .

Palaearctic: ALGERIA: ơ ( T. rufescens holotype) ‘ Triclis / Type / rufescens / Austen’, ‘Algeria: / Biskra [?] / / Rev. A.E. Eaton. 97.268.’, ‘ Biskra / / ơ ’, ‘ Holotype / Triclis / rufescens Austen / det. J.E. Chainey, 1984’ (BMNH). EGYPT: 1^Wadi Husein [26°48'N: 33°27'E], 1.v.1919, Adair (ZSMC); 1^Wadi Hof [29°52'N: 31°19'E], 8.v.1924, H.C.E. (ZSMC); 1 ơ Wadi Hof,[19]22, Efflatoun (MCMI); 1 ơ Um Elek [?], 14.v.[19]26 (BMNH); 1 ơ W. Kakhla [?],[19]26, Efflatoun (BMNH). LIBYA: 5 ơ 1^Leptis Magna [32°59'N: 14°15'E], 9.vii.1957, Guichard (BMNH). PAKISTAN: Baluchistan: 2 ơ 3^Turbat [26°00'N: 63°06'E], 12.v.1963, Popov (BMNH); 1? Patkin [Patkin Chauki, 29°05'N: 65°48'E],, Popov (BMNH); 1 ơ 1? Mastung [29°44'N: 66°56'E],, Popov (BMNH); 1 ơ 1? Khuzelar [?],, Popov (BMNH); 1 ơ 1? Guelta [?],, Popov (BMNH). MONGOLIA: 1^S.W. Mongolia, 24.vii, Söderbom, Sven Hedins Exp. Str. Asien (NHRS). PALESTINE: 1 ơ Rubin [31°56'N: 34°42'E], 28.v.1921, Aharoni (BMNH). SAUDI ARABIA: 1 ơ 1^Wadi Qanuna [?Wadi Qanahu, 13°12'N: 43°46'E], 30.iii.1948, Uvarov (BMNH); 1 ơ 1? nr Hais [13°56'N: 43°29'E], 7.x.1962 (BMNH); 1 ơ 1^Zeidiya [15°20'N: 43°01'E], 28.ix.1962 (BMNH); 1? Mahfad [?Mahfa, 15°53'N: 43°15'E], 20.x.1962 (BMNH); 2 ơ nr Bisha [?Bitah, 16°02'N: 42°59'E], (BMNH); 1^Nejran [?], 17.vii.1962 (BMNH); 1 ơ [locality illegible], 20.ix.1963 (BMNH). UNKNOWN: 1^Darré Zohrab [?], Aulimesk [?], 29.v.1962 (BMNH); 1 ơ Lehaj [?Lahaj – may be from Yemen], 11.v.1895, Nurse (BMNH).

New synonymy: I have studied the unique holotype of T. rufescens Austen, 1914 and believe it to be entirely conspecific with T. leucocoma . The species name is therefore a synonym of T. leucocoma . The genus Triclis Loew, 1851 (type species Triclis olivaceus Loew, 1851 ) is Palaearctic with three catalogued species ( Lehr 1988) including rufescens . Although I do not claim to be familiar with the species of Triclis , in attempting to check the classification of rufescens it became clear that it is somewhat unlike other species included in Triclis . Hull (1962) uses the extent of abdominal setation to effectively isolate Triclis from Trichardis in his key. In keying rufescens the species does not agree with the condition described for Triclis . Theodor (1980) draws attention to the condition of the antennal style in keying Triclis , and rufescens does not possess a Triclis -like style. Indeed when comparing the types of rufescens and leucocoma directly, there is little doubt that these are conspecific taxa.

Distribution and biology:This is primarily a Palaearctic species. Lehr (1988) summarised the distribution of the species thus—‘USSR: KZ [ Kazakhstan]; Asia: Arabic States, Israel, Iran,? Mongolia; North Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Egypt; Afrotropical Region.’ Previously recorded only from one Afrotropical location ( Yemen), the new record from Niger suggests that the species may be far more widely distributed within the Afrotropics. My records show that adults have been collected between February and May as well as August and so the species probably flies during the northern hemisphere summer. Little biological information is available. However, Efflatoun (1937: 212), in his report on Egyptian asilids records: ‘ T. leucocoma is very common … My records extend from end of March to end of September. The favourite hunting grounds for this Asilid … are the dried stony and sandy beds of Wadies where it sits on sand or on stones. I have never seen it sitting or settling on plants or grasses and I have caught it feeding on Musca lucidula and on two or three species of Tachinids, among which Wolfartia trina Wied.’

Similar species: T. leucocoma is very similar to rueppelii and may be a synonym of that older-named species (see discussion under rueppelii ) from Algeria. Together these make a distinctive pair not to be confused with any other Afrotropical species. The absence of anepisternal macrosetae sets them apart from all others studied by me. The fact that the species occurs in both the Afrotropical and Palaearctic regions suggests that there may be other similar species in the Palaearctic Region.














Trichardis leucocoma ( Wulp, 1899 )

Londt, Jason G. H. 2008

Trichardis leucocomus: Hull 1962: 97

LEHR, P. A. 1988: 212
HULL, F. M. 1962: 97

Trichardis leucocoma: Engel 1924: 107

THEODOR, O. 1980: 256
EFFLATOUN, H. C. 1937: 208
ENGEL, E. O. 1924: 107
BECKER, T. 1907: 44

Triclis rufescens

AUSTEN, E. E. 1914: 267

Hoplistomera leucocoma: Wulp 1899: 90–91

WULP, F. M. VAN DER 1899: 91
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