Metacanthops fuscum Maldaner & Agudelo,

Agudelo, Antonio A., Maldaner, Caroline & Rafael, José A., 2019, Dry leaf or twig mantis? A new genus and species of Acanthopidae with sexually dimorphic cryptic strategies (Insecta: Mantodea), Zootaxa 4560 (2), pp. 331-344: 335-339

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4560.2.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C9DEC044-A0B0-446F-9DC3-6EF828C3FB9D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038C87BF-FFCB-4811-FF40-F9D3FEE3AA0E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Metacanthops fuscum Maldaner & Agudelo
status

sp. n.

Metacanthops fuscum Maldaner & Agudelo  sp. n.

( FIGURES 3View FIGURES 1–4, 10–12View FIGURES 10–12, 15, 17–18, 21View FIGURES 13–22, 24–25View FIGURES 24–25)

Diagnosis. Body brown. Pseudophallus short in relation to titillator, curved, sclerotized, broader at the base, apex pointed; margins with elongated spines at its base, sometimes with denticles near apex.

Description of male holotype. Coloration and habitus ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 10–12). Very similar in appearance to Metacanthops amazonica  . Coloration of body brown.

Head ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 10–12). Antennae with the same color as the body. Vertex arched, spotted, central area elevated. Ocelli oval, orange brown, shiny. Scutellum darker at the top, with two warts, directed slightly forward.

Thorax. Pronotum with distal section narrow and rounded. Prothoracic legs with spotted coxae, dorsal area of the coxae with clear rounded spots, and small setae; femora spotted, posterolateral area with small tubercles; 16 anteroventral spines; 6 posteroventral spines; tibia with 15 anteroventral spines; 21 posteroventral spines, tibial claw dark; distal tarsus darker. Meso and metathoracic legs with brown coxae, spotted; tarsus slightly darker than the prothoracic tarsus. Metathoracic wings brown, with gradient of shades of brown and some small spots, mainly in the costal area, 5 parallel transverse veins; stigma brown. Metathoracic wings with apex ending in a small lobe with different shades of brown.

Abdomen. Dark brown, tergites V and VI with dark lobes.

Phallic organs ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 10–12, 21View FIGURES 13–22). Right epiphallus with thin basisclerite; apophysis sclerotized, curved, and robust, with stretch marks slightly more sclerotized; apical edge membranous, quadrangular, with setae. Left epiphallus longer than width; titillator curved, cylindrical, setose; pseudophallus short compared to the titillator, curved, sclerotized, broader at the base, acuminate; margins with elongated spines at the base, and may have denticles near the apex, membranous area granulated; ventral sheet smooth. Hypophallus longer than width, subtriangular; apophysis sclerotized, smooth, curved to apex.

Description of female allotype. Habitus. Body robust, brown, spotted, resembling a lichenous twig covered.

Head ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 13–22). Triangular in shape, lacking projections; antennae filiform, antennomeres dark, basally lighter; first antennomere, scape and pedicel spotted; vertex convex, higher than compound eyes, its middle part elevated and tuberculated; juxtaocular region developed and tuberculated; eyes slightly conical, not pointed, bearing a small wart; with a tubercle located between the base of each compound eye and the antennae, ocelli dark, their bases project forward (especially in lateral ocelli); ocelli yellow and rounded. Scutellum at least twice as wide as long, upper corner bifid, fork projects forward, surface concave, more conspicuously so medially, centrally darkened. Occipital edges with rows of small tubercles behind the juxtaocular region.

