Siphamia tubulata (Weber)

Gon, Ofer & Allen, Gerald R., 2012, 3294, Zootaxa 3294, pp. 1-84 : 75-77

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Siphamia tubulata (Weber)


Siphamia tubulata (Weber) View in CoL

Figure 35

Apogon tubulatus Weber, 1909: 160 View in CoL (type locality, off the west coast of New   GoogleMaps Guinea, 1º42.5’S, 130º47.5’E, Indonesia, lectotype, ZMA 101.329 View Materials ).

Diagnosis: Dorsal rays VII+I,9; anal rays II,8; pectoral rays 12–13; lateral-line scales nearly complete (1 specimen with 21 tubed scales); median predorsal scales 5–6; total gill rakers 3–4 + 8–9; developed gill rakers 1 + 7–8; gill rakers on ceratobranchial 6. Body relatively elongate, its depth 2.7–3.1 in SL and its width 1.65–2.5 in the depth; eye diameter 3.0– 3.7 in head length; first dorsal spine 2.4–4.2 in second spine; second dorsal spine 3.7–6.2, spine of second dorsal fin 4.0–5.0, and second anal spine 4.1–5.3, all in head length; pectoral-fin length 4.9–5.9 and pelvic-fin length 4.55–4.9 in SL; caudal-peduncle length 1.1–2.0 in distance between pelvic spine insertion and anal-fin origin. Preopercular edge with 12–22 serrations, usually extending a short distance beyond angle; preopercular ridge smooth. Dentition on palatines varying from no teeth to 2 irregular series tapering to one series posteriorly. Tip of light organ on each side of tongue bound by membrane.

Colour in life: unknown.

Colour in alcohol: pale brown with scattered dark dots of various sizes, sometimes forming 2–4 vague bars or blotches on middle of body between lateral line and light organ; scales on back, above lateral line, usually darkedged; faint cheek mark from ventral edge of orbit to about angle of preopercular ridge usually present; dark dots sometimes present behind eye, and above and below opercular spine; dark narrow bar from posteroventral edge of infraorbital bone to front end of preopercular ridge sometimes present (partly covered by maxilla); line of small dark dots along ventral edge of preopercular ridge; upper limb of first gill arch with blackish dots that may extend to lower part of gill rakers; fins pale, sometimes with small dark dots at base of anterior dorsal-fin spines and rays, anal-fin rays and middle caudal-fin rays; dark dots usually present on lower third of pelvic fin; peritoneum with dark dots of various sizes; intestine with dense small dark dots; stomach with larger and more scattered dark dots.

Smallest specimen, AMS I.20573-031, 19.7 mm, from Lizard Island and largest specimen examined, AMS

I.20828-006, 34.6 mm, from Cape York, both in Queensland, Australia.

Remarks: Lateral-line and median predorsal scales were missing in most specimens. However, several specimens had one or more tubed lateral-line scales posteriorly on the caudal peduncle, indicating that the lateral is nearly complete or complete. The specimen with the 21 tubed scales had all the caudal peduncle scales intact, but the last three were not tubed. Median predorsal scales were missing in most specimens. Counts of these scales were obtained from four specimens with only one or two scales were missing. None of the specimens had a completely serrated preopercular edge, although a nearly full complement of serrations were occasionally present on either the ventral or posterior edges.

The S. tubulata species group was named after this species, which was the first to be described possessing a dark-dotted light organ. However, it presents an enigma as it is intermediate between the two species groups. Its general pale colour, usual count of 12 pectoral-fin rays, and pelvic fin length are shared with deeper-bodied species including S. brevilux , S. cyanophthalma , S. fistulosa and S. senoui . Conversely, the denser dark dots, presence of dark irregular markings on the body, nearly complete lateral line, body depth, relatively long light organ, shorter pectoral fin and smaller eye are features characteristic of species such as S. corallicola and S. elongata . It nevertheless appears to be allied to the above mentioned species rather than the three Australian endemics, S. cephalotes , S. cuneiceps and S. roseigaster ( Tables 1–3).

Weber (1909) described Apogon tubulatus with 12 pectoral-fin rays, about 24 lateral-line scales, and a yellowish sand colour with an indication of darker marks or bars on the body. The colour illustration of this species in his report on the fishes of the Siboga Expedition ( Weber 1913) clearly depicts a species with a dotted light organ. Weber had three syntypes, each collected at a different locality. However, only one of these agrees with the description, collection data and the illustration. We therefore designate this specimen (ZMA 101.329, 23.9 mm SL) collected at station 164 of the Siboga Expedition, 20 August 1899, off the west coast of Indonesian New Guinea, as the lectotype of Apogon tubulatus . The remaining two syntypes (ZMA 101.328, 26.1 mm SL, from Selayar Island, Siboga station 213, and ZMA 101.330, 26.6 mm SL, from Sape Strait between Sumbawa and Komodo islands, Siboga station 49a) both have a striated light organ, about 14 pectoral-fin rays (fins damaged), and 20 and 24 lateral-line scales, respectively. We have identified these as specimens of Siphamia tubifer .

Siphamia tubulata is presently known from the west coast of New Guinea (now Papua Barat Province of Indonesia), south coast of Papua New Guinea, and Queensland south to Lizard Island ( Fig. 8). The lectotype was dredged on a sandy bottom with small rocks and shells at 32 m. The Queensland specimens were collected on fine sand with shells, green algae and seaweed at 14–20 m.

Material examined: INDONESIA: West coast of New Guinea , ZMA 101.329 View Materials , 23.9 mm (lectotype) . PAPUA NEW GUINEA: SW of Port Moresby, Lolorua Island , AMS I.19235-001, 20.7 mm. QUEENSLAND: Cape York , AMS I.20828-006, 2: 29.6–34.6 mm; CSIRO H4148-01 View Materials , 31.5 mm ; CSIRO H4148-02 View Materials , 5 View Materials : 23.0– 29.9 mm. Flinders Islands , CAS 28515, 9 View Materials : 20.5–27.5 mm. Lizard Island , AMS I.20752-024, 23.5 mm; AMS I.20753-031, 4: 19.7–25.9 mm.


Australian National Fish Collection


California Academy of Sciences














Siphamia tubulata (Weber)

Gon, Ofer & Allen, Gerald R. 2012

Apogon tubulatus

Weber, M. 1909: 160
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