Diversitermes tiapuan , Oliveira, Danilo Elias & Constantino, Reginaldo, 2016

Oliveira, Danilo Elias & Constantino, Reginaldo, 2016, A taxonomic revision of the neotropical termite genus Diversitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae), Zootaxa 4158 (2), pp. 221-245: 240-244

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4158.2.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FCFD824-EB38-4CC4-93A0-16045C271436

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038C87C0-9F08-3664-CF83-FA4269CF273D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Diversitermes tiapuan
status

new species

Diversitermes tiapuan  new species

Holotype. Major soldier, 26.x.2001, R. Constantino leg., part of lot UnB-3058.

Type-locality. Brazil, Goiás, Catalão, Fazenda São Cipriano (lat 17.6428°S, long 47.4772°W).GoogleMaps 

Type-repository. UnB.

Paratypes. BRAZIL: Bahia: Palmeiras (12.529°S, 41.559°W), 10.xii.2011, E.A. Alves col., soldiers, workers (UnB-8879)GoogleMaps  . Distrito Federal: Brasília (15.78°S, 47.93°W), 01.x.2002, E.M. Cancello & C. Bordereau col., soldiers ( MZSP- 11346)GoogleMaps  ; 03.x.2002, E.M. Cancello & C. Bordereau col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (MZSP- 11347). Brasília, Estação Ecológica Águas Emendadas (15.567°S, 47.6°W), 28.x.1986, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers (MPEG-2647, 3942). Brasília, Fazenda Água LimpaGoogleMaps  , 01.x.1999, T. Miura col., soldiers, workers (UnB-1538); 01.x.2010, MC col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-9710); 03.xii.2007, A.M.A. Pessoa col., soldiers, workers (UnB-7305); 03.xi.1980, A. Mill col., soldiers, workers (MPEG-1237); 29.x.2010, D.G. Pinheiro col., soldiers, workers (UnB-9562). Brasília, Reserva Ecológica do IBGE (15.945°S, 47.885°W), 04.ix.2000, Luciana S. Santos col., soldiers, workers (UnB-6420, 6421, 6425, 6427, 6429, 6431, 6434); 07.ii.2003, Gabriel Vianna col., soldiers, workers (UnB-6530, 6547); 11.ix.2003, Gabriel Vianna col., soldiers, workers (UnB-6575); 13.viii.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers (UnB-6466); 16.v.2003, Gabriel Vianna col., soldiers, workers (UnB-6531); 16.ix.1998, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-1312). Goiás: Catalão, Fazenda São Cipriano , 26.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers (UnB-3021)  ; 26.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-3025, 3050, 3058). Minas Gerais: Buritis, Fazenda São Miguel (15.973°S, 46.535°W)GoogleMaps  , 01.viii.2002, R.A. Calderon col., soldiers (UnB-4847). Campanha (21.83°S, 45.4°W), 27.vi.1947, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers (MZSP-3014, 3016). Campos Altos (19.696°S, 46.171°W), 12.xi.1972, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers ( MZSP- 5865)GoogleMaps  . Curvelo , 16.ii.1972, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers ( MZSP- 5049)  . Guanhães (18.78°S, 42.95°W), 02.iii.1972, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers ( MZSP- 5062)GoogleMaps  . Guarda-Mor (17.571°S, 47.144°W), 29.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers (UnB-3142)GoogleMaps  ; 29.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-3141). Guarda-Mor, Fazenda Sul Brasil (17.554°S, 47.174°W)GoogleMaps  , 02.xi.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-3274); 30.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers (UnB-3196); 30.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-3199, 3268). Lagoa Santa (19.63°S, 43.88°W), 09.xi.1993, Denize col., soldiers, workers (UFV-3414); 09.xi.1993, Mônica col., soldiers, workers (UFV-3392); 10.iii.1994, unknown col., soldiers, workers (UFV-4588, 4594, 5104, 5106); 20.x.1993, Denize col., soldiers, workers (UFV-3372); 21.iii.1994, unknown col., soldiers (UFV-5092); 24.ii.1994, Teresinha col., soldiers, workers (UFV-3712); 24.iii.1994, unknown col., soldiers, workers (UFV-5103). Paracatu, Fazenda Rossato (17.408°S, 47.275°W), 27.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-3107). Paracatu, Fazenda Suzano (17.479°S, 47.347°W), 01.xi.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-3256); 28.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers (UnB-3125); 28.x.2001, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (UnB-3133). Paracatu, Reserva Acangaú (17.223°S, 46.875°W), 01.viii.2011, MC col., soldiers, workers (UnB-9712). Poços de Caldas (21.788°S, 46.561°W), 17.xii.1966, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers (MZSP-0420); 18.ix.1967, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers (MZSP-0532). Santana do Riacho, Cardeal Mota (Serra do Cipó) (19.333°S, 43.621°W), 05.x.2011, G.W. Fernades col., soldiers (UnB-8351); 05.x.2011, G.W. Fernades col., soldiers, workers (UnB-8352); 15.iii.2012, A.V. Quintino col., soldiers, workers (UnB-10031). São Roque de Minas, Serra da Canastra (20.146°S, 46.663°W), 20.vii.1990, unknown col., soldiers, workers (MZSP-10421). São Sebastião do Paraíso (20.917°S, 46.991°W), 22.ii.1945, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers ( AMNH, MZSP- 2820)GoogleMaps  . São Paulo: Dobrada (21.517°S, 48.394°W), 12.viii.1946, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers ( MZSP- 2979)GoogleMaps  . Guatapará, Guarani (21.42°S, 48.1°W), 06.xi.1945, unknown col., imagoes ( MZSP- 3539). IepêGoogleMaps  , 04.ix.1946, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers (AMNH). Jarinu (23.101°S, 46.728°W), 02.iii.1945, V. Autuori col., soldiers, workers (MZSP-3880); 25.ii.1943, V. Autuori col., soldiers, workers (MZSP-2834). Piracicaba (22.717°S, 47.633°W), 30.v.2003, R. Amaral col., soldiers, workers (UnB-4499). Ribeirão Preto (21.17°S, 47.8°W), 14.vi.1967, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers (MZSP-1924). Rio Claro, Flor Est Navarro de Andrade (22.41°S, 47.51°W), 31.v.2004, Kleber Espírito-Santo col., soldiers, workers (UnB-6688)GoogleMaps  . Rio Claro (22.4°S, 47.55°W), 01.iii.1996, R. Constantino col., soldiers, workers (UnB-0211)GoogleMaps  . São Paulo (23.53°S, 46.62°W), 06.vii.1978, L.R. Fontes & F.S. Berchez col., soldiers, workers ( MZSP- 7613)GoogleMaps  ; 24.x.1958, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (MZSP-3254); 27.i.1948, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers (MZSP-3099, 3100); 31.x.1950, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers, imagoes (MZSP-3258). Tatuí (23.35°S, 47.85°W), 06.ii.1945, R.L. Araujo col., soldiers, workers ( MZSP- 2803)GoogleMaps  .

Etymology. From the Asurini language of Tocantins: tĩapwã, pointed nose, which refers to the long, cylindrical nasus of the soldiers.

Imago ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 I –1L, 2C, 2F, 3C, 3F). Head capsule dark brown. Postclypeus light brown; midline darker. Labrum yellow brown, hyaline. Frontal marks elliptic, inconspicuous. Ecdysial line (epicranial suture) visible as a very faint line. Antenna light brown. Pronotum brown. Meso- and metanotum yellow brown anteriorly and brown posteriorly. Pleural sclerites light brown. Legs yellow brown. Tergites brown. Sternites light brown. Wings brownish, hyaline; anterior veins darker. Head capsule with sparse bristles and densely covered with short, inclined, hairs. Postclypeus with numerous hairs of variable size, longer and more spaced than on head capsule. Labrum with about 10 bristles and many short hairs. Pronotum with sparse bristles and densely covered with short, inclined, hairs, more numerous near margins. Tergites and sternites densely covered with hairs and with a line of bristles on posterior margin. Wings with short hairs on surface; anterior margin with dense, longer hairs. Head capsule oval, with slightly angular posterior corners. Fontanelle conspicuous, Y-shaped. Eye nearly circular, medium-sized, distance to lower margin of head about 1/7 its diameter. Ocelli oval, large and prominent, separated from eye by about half their width. Postclypeus inflated; anterior margin nearly straight; posterior margin convex. Pronotum with anterior margin nearly straight, slightly emarginate; sides convex converging posteriorly. Posterior margin of meso- and metanotum broadly V-shaped; posterior points roughly rounded, irregular. Wing microsculpturing. margins and veins with pointed papillae; membrane covered with dense asteroid micrasters (6–8 points). Antenna with 15 articles: 3>6>5=4>2. Measurements in Table 1.

Major soldier ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 J –L; 7A –B). Head light brown; basal ¾ of nasus dark brown, tip light brown. Antennae yellow brown; basal articles about the same color as apical ones. Thoracic nota, legs, tergites and sternites yellow. Head capsule with 2 bristles on vertex and 4 at base of nasus, and numerous microscopic hairs. Nasus densely covered with short inclined hairs, and 4 longer ones at tip. Pronotum with 0–2 bristles on anterior margin. Meso- and metanotum without bristles. Thoracic nota with many microscopic hairs. Tergites with 4–6 long bristles on posterior margin; surface with sparse microscopic hairs. Sternites with a row of long bristles on posterior margin; surface with dense inclined hairs of variable length. Head capsule nearly oval, slightly angular; sides converging posteriorly. Nasus long, narrow and subcylindrical. Line of top of head with nasus concave in profile. Anterior margin of pronotum convex, not emarginate. Antenna with 13–14 articles. With 14 articles: 6>5>4>3=2; with 13 articles: 3>6>5>4>2; 3rd article often incompletely divided; sometimes left and right antennae with different number of articles. Measurements in Table 2.

Intermediate soldier ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 G –I). Coloration, chaetotaxy and antennae similar to those of major soldier; head capsule and nasus darker colored. Smaller and with a slight constriction behind antennae. Nasus shorter, cylindrical, slightly upturned and dilated near apex. Measurements in Table 3

Minor soldier ( Figs. 6View FIGURE 6 J –L). Coloration lighter than in intermediate and major soldiers. Head capsule wider posteriorly; with distinct constriction behind antennae. Top of head in profile with convex elevation between constriction and nasus. Nasus upturned, dilated near apex and with fewer hairs than in intermediate and major soldiers. Antennal articles: 6>5=3>2=4. Measurements in Table 4.

Worker ( Figs. 7View FIGURE 7 E –F, 8E –F, 9G –I, 10P –X, 11A, B, E). Head capsule yellow to brownish. Epicranial suture and fontanelle spot conspicuous. Antennae, thorax, legs, tergites and sternites yellowish, unpigmented. Head capsule with scattered bristles and hairs. Pronotum with 2–6 bristles on anterior lobe and sparse short hairs. Meso- and metanota with a few short hairs, without bristles. Tergites with a row of bristles on posterior margin and sparse short hairs on surface. Antenna with 14–15 articles. Measurements in Tables 5 and 6.

Comparisons. Imago. The imago of D. castaniceps  has a paler head capsule, larger ocelli, and longer and more numerous hairs on the head. The imago of D. diversimiles  is very similar and we have been unable to find consistent differences in external morphology. Major soldier. The head of the major soldier of D. castaniceps  is paler and pear-shaped in dorsal view, with sides strongly converging anteriorly. The major soldier of D. diversimiles  has an elliptical or angular head in dorsal view, and its nasus is proportionally shorter and broader at base. Intermediate soldier. The intermediate soldier of D. castaniceps  has a paler head, a faint constriction behind antenna, shorter and upturned nasus and dilated near end. In D. diversimiles  it has a more conspicuous constriction behind antennae and its nasus is shorter and slightly dilated near tip. Minor soldier. The minor soldier of D. castaniceps  has the posterior half of the head capsule broad and rounded, a shorter nasus and usually only 12 antennal articles. The minor soldier of D. diversimiles  usually has

a shorter nasus dilated near tip, but both show considerable variation and they are ofter difficult to differentiate.

Workers. Workers of D. castaniceps  have a paler and smaller head, with more numerous short hairs. The workers of D. diversimiles  are very similar to those of D. tiapuan  , sp. n. The enteric valve armature is distinct in each species (see key to workers).

Distribution. Diversitermes tiapuan  , sp. n. occurs mainly in savanna habitats in the Cerrado ecoregion ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14).

Biology. Diversitermes tiapuan  , sp. n. apparently does not build nests, and has been found in diffuse galleries under litter or inside nests built by other termites, mainly Cornitermes  spp.

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History