Thorax. Surface of prothorax bearing small, scattered tubercles; pronotum rectangular ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 13–22), with contrasting darker spots surrounded by whitish patches, altogether resembling a spotted, lichenous surface; supracoxal dilation poorly developed, prozona rising above metazona in lateral view, metazonal outline almost straight, terminal tubercle only slightly developed. Prothoracic coxae shaped as a rectangular prism, with ventral surface ("internal") smooth, wine-colored distally, and its surface with white spots surrounded in violet; dorsal area smooth and brown; anterior and posterior surfaces with small tubercles and spines towards the edges. Prothoracic femora without lobes, slightly dilated and rounded basally, anterior region smooth, base of the femoral "brush" with a dark spot that extends to its middle area; surface of posterior area with small tubercles, and dark greenish spots, one of these near the base is darkest; ventral region dark with spots; 16 anteroventral spines, all with a black tip; from the fourth spine onwards these are slightly larger and darker, most spines with a dark spot at their bases, except the last one; six posteroventral spines, all with a dark spot at their base (except for the first spine) and black at the tip, a row of small spines is present along the edge and between the spines; 4 discoidal spines, the fourth is nearest to the third; tibial spur furrow near base of femur and with a dark spot. Tibiae with dorsal margin convex, ventral area dark, all spines with black tips; 16 anteroventral spines, separated and erect; 20–21 posteroventral spines, basal spines reclined forward, gradually becoming more erect towards distal end, where distal most spines are slightly curved; tarsus I longer than remaining tarsomeres together, with a small basal spot, tarsomere V longer than tarsomeres II, III and IV (separately). Meso- and metathoracic coxae elongated, shaped as a rectangular prism, surface smooth, dorsal carinae form a furrow that receives the femur, bearing small tubercles. Meso- and metathoracic femora thick, broader towards their base, smooth, with ventral carinae forming a furrow that fits the corresponding tibia, anterior and posterior areas with several tubercles arranged horizontally, lacking genicular spines; metathoracic femora longer than mesothoracic ones. Meso- and metathoracic tibiae with basal area dilated, distal area calyx-shaped, with two dorso-distal lobes, one small ventro-distal lobe, and two thick genicular spines; metathoracic tibiae longer than mesothoracic ones. Meso- and metathoracic tarsi with the proximal and distal area spotted, mid-section whitish, and distal tarsomere approximately as long as basal one. Mesothoracic wings leathery, opaque, spotted, upright and appearing slightly shorter than metathoracic ones in resting position; edges smooth, without undulations or lobes; costal area basally dilated, narrowing towards the tip, reticulated, corrugated, darker than discoidal area; discoidal area whitish, resembling a lichenous surface; stigma uniformly brown. Metathoracic wings shorter than abdomen when at rest, costal area yellow and subhyaline, discoidal area with dark, central spot, cells (except basal ones) yellow.

Abdomen. Ovoid, first segment short; between first and second tergite there is an extensive membrane that articulates this part of the abdomen; tergites III and IV with central black spot, V and VI with horizontal distal spot and a clear proximal area; tergites II, III, IV and VII with clear latero-distal tubercles, tergites V and VI dilated but lacking lobes; lateral margins of tergites with whitish spots. Supraanal plate broader than long, obtuse, without carina, with a small distal central fold; sternites corrugated, with some tubercles, especially towards its distal edge, with lateral spots, two dark, central spots on the subgenital plate. Cerci conical, last segment concave in its dorsal aspect.

Measurements (mm). Body, 32.6; head (vertex to distal margin of labrum), 6.3; pronotum, 11.5; prozona, 4.2; metazona, 7.3; mesothoracic wings, 10.8; metathoracic wings, 9.4; abdomen, 14.3; prothoracic coxae, 9.9; prothoracic femora, 11.7; prothoracic tibiae (measurement without the distal claw), 8; mesothoracic coxae, 4.1; mesothoracic femora, 5; mesothoracic tibiae, 5.2; metathoracic coxae, 4.1; metathoracic femora, 6.3; metathoracic tibiae, 7.1.

Etymology. Latin, fuscum  , in reference to the dark brown color of males.

