Glenosema umphanda Azevedo & van Noort,

Azevedo, Celso O. & Noort, Simon Van, 2019, Review of Afrotropical Glenosema Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) with description of 13 new species, Zootaxa 4585 (3), pp. 401-437: 411-414

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4585.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:73863C49-9FD2-47C4-9420-B58CCEF92816

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038C9469-6D2C-FFD1-9AB4-FC0FFE16F911

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Glenosema umphanda Azevedo & van Noort
status

sp. nov.

Glenosema umphanda Azevedo & van Noort  , sp. nov.

Figs 6–7View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7

Description, holotype ♀ (brachypterous form, Fig.6View FIGURE 6). Body length: 2.0 mm. Forewing length: 0.1 mm.

Colour. Head dark castaneous, clypeus, mandible, antenna castaneous, palpi light castaneous; mesosoma castaneous, metapectal-propodeal disc dark castaneous, tegula light castaneous, legs castaneous; metasoma castaneous, posterior half darker.

Head. Mandible 0.46 × LH, widened slightly distally, with seven distal teeth, lower tooth slightly large, visible in full frontal view, only slightly directed inward, teeth in little inclined series, both dorsal and ventral margins not denticulate. Clypeus very short, its surface subvertical, perceptible in full dorsal view, triangular in frontal view, apical margin without median callus, up curved medially in frontal view, lateral lobe absent; median area elevated but not forming carina. Antennal foramina distant each other about 1.67 × antennal foramen diameter. First four antennomeres in ratio 23:9:5:6. Scape long and curved, slightly widening distad; pedicel about 2.0 × as long as wide, less than twice longer than first flagellomere; flagellomeres II–III distinctly longer than subsequent ones; flagellar pubescence dense, short and sub-erect. Eye subcircular, small, placed at middle area of head in lateral view, with some short setae. Frons coriaceous, punctures small, shallow, but conspicuous, irregularly distant one another; frontal line sulcate, short and inconspicuous. LH 1.27 × WH. WF 0.71 × WH. WF 2.13 × HE. OOL 2.38 × WOT. VOL 2.13 × HE. Distance of posterior ocellus to vertex crest 1.5 × DAO. Distance of anterior ocellus to supra-ocular line 12.5 × DAO. Frontal angle of ocellar triangle acute; ocelli small, easily seen at median magnification, clearly larger than punctures; ocellar triangle not elongate, POL 2.5 × DAO. Vertex slightly convex. Sides of head immediately posterior to eye and then converging posterad. Occipital carina complete. Malar space very small and triangular, eye almost touching dorsal mandibular condyle. Hypostomal carina evenly slightly curved, not angled medially. Palpal formula 6:3.

Mesosoma. Dorsal pronotal area weakly coriaceous, subquadrate, longer than wide; slope of pronotal collar almost vertical in profile. Mesonotum weakly coriaceous, divided into anteromesoscutum and mesoscutellaraxillary complex, transscutal fissure not clearly outlined. Anteromesoscutum slightly longer than mesoscutellum, its surface flat and not inclined in profile, without notauli and parapsidal signal. Mesoscutellar-axillary complex short, its surface flat in profile, mesoscutellar sulcus evident, but, narrow, shallow, arched, not dilated laterally. Metanotum not visible dorsally. Metapectal-propodeal disc coriaceous, surface almost flat, with only four setae closed to lateral carina, median length 1.45 × median width, metapostnotal median and paraspiracular carinae absent, lateral and posterior carinae complete and sharp; spiracle elliptical, small, placed on lateral carina. Propodeal declivity with its surface subvertical, flat, median carina absent. Prosternum small and concave. Mesopleuron with its surface convex, evenly convex in dorsal view. Brachypterous, forewing reaching anterior carina of Metapectal-propodeal disc. Mesotibia not spinose. Tarsal claw diminute.

Metasoma. Slightly longer than mesosoma, polished; petiole with small half-dome protuberance on ventral surface, with short carinate-shaped line.

Description, paratype ♀ (macropterous form, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7). Body length: 2.2 mm. Forewing length: 1.2 mm.

Colour. Head almost black, clypeus, mandible, antenna castaneous, palpi light castaneous; mesosoma black, except pronotal disc dark castaneous, wings subhyaline, tegula dark castaneous, legs castaneous, metaleg darker; metasoma dark castaneous.

Head. Mandible 0.44 × LH, widened slightly distally, with seven distal teeth, lower tooth slightly large, visible in full frontal view, only slightly directed inward, teeth in little inclined series, both dorsal and ventral margins apparently not denticulate. Clypeus short, median lobe trapezoidal in dorsal view, its surface subvertical, perceptible in full dorsal view, triangular in frontal view, apical margin without median callus, up curved medially in frontal view, lateral lobe absent; median area elevated but not forming carina. Antennal foramina distant each other about 1.83 × antennal foramen diameter. First four antennomeres in ratio 25:10:5:7. Scape long and curved, slightly widening distad; pedicel about 2.0 × as long as wide; flagellomere II distinctly longer than subsequent ones; flagellar pubescence dense, short and sub-erect. Eye subcircular, small, placed at middle area of head in lateral view, with some short setae. Frons coriaceous, punctures small, shallow, but conspicuous, irregularly distant one another; frontal line absent. LH 1.21 × WH. WF 0.67 × WH. WF 1.8 × HE. OOL 4.0 × WOT. VOL 1.6 × HE. Distance of posterior ocellus to vertex crest 0.42 × DAO. Distance of anterior ocellus to supra-ocular line 6.0 × DAO. Frontal angle of ocellar triangle acute; ocelli small, easily seen at median magnification, clearly larger than punctures; ocellar triangle not elongate, POL 1.57 × DAO. Vertex slightly convex. Sides of head immediately posterior to eye and then converging posterad. Occipital carina complete. Malar space very small and subtriangular, eye almost touching dorsal mandibular condyle. Hypostomal carina evenly slightly curved, not angled medially. Palpal formula not observed.

Mesosoma. Dorsal pronotal area coriaceous, trapezoidal, much wider than long; slope of pronotal collar almost vertical in profile. Mesonotum coriaceous, divided into anteromesoscutum and mesoscutellar-axillary complex, transscutal fissure clearly outlined. Anteromesoscutum shorter than mesoscutellum, its surface flat and not inclined in profile, without notauli, parapsidal signal straight, narrow, complete when pronotum not deflected. Mesoscutellar-axillary complex long, its surface flat in profile, mesoscutellar sulcus evident, narrow, deep, straight medially, dilated laterally. Metanotum well visible dorsally. Metapectal-propodeal disc areolate, glabrous, surface almost flat, except antero-lateral corner excavated, median length about 1.0 × median width, metapostnotal median carina very short, metapostnotal-propodeal carina very short and far from median one, paraspiracular carina absent, metapleural and transverse posterior carinae complete and sharp; spiracle subelliptical, small, placed on lateral carina. Propodeal declivity weakly coriaceous, its surface subvertical, mostly flat, median carina absent. Prosternum median-sized and concave. Mesopleuron with mesepimeron and mesepisternum completely separated by mesopleural suture, mesopleural pit small and deep. Macropterous, forewing with three closed cells (costal, radial and first cubital). Mesotibia not spinose. Tarsal claw not analyzed.

Metasoma. Slightly longer than mesosoma, tergites I–II polished, remaining tergites weakly coriaceous; petiole with small half-dome protuberance on ventral surface, with short carinate-shaped line.

Variation. Brachypterous form: head and mesosoma evenly dark castaneous, metasoma lighter; scutellar groove inconspicuous; metapectal-propodeal disc glabrous, surface badly convex; metasoma much longer than mesosoma, can be 1.9 × mesosoma. Macropterous form: specimens from Tswalu with frontal angle of ocellar triangle more acute.

Material examined. Holotype, brachypterous ♀, South Africa, Eastern Cape, Pearston, Plains of Camdeboo Game Reserve , 32°32.033’S 25°14.267’E, 969 m, 30.x.2009 – 22.ii.2010, S. van Noort, yellow pan trap, Camdeboo Escarpment Thicket, PCD09-ACA1-Y02 (SAM-HYM-A027208)GoogleMaps  . Paratypes. brachypterous form: South Africa, Eastern Cape: 1♀, same data as holotype (SAM-HYM-P087444)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀, South Africa , Eastern Cape, Pearston, Plains of Cambeboo Game Reserve , 32°32.033’S 25°14.267’E, 969 m, 22 Feb–9 April 2010, S. van Noort, yellow pan trap, Camdeboo Escarpment Thicket, PCD09-ACA1-Y03 (SAM-HYM-P087453*)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, South Africa , Eastern Cape, Huntly Game Farm , 32°24.561’S 25°05.946’E, 1065 m, 9 April–26 June 2010, S. van Noort, yellow pan trap, Great Fish Thicket, HUN10-ACA1-Y01 (SAM-HYM-P087454)GoogleMaps  ; macropterous form: South Africa, Eastern Cape: 1♀, Februarie Farm, (40.2 km 267°W Kirkwood), 33°33.124’S 25°03.043”E, 14–16 Feb 2001, S van Noort, Malaise trap, VB01-R1T-M53, Valley Bushveld (goat trashed) (SAM-HYM-A027213)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Huntly Glen Farm , 32°24.561′S 25°05.946′E, 1065m, 26 July–6 Oct 2010, S. van Noort, Yellow pan trap, Great Fish Thicket, HUN10- ACA1-Y02 (SAM-HYM-P087437)GoogleMaps  ; South Africa, Northern Cape: 1♀, Tankwa National Park, Renoster River , 490m, 32°14.704'S 20°05.824'E, 17 August–9 September 2014, S. van Noort, Yellow pan trap, Acacia karoo  thicket, Tanqua Wash Riviere, Succulent Karoo, TKW14-ACA1-Y11 (SAM-HYM-P087442)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀, Tankwa National Park, Renoster River , 490m, 32°14.704'S 20°05.824'E, 10 July–17 August 2014, S. van Noort, Malaise trap, Acacia karoo  thicket, Tanqua Wash Riviere, Succulent Karoo, TKW14-ACA1-M04 (SAM-HYM-P087439, SAM-HYM-P087440)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Tankwa National Park, Renoster River , 490m, 32°14.704'S 20°05.824'E, 9 September– 9 October 2014, S. van Noort, Malaise trap, Acacia karoo  thicket, Tanqua Wash Riviere, Succulent Karoo, TKW14-ACA1-M09 (SAM-HYM-P087441)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀, Tswalu Kalahari Reserve, Site BOS1, 1110m, 27°18.163'S 22°22.755'E, 24 October–5 Dec 2015, S. van Noort, Malaise trap, Gordonia Duneveld, Acacia erioloba  , Boscia  red dune slack, Savanna Biome, TSW15-BOS1-M02 (SAM-HYM-P087443*)GoogleMaps  ; 3♀, Tswalu Kalahari Reserve, Site BOS2, 1270m, 27°18.449’S 22°31.794’E, 25 October–6 Dec 2015, S. van Noort, Malaise trap, Kathu Bushveld, Acacia  , Boscia, Savanna Biome  , TSW15-BOS2-M03 (SAM-HYM-P087432, SAM-HYM-P087 433, SAM-HYM- P087434)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀ Tswalu Kalahari Reserve, Site BOS2, 1270m, 27°18.449’S 22°31.794’E, 6 Dec 2015 – 10 Feb 2016, S. van Noort, Malaise trap, Kathu Bushveld, Acacia  , Boscia, Savanna Biome  , TSW15-BOS2-M06 (SAM-HYM- P087435, SAM-HYM-P087436)GoogleMaps  ; South Africa, W. Cape: 1♀, West Coast Fossil Park , (5 km 290° E Langebaanweg) 32°57.732'S 18°05.985'E, 18–25 Sept 2002, S van Noort, Malaise trap, Rehabilitated mine dump LW02-R6-M49 (SAM-HYM-P087438)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. This species differs from all other Afrotropical species of the genus by having a combination of several differences, the most evident are the head that is barrel-shaped in dorsal view and somewhat developed anterior to the eyes; the very small eyes; and the ocellar triangle that is not elongate, forming a somewhat isosceles triangle.

This species is polymorphic with two distinct forms, one brachypterous with the forewing reaching the anterior carina of the metapectal-propodeal complex, and one macropterous, in which the forewing is longer than half the length of the whole body. Both the brachypterous and macropterous forms were judged conspecific due to the unusual barrel-shaped head that is present only in them. No other species around the world has such a head shape.

Etymology. The specific epithet umphanda  is a noun in apposition from IsiXhosa, which means barrel, in allusion to the barrel-shaped head.

Distribution. South Africa.