Leptodactylus cupreus, Caramaschi, Ulisses, Feio, Renato N. & São-Pedro, Vinícius A., 2008
Caramaschi, Ulisses, Feio, Renato N. & São-Pedro, Vinícius A., 2008, A new species of Leptodactylus Fitzinger (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from Serra do Brigadeiro, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 1861, pp. 44-54: 45-51
treatment provided by
Leptodactylus cupreus sp. nov.
Holotype: MNRJ 47752. Adult male ( Figure 1View FIGURE 1). Lagoa das Bromélias (20 o 25 ’S, 43 o 29 ’W, 1,227 m above sea level), Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, District of Careço, Municipality of Ervália, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Collected by R.N. Feio and V.A. SãoPedro, on 0 8 October 2006.
Paratypes: Seven adult males: MNRJ 47753–47754, collected with the holotype; MNRJ 50436–50438, MZUFV 8015–8016, collected at the type locality by R.N. Feio, V.A. SãoPedro, and P.S. Silva, on 24 October 2007.
Diagnosis: A species belonging to the L. fuscus group and related to the L. mystaceus complex by having two distinct dorsolateral folds, a distinct light lip stripe, a distinct longitudinal light stripe on the posterior surface of the thighs, posterior surface of tarsus smooth or with few tubercles, and sole of foot with prominent light tubercles. The new species is characterized by: (1) size large for the group (SVL 50.1–55.1 mm in males); (2) head slightly wider than long, HL 96 % of HW, HL 34 % of SVL, HW 35 % of SVL; (3) general color copper on dorsal surfaces of body and limbs; (4) lateral head black stripe defined, broad, extending from the tip of the snout and passing over the eye and tympanum; (5) lateral head with white stripe defined, delimited above and below by black stripes, extending from tip of snout to insertion of the forelimb; (6) a large bucal white gland found posterior to the jaw articulation and to the tympanum; (7) dorsum without spots, dorsal surface of thighs and tibiae not distinctly barred; (8) dorsolateral folds broad, from the anterior third of the body to groin, light in color and defined by black markings below and above (only in its posterior part); (9) urostyle stripe present, anal region with many large white tubercles; (10) advertisement call not pulsed, call rate about 12 calls/s, dominant frequency between 2,800 and 3,058 Hz.
Comparisons with other species: Leptodactylus cupreus sp. nov. is distinguished from L. didymus , L. elenae , L. mystaceus , L. notoaktites , and L. spixi by the larger size (SVL 50.1–55.1 mm in males of L. cupreus sp. nov.; combined SVL 42.7–50.8 mm in males of the other species, see Heyer 1978 and Heyer et al. 1996); head slightly wider than long (HL 34 % of SVL, HW 34.2 % of SVL in L. cupreus sp. nov.; HL 36.8–39.8 % of SVL, HW 33.6–35.2 % of SVL in the other species, see Heyer 1978 and Heyer et al. 1996); general color copper on dorsal surfaces of body and limbs (general color brown to greyish brown in the other species); lateral head has a black, clearly defined, broad stripe, passing on the eye and tympanum (lateral head stripe less defined, thinner, grey to dark grey, passing under the eye and over the tympanum in the other species); lateral head with a white, defined stripe, delimited above and below by black stripes (poorly defined and poorly delimited in the other species); presence of a large, white gland behind the jaw articulation (absent or small, poorly developed, in the other species); dorsum without spots, dorsal surface of thighs and tibiae not distinctly barred (dorsum spotted, dorsal surface of thighs and tibiae distinctly barred in the other species); dorsolateral folds broad, from the anterior third of the body to groin (dorsolateral folds thin, from the eye to groin in the other species); urostyle stripe present, anal region with many large white tubercles (urostyle stripe absent or indistinct, anal region without or with indistinct tubercles in the other species). Moreover, L. cupreus sp. nov. is distinguished from: (1) the all other species in the complex by an outer metacarpal tubercle divided and smaller than the inner metacarpal tubercle (outer tubercle entire, rounded or somewhat triangular, larger than the inner tubercle in the other species); (2) from L. didymus , L. elenae , L. mystaceus , and L. notoaktites by a smooth dorsal surface of the tibiae (with many small horny spines in these species); and (3) from L. didymus , L. mystaceus , and L. notoaktites by a tarsus and foot with few tubercles (sole of foot and tarsus with many tubercles in these species). Additionally, L. cupreus sp. nov. is distinguished from L. mystacinus (a species not included in the L. mystaceus complex, but with two dorsolateral folds and sometimes with a copper color pattern) by the wider head and longer legs, lateral head black broad stripe passing on the eye and tympanum (passing under the eye and not covering the tympanum in L. mystacinus ), the thin white stripe on lip (wide in L. mystacinus ), the presence of clear dorsolateral stripes (absent in L. mystacinus ), dark bars on dorsal surface of thighs, tibiae, and feet poorly defined, fragmented (defined, continuous in L. mystacinus ), presence of a distinct light stripe on the posterior surface of thighs (absent in L. mystacinus ) and surface of tarsus and foot with tubercles (distinct white tubercles present only on the tarsus in L. mystacinus ).
Leptodactylus cupreus sp. nov. has the fastest call rate in the assemblage, with about 12 calls/s (combined call rate ranging from 1.0 to 2.3 calls/s in L. didymus , L. elenae , L. mystaceus , L. notoaktites , and L. spixi ) and a higher dominant frequency (between 2,800 and 3,058 Hz in L. cupreus sp. nov., ranging from 470 to 2,033 Hz in other species); additionally, L. cupreus sp. nov. may be promptly separated from L. mystaceus by having unpulsed advertisement call (pulsed in L. mystaceus ). Additionally, the new species is distinguished from L. mystacinus by the fast call rate (12 calls/s in L. cupreus sp. nov.; 5–6.5 calls/s in L. mystacinus ) and a higher dominant frequency (between 2,800 and 3,058 Hz in L. cupreus sp. nov.; 2,200 to 2,500 Hz in L. mystacinus ).
Description of the holotype: Robust build; head slightly wider than long, HL 96 % of HW, HL 34 % of SVL, HW 35 % of SVL. Snout subelliptical viewed from above ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A), protruding with distinct shelf in profile ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B); canthus rostralis indistinct, rounded; loreal region oblique, slightly concave. Nostrils closer to tip of snout than to eyes; internarial distance slightly larger than eye to nostril distance and smaller than eye diameter. Eye to nostril distance smaller than eye diameter and larger than upper eyelid width, interorbital distance, and tympanum diameter. Upper eyelid width smaller than interorbital distance and tympanum diameter. Tympanum circular, annulus distinct; tympanum largely separated from eye, its diameter smaller than eye diameter, TD 84 % of ED. Upper eyelid, head, and dorsal skin smooth; a supratympanic fold from the posterior corner of eye, arching downwards posteriorly to tympanum, delimiting the well developed shoulder blade and reaching the arm articulation; a large, longitudinally elongated, jaw articulation gland present; a pair of dorsolateral folds, from the anterior third of the body to groin; flanks barely rugose, a weak dermal fold and sparse tubercles present; ventral skin smooth, belly disk fold distinct; a granular seat patch under thighs; anal region with many rounded tubercles; dorsal surface of tibiae with many small and horny tubercles. Vocal sac poorly developed, subgular; a pair of distinct, developed, lateral vocal folds. Vocal slits present; vomerine teeth in two transverse, almost contacting medially, slightly arched series, located between and just posterior to the choanae. Tongue large, free, slightly notched behind. Hand ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C) with fingers slender, not webbed, tips rounded, not expanded; weak lateral ridges on fingers II and III, absent on the others; fingers lengths IV <II <III <I, first finger much longer than second; subarticular tubercles rounded, with proximal tubercles more developed than distal ones; few supranumerary tubercles present; outer metacarpal tubercle large, longitudinally divided, the most outer part about three times the inner part; inner metacarpal tubercle two times larger than outer one, elliptical; no spine or asperities on thumbs, no prepollex visible; no tubercles or crests on forearm. Legs robust, tibia length slightly larger than the thigh length; sum of tibia and thigh lengths about 97.5 % of SVL. Foot large ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D), foot length larger than tibia and thigh lengths, 75.3 % of SVL. Toes slender, not webbed, nor fringed; toes lengths I <II <V <III <IV; toe tips slightly pointed; subarticular tubercles large, rounded; sole of foot with distinct, approximately aligned tubercles; outer metatarsal tubercle very small, elliptical, flat; inner metatarsal tubercle large, elliptical, slightly elevated; sole of tarsus with few tubercles; inner tarsal fold distinct, approximately equal to the length of the tarsus.
Measurements of the holotype: SVL 51.8; HL 17.4; HW 18.1; IND 4.6; END 4.5; ED 5.0; UEW 3.8; IOD 4.4; TD 4.2; HAL 12.2; THL 24.0; TL 26.5; FL 39.0.
Color: In life, overall dorsal coloration uniformly copper; two dorsolateral stripes clear copper, from the anterior third of the body to groin, bounded above and below by black stripes. A light copper stripe on the urostyle. A wide black stripe from the tip of snout, passing over the naris, subcanthal region, inferior three fourth of eye, tympanum, and posteriorly bending towards the shoulder, bordering the shoulder blade inferiorly; below and along this black stripe, a golden, well defined stripe is visible; below the golden stripe, the upper and lower lips are dark grey. Bucal postcommissural gland distinctly golden. Flanks, below the black dorsolateral stripe, copper above and grey copper below, with scattered clear copper spots and flecks. Forelimbs copper above, with a black stripe on anterior and posterior sides of arms and black stains on forearms; fingers clear grey with small yellow flecks above. Legs copper above; the anterior dorsolateral side of thighs with black spots that sometimes fuse with each other; a clear cream longitudinal line runs along the lower limit of the posterior surface of thighs and delimits the granulose seat pad; dorsum of tibiae