Trichardis testacea ( Macquart, 1838 )

Londt, Jason G. H., 2008, A review of Afrotropical Trichardis Hermann, 1906, and the description of the first Oriental representative of the genus (Diptera: Asilidae: Laphriinae), African Invertebrates 49 (2), pp. 171-171 : 203-205

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Trichardis testacea ( Macquart, 1838 )


Trichardis testacea ( Macquart, 1838) View in CoL

Figs 1–3 View Figs 1– 4 , 49, 50 View Figs 47–52 , 60 View Fig 60

Laphria testacea Macquart, 1838: 63 View in CoL .

Trichardis testacea Hermann, 1906: 137–139 View in CoL [Junior synonym and junior secondary homonym, preocc. testacea Macquart, 1838 View in CoL ]; Kertész 1909: 159; Engel 1924: 109–110; Hull 1962: 97.

Trichardis testacea Macquart View in CoL : Oldroyd 1974: 120 (figs 107 entire ^, 108 wing); 1980: 356 (catalogue).

Redescription (based on a ơ syntype of T. testacea Hermann in good condition):

Head: Orange anteriorly red-brown distally, somewhat masked by silver pruinescence, white and pale yellow setose.Antenna orange with red-brown style, pale yellow setose; postpedicel not markedly clavate (L:D=3.3:1). Mystax pale yellow. Ocellar tubercle with 4 macrosetae. Proboscis and palpi orange-brown.

Thorax: Orange, fine silver pruinose, yellow and white setose. Postpronotum entirely pruinose, mesonotum extensively apruinose except for silver pruinose lateral and posterior margins, macrosetae shiny orange, setulae white. Scutellum apruinose except for small spots laterally. Anepisternum with orange posterior macroseta, entirely pruinose. Proepimeron, katepisternum and anepisternum entirely pruinose. Legs: Orange, pulvilli and empodium of similar length. Hind femur orange, length:height ratio 3.7:1, ventral tubercles absent. Hind tibia lacking ventrodistal spur. Wing: 5.6× 2.2 mm. Costal vein strongly developed as far as wing tip, then proceeding more weakly along posterior margin of wing and absent from alula. Membrane microtrichose only in distal half— discal cell entirely microtrichose, cell r 5 extensively microtrichose but weak to absent in proximal half. Wing membrane with orange stained areas.

Abdomen: Orange, terga somewhat reddish laterally, each tergum with a small silver pruinose spot posterolaterally, setae pale yellow, setulae minute shiny whitish. T2 yellowish orange, laterally somewhat reddish, apruinose except for small posterolateral spot.

ơ genitalia ( Figs 49, 50 View Figs 47–52 ): Epandrium in lateral view longer than basal part of gonocoxite (i.e. excluding distal projection of gonocoxite and gonostylus). Proctiger short, moderately dorsoventrally compressed. Hypandrium greatly reduced and simple in structure. Gonocoxite in ventral view without obvious projections distally and with about 5 medially directed distal macrosetae; mediodistal projection moderately stout with upturned sclerotised tip. Gonostylus stout with broad flange-like distal tip.Aedeagal prongs small, fairly straight, with small terminal filamentous tubules.

Type material examined: I have not studied the Macquart types as I am unable to establish their whereabouts. I have studied a number of specimens, in three different collections, that have been labelled as ‘types’ or ‘cotypes’ of testacea Hermann. While it is difficult to establish exactly which of these were actually used by Hermann for his 1906 publication it is certain that at least some of them were not available to him. As Hermann’s description was based on males (number not stated) from ‘Capland, Willowmore (Dr. Brauns) ’ I suggest that the following three specimens can be accepted as syntypes: SOUTH AFRICA: 1 ơ ‘Willowmore [33°17'S: 23°29'E] / Capland / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis / testacea ơ / Herm.’ [orange], ‘Capland / Trichardis / testacea / Type Hr.’ [pink] (ZSMC); 1 ơ ‘Capland / Willowmor [Willowmore] / 1.2 1906 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis / ơ testacea / Herm.’ [orange] (ZSMC); 1 ơ ‘Cotype’, ‘Capland / Willowmor / 6 12 1906 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘ Diptera / Asilidae / Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’, ‘Cotype / Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’ [green] (AMGS).

The following specimens are females or were either collected at another locality or in the year following the appearance of the description and so should be excluded from any list of syntypes: SOUTH AFRICA: 1^‘ Lichtenburg [26°09'S: 26°10'E] / Transvaal / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis ^/ testacea / Herm.’ [orange] (ZSMC); 1 ơ [without type label] ‘Capland / Willowmor / 15.2 1907 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘ Trichardis / testacea / ơ Lw/Herm.’ [white] (ZSMC); 1^‘ Capland / Willowmor / 1 1 1907 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘ Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’, ‘ Trichardis / testacea / Cotype / Hermann’ (MCMI); 1^‘ Willowmore / Capland / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Type von / Trichardis / testacea ^/ Herm.’ [orange] (ZSMC); 1^‘ Cotype’, ‘Capland / Willowmor / 12 12 1906 / Dr. Brauns’, ‘Cotype / Trichardis / testacea / Hermann’ [green] (AMGS).

Notes: Macquart (1838) described his species briefly on female specimens (number not stated) from ‘Du Cap’. Unfortunately Hermann (1906), unaware of Macquart’s species, placed in another genus, described his species using the same name, thus creating a homonym. Engel (1924) subsequently provided a brief description in a key, recording for testacea Hermann ‘2 ơ 2^Willowmore, Kapland, Dr. Brauns leg.’ and indicated (p. 106) that ‘ testacea Mcq. 1838 [ Laphria ] ist ein Storthyngomerus’. This unlikely identification was checked by Oldroyd (1970: footnote on p. 247) and found to be incorrect—the homonymy of Hermann’s species with that of Macquart being fully supported.

Other material examined: BOTSWANA: 8 ơ 14^Farmer's Brigade Serowe, 2226BD, 21.xii.1982 (1 ơ), 20.x.1984 (1 ơ), 31 x.1984 (1^), xii.1985 (2 ơ 2^), 3.xii.1985 (1 ơ), 9.xi.1988 (1^), 8.xii.1988 (1 ơ), ix.1989 (1 ơ 3^), x.1989 (3^), x.1990 (1 ơ 3^), 28.xi.1990 (1^), Forchhammer; 4 ơ 6^same place, x.1989 (2 ơ 4^), xi.1989 (1 ơ 1^), xii.1989 (1 ơ), ii.1990 (1^), Forchhammer, Mercury V.L. light trap (NHRS); 1 ơ Close to Otse [23°10'S: 21°00'E] Vultury, 6.xi.1993, Viklund (NHRS); 1 ơ Gaberones [24°39'S: 25°54'E], ii.1915, Ellenberger (MNHN); 1 ơ Sanitas garden Gaberones Dam, 7–19 xi.1993, Viklund (NHRS). NAMIBIA: 1^Kunene, Epupa Falls, 17°00'S: 13°15'E, 22.ii.1995, Koch (ZMBH); 1 ơ 1^Kaoko Otavi [18°18'S: 13°42'E], iii.1926, Mus. Exped.(SAMC); 1 ơ Etosha-Pan, Namutoni [18°48'S: 16°59'E], 23.i.1993, Koch (ZMHB); 1^Brandberg Tsisab Valley [21°01'S: 14°41'E], viii.1948, Strey. SOUTH AFRICA: 1 ơ 1^Messina Nat. Res., 22°24'54"S: 30°05'12"E, 487 m, 14.ii.2005, Londt & Dikow, Mopane dry woodland Sand R. [habitat]; 1^Soutpansberge Soutpan, 2229CD, 23–24.ii.1980, Londt & Schoeman, bushveld vegetation; 1 ơ 37 km N Louis Trichardt, 2229DD, i.1975, Stuckenberg, arid bushveld; 1^Swartruggens Marico [25°39'S: 26°42'E], 15.i.1901, Brauns; 1 ơ 2^Wolmaransstad [27°12'S: 25°58'E], 20.x.1963 (1^), 23.x.1963 (1 ơ 1^),Moore (NMNH);1 ơ Kroonstad [27°40'S: 27°14'E], 29.xi.1965,Brothers(AMGS); 1^35 km SE Noenieput, 2720CB, 20.iii.1982, Londt & Schoeman, flowers on roadside; 1? Cape Colony, Windsorton [28°20'S: 24°43'E], 20.xii.1920, Brauns; 1 ơ Modder R., Brandfort Dist. [2826CD], xi.1939, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 1 ơ Grootvlei [29°13'S: 26°18'E], 9.xii.1913, Munro (SANC); 1 ơ Grootvlei, 9.xii.1914; 1^Wyk's Vlei [Vanwyksvlei] [30°21'S: 21°49'E],Alston (NMNH); 1 ơ Wyk's Vlei, 1885,Alston (BMNH); 1 ơ Wyk's Vlei, 1886,Alston (SAMC); 1^Vanwyksfontein, 8 km W Norvalspont [30°38'S: 25°27'E], 16.i.1985, Gess (AMGS); 1 ơ 2^Norval’s Pont [30°38'S: 25°27'E], 9.xii.1971, Greathead (BMNH); 1 ơ 1^Aliwal North [30°42'S: 26°42'E], 1326 m, 1–13.1923 [?], Turner (BMNH); 3 ơ Lady Grey [30°42'S: 27°14'E], 30 xii.1924, 6 i.1925, 6 i.1926, Nel; 1 ơ Lady Grey, 22.xii.1925, Nel (BMNH); 1 ơ 13 km NW Carnarvon V.Wyksvlei Rd, 3022CC, 14 xi.1986, Londt & Quickelberge, dry riverbed Acacias; 1^Carnarvon [30°57'S: 22°08'E](SAMC); 1^Steynsburg [31°19'S: 24°20'E],1910,Ellenberger (MNHN); 1^Richmond Dist. [31°25'S: 23°56'E], iii.1931, Museum Staff (SAMC); 1 ơ 1^Middelburg [31°29'S: 25°01'E], 13.ii.1925, Munro (NMNH); 5 ơ 4^14 m E Middelburg, Cape Province, 8–14.xii.1960, Brown, Fürst & Haacke (SANC); 1^5 km N Nieuwoudtville, 3119AC, 760 m, 16.xi.1986, Londt & Quickelberge, stream macchia; 1 ơ Visrivier 50 km E Calvinia on Williston Rd, 31°26'15"S: 20°16'48"E, 990 m, 10 xi.1998, Londt,river edge vegetation; 2 ơ 10 km W Williston,3120BD, 1060 m, 15.xi.1986, Londt & Quickelberge, sand/Acacias’; 2^Cacadu R. nr Lady Frere, 3127CA, 27.x.1978, Londt & Miller, river bank; 1^23 km N Middelpos, 31°44'S: 20°14'E, 29.xi.1990, 1170 m, Whittington & Londt,at Kookfontein R.; 1 ơ nr Perdefontein,E Middelpos, 31°45'S: 20°44'E, 11 xii.1988, Eardley (SANC); 1 ơ Queenstown [31°54'S: 26°53'E], 16.i–10 ii.1923, Turner (BMNH); 1^Dunedin [31°57'S: 22°25'E], 1.xi.1979, Whitehead (SAMC); 4 ơ 1^Murraysburg Dist. [31°57'S: 23°46'E], xi.1935, Museum Staff (SAMC); 1 ơ 1^23 km SE Middelpos, 32°01'S: 20°25'E, 1200m, 28.xi.1990,Whittington &Londt,banks of Visrivier; 1^Cape of Good Hope, Nels Poort [32°07'S: 23°00'E], 5.xii.1933, Ogilvie (BMNH); 1 ơ Ingleside, Cradock [32°11'S: 25°37'E], iv.1914, Brincker (BMNH); 1 ơ Cradock, i.1915, Brincker (BMNH); 1^Goshen nr Cathcart [32°13'S: 27°03'E], iii.1954, S.A.Museum (SAMC); 1 ơ 1^Graaff-Reiner Urquhart Park Caravan Park, 32°15'S: 24°33'E, 4–6.xii.1988, Londt,riverine vegetation,sandy ground; 1^Urquhart Park Caravan Park in Graaff-Reinet, 32°15'S: 24°33'E, 7.xii.1989, Londt, Acacia savannah nr dam;1 ơ Graaf-Reinet [Graaff-Reinet, 32°17'S: 24°28'E], 19.xi.1959,Greathead (BMNH); 8 ơ 7^Rietvlei Nieuveld Escarpment [32°20'S: 21°30'E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1 ơ Beaufort West Dist. [32°21'S: 22°35'E], ii.1958, SAM (SAMC); 1^Renoster R. Tankwa Karoo [32°25'S: 20°00'E], xi.1952, Mus. Expd. (SAMC); 5 ơ 10^1? Aberdeen [32°29'S: 24°05'E], xi.1935, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 1 ơ Katberg [32°31'S: 26°38'E], 1219 m, xi.1932, Turner (BMNH); 1^Merweville Lainsburg Dist. [32°40'S: 21°31'E], i.1959, Zinn (SAMC); 4 ơ 2^Merweville, i–ii.1947, Zinn (SAMC); 1^Dikbome Merweville Koup, i.1953, Zinn (SAMC); 3 ơ 2^Gardiner's DriftAdelaide [32°42'S: 26°18'E], iii.1954,S.A.Museum(SAMC);2 ơ Somerset East[32°43'S: 25°35'E], 1–9 xii.1930, Turner (BMNH); 4 ơ Somerset East, 25–30.xi.1930, Turner (BMNH); 1 ơ Cookhouse [32°45'S: 25°49'E], 8.ii.1925, Munro HK (NMNH);2 ơ1^Cookhouse, iii.1954,S.A.Museum(SAMC);1 ơ FortWillshire nrAlice[32°47'S: 26°50'E], 21 i.1959,Jacot-Guillarmod(AMGS);5 ơ3^Umdala Fort Beaufort[32°48'S: 26°39'E], iii.1954,S A.Museum(SAMC); 2^Mountain Zebra Nat Park,3225AD, 17–21.xii.1985,Londt,Bushveld vegetation;2 ơ 3^16 km E Cradock Farm “Who can tell”, 3225BB, 11.iii.1972, Irwin; 1^Meiringspoort, 3322BC, 11–12.xii.1979, Londt & Stuckenberg, rocky hillside & stream edge; 1 ơ 22 km NW Grahamstown, Clifton Farm, 3326AB, 3–5.i.1986, Londt & Gess, arid area; 1 ơ Tierberg Res. Stat. Prince Albert Dist., 33°07'42"S: 22°16'24"E, 26.xi–5 xii.1987, Gess (AMGS); 1 ơ Fort Brown [33°08'S: 26°37'E], 23.ii.1928,Walton(AMGS); 1^Fort Brown area, 33°08'38"S: 26°38'37"E, 314m, 21.x.2004, Londt, Euphorbia & Aloe sp. nr farm “Resolution”;8 ơ 5^Grahamstown, Resolution [farm] [33°10'S: 26°37'E], 6.ii. (2 ơ), 1.iv. (1^), 1 xii. (1 ơ), 13.xii 1928 (1^), 9.i. (1 ơ), 11.i. (1 ơ), 12 i. (1^), 15 i. (1^), 18.i. (1^), 24.i. (1 ơ), 26.i.1929 (2 ơ), Walton; 3 ơ 2^same place, 1930, Walton (SAMC); 1^Spitzkop Laingsburg [33°12'S: 20°50'E], iii.1937, Mus. Staff (SAMC); 2 ơ Oukloof Beaufort West [33°15'S: 22°06'E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC); 1 ơ 1^Alicedale New Year's Dam, 3326AC, 5.xi.1978, Miller & Londt, dam edge; 5 ơ 2^1? Willowmore [33°17'S: 23°29'E], 1.xii. (2 ơ 1^), 7.xii. (1?), 10.xii.1920 (2 ơ 1^), 3.i.1927 (1 ơ), Brauns; 1 ơ Willowmore, Brauns (NMNH); 1 ơ 1^Willowmore, 1.xii.1920, Brauns (NMNH); 1 ơ 1^Willowmore, 10.xii.1909 (1 ơ), ii.1914, Brauns (SAMC); 2 ơ 3^Willowmore, ii.1908 (2 ơ), xi.1909 (2^), 25 xii.1915 (1^), Brauns (MRAC); 1 ơ Willowmore, 12.xii.1906, Brauns (BMNH); 2 ơ 1^Willowmore, 15.i.1907 (1^), 15 xii.25.xii. (1 ơ), 1915 (1 ơ), Brauns (MCMI); 1^Willowmore, 1907 Brauns (ZSMC – While labelled a syntype,this specimen was collected a year after Herman's description); 1^Willowmore,Brauns(BMNH);1?Willowmore Modderfontein, 7.xii.1920,Brauns; 2^Grahamstown [33°18'S: 26°32'E], iii.1971, Londt; 1 ơ Grahamstown, 29.xi.1964, Brothers (AMGS); 2 ơ Grahamstown, 21.xii.1971, Greathead (BMNH); 1^2 km S Grahamstown, 33°20'S: 26°31'E, 800 m, 20.xi.1990, Londt & Whittington, Dassie Krantz forest; 2^Rooinek Lainsburg Dist.[33°20'S: 20°55'E], i.1949, Zinn & Hesse (SAMC);1 ơ 30 km E of Touws Hondewater[33°20'S: 20°02'E], xii.1962,SAM(SAMC); 1^Dunbrody [33°28'S: 25°33'E],1897,O'Neil(SAMC); 1 ơ nr Highgate Ostrich Farm Oudtshoorn [33°35'S: 22°12'E], 10.xii.1986, Gess (AMGS); 1 ơ Frischgewaagd Oudtshoorn, 33°39'29"S: 22°13'18"E, 7–8 xii.1986, Gess (AMGS); 1^Dr Hoek Uitenhage [33°45'S: 25°24'E], 11.iii.1919,Munro;1 ơ Table farm Grahamstown, 12–25.ii.1971,Gess(AMGS);1 ơ Strowan Grahamstown, 11.vii.1968, Gess (AMGS); 2 ơ 8^Hilton Grahamstown, 5 xi.1969 (1^), 21.xii.1976 (1 ơ), 13 xii.1977 (1 ơ), 14.ii. (1^), 23.ii. (1^), 28.ii. (1^), 17.iii. (2^), 21.iii.1978 (1^), 30.i.1986 (1^), Gess (AMGS); 1 ơ 1^Pluto's Vale Grahamstown, 6.iii.1960, Jacot-Guillarmod (AMGS); 2 ơ 2^Boesmans R. [33°42'S: 26°40'E], iii.1954, S.A.Museum (SAMC); 1^Algoa Bay [Port Elizabeth, 33°58'S: 25°35'E], 25 xii.1896, Brauns (NHMW); 1^Mossel Bay [34°11'S: 22°08'E], 15–28 iii.1922, Turner (BMNH); 1 ơ Mossel Bay, ii.1922, Turner (BMNH); 1 ơ Cap [Cape] (NHMW); 3^C.B Sp. [on general label not attached to specimens = Cape of Good Hope] (OXUM). ZIMBABWE: 1^Zambezi, Victoria Falls [17°55'S: 25°51'E], vii.1914, Brincker (BMNH); 1 ơ 1^Sarowa B.B. [?], 17.x.1923, Stevenson (SAMC).

Distribution and biology:A fairly commonly encountered, widely distributed and easily recognised southern African species ( Fig. 60 View Fig 60 ), being recorded from Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and many localities in South Africa. The species is absent from the winter-rainfall area, the eastern highlands and subtropical coastal areas of southern Africa. Adults fly between July and April (Table 1). Personal experience and label data indicate that the species lives predominantly in dry woodland ( Acacia and Mopane) and is often associated with sandy stream banks or dry river courses where they are found resting on the ground. Little biological information is available. I am aware of five prey records, four in NMSA collection and one in AMGS. These are: 1 ơ 3^(from Oudtshoorn, 16 km E Cradock, Soutpan & Middelpos respectively) pinned with sweat bees ( Hymenoptera : Halictidae ), 1^(16 km E Cradock) pinned with a spider-hunting wasp ( Hymenoptera : Pompilidae ). Engel and Cuthbertson (1934) record for testacea ‘Many of both sexes were taken along native paths in mopani forest in December, 1930, at Nympani Vlei near Gatooma. One female has been compared with the type’.

Similar species: T. testacea has an entirely pruinose postpronotal lobe and in this respect can be grouped with apicalis , grisescens , ornata , picta , terminalis , turneri and zinidi . Although the species is distinctive in having a number of unique features, such as the clearly marked wings, it is perhaps most similar to ornata .














Trichardis testacea ( Macquart, 1838 )

Londt, Jason G. H. 2008

Trichardis testacea Hermann, 1906: 137–139

HULL, F. M. 1962: 97
ENGEL, E. O. 1924: 109
KERTESZ, C. 1909: 159
HERMANN, F. 1906: 139

Laphria testacea Macquart, 1838: 63

MACQUART, P. J. M. 1838: 63
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