Type locality. Manaus , Amazonas, Brazil 

Type material examined. HOLOTYPE, BRAZIL: 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 14 torre (40mts altura) (S02°35'21" W60°06'55"), vii.2004, lençol com luz mista (J.A. Rafael, C.S. Motta, F.F. Xavier F°, J.M.F. Ribeiro e S. Trovisco leg.) ( INPA)GoogleMaps  . ALLOTYPE, BRASIL: 1♀ Amazonas , Manaus, Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke- INPA, Base, 29.v.2017 (L. Lanna, J. Herculano, A. Agudelo leg.) Manual ( INPA)  . PARATYPES, BRASIL: 1♂ Amazonas, Manaus , ZF 2 km 14 torre (40 mts altura) (S02°35'21" W60°06'55"), 18–21.v.2004 (J.A. Rafael, F.B. Baccaro, F.F. Xavier F° & A. Silva F. X leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas, Manaus , ZF 2 km 14 torre (40mts altura) (S02°05'21" W60°06'55"), x.2004 (J.A. Rafael leg.), lençol com luz mista ( MZSP)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas, Presidente Figueiredo, AM-240 Km 24 (S02°01'05" W59°49' 60"), 14–18.ix.2009 (F.F. Xavier F°, A. Paladini, A.C. Pires & P.W. Leivas leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA); 1♂ Amazonas , Coari , Rio Urucu , RUC-36 (S04°55'53" W65°18'13"), 25.ii–10.iii.1995 (P.F. Buhrnheim leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA); 1♂ Amazonas , Coari , Rio Urucu , Igarapé Marta 3 (S01°50' 73" W65°02'37"), 14–25.viii.1993 (P.F. Buhrnheim leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas, Itacoatiara, Rio Urubu (S02°10' W59°49'), 12–13.iii.1983 (P. F. Buhrnheim, N. Otaviano & S. Leite leg.), lençol com luz mista ( CZPB-UFAM)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Maranhão, Bom Jardim, ReBIO- Res. Biol. Gurupi (S03°14'01" W46°40'52"), 2–11.ix.2010 (F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, J.C. Silva, M.M. Abreu & J.A Silva leg.), lençol com luz mista ( CZMA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Maranhão, Centro Novo do Maranhão, ReBIO-Res. Biol. Gurupi (S03°14'05" W46°41' 83"), 01–05.vii.2011 (M. M. Abreu & J.A Silva leg.), lençol com luz mista ( CZMA).GoogleMaps 

Additional examined material. BRAZIL: 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 14 torre (25mts altura) (S02°35'21" W60°06'55"), 18–21.ii.2004 (J.A. Rafael, F.F. Xavier F° e A. Silva F° leg.), lençol com luz mista ( MZSP)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 14 torre (40mts altura) (S02°35'21" W60°06'55"), 18–21.iv.2004 (J.A. Rafael, C.S. Motta, F.F. Xavier F° e J.M.F. Ribeiro leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 14 torre (40mts altura) (S02°35'21" W60°06'55"), 12–21.ii. 2004 (J.A. Rafael, C.S. Motta, F.F. Xavier F°, J.M.F. Ribeiro e S. Trovisco leg.), lençol com luz mista ( MCTP)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 14 torre (35mts altura) (S02°35'21" W60°06'55"), 13–16.viii.2004 (J.A. Rafael, F.F. Xavier F°, A. Silva F° e S. Trovisco leg.), lençol com luz mista ( MPEG)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 34 (base LBA) (S02°35'37" W60°12'39"), 10.vii.2008 (J.A. Rafael, F.F. Xavier F°leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 34 (base LBA) (S02°35'37" W60°12'39"), 21.vi.2012 (C. Maldaner e P.R. Bartolomay leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas , Manaus, ZF 2 km 14 torre (40mts altura) (S02°35'21" W60°06'55"), 06–09.viii.2013 (C. Maldaner, A. Agudelo, F.F. Xavier F° e D. M. M. Mendes leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas, Manaus, Fazenda Porto Alegre, BR 174, 12–13.Viii.1996 (R. Hutchings leg.), Pensilvânia com cianeto ( INPA)  ; 1♂ Amazonas , Presidente Figueiredo, AM-240 Km 24 (S02°00'55" W59°49'40"), viii. 2005 (F.F. Xavier F° leg.), lençol com luz mista ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ Amazonas, Manaus, campus UFAM, 05–09.vi.1984 ( INPA)  ; 1♂ Amazonas, Manaus, Conjunto Acaricoara, ix.2009 (Y. Dantas leg.) ( INPA)  .

Geographical records ( Figure 23View FIGURE 23). Brazil (Amazonas, Maranhão).

Remarks. The discovery of a new species with the characteristics of A. amazonica  enlightened us about an Amazonian lineage related to Metilia  . The existence of this lineage was first hinted in the phylogenetic analysis of Rivera & Svenson (2016), who resolved A. amazonica  as sister group of the "other" Metilia  (sensu stricto). Heterospecific representatives of this Amazonian lineage have well conserved external morphology, and thus comparative analysis of male genitalia was necessary to differentiate Metacanthops amazonica  from M. fuscum  . Studied specimens of M. amazonica  were darker, whereas those of M. fuscum  were somewhat lighter in color, mainly in regards of the mesothoracic wings, which also exhibit various shades of brown, often with small markings of different intensity. The most evident differences are found in the pseudophallus, which is short and hook-like in M. fuscum  ,(sometimes bearing small denticles), but long, lanceolate and with acute apex in M. amazonica  .

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MCTP

Museu de Ciencias

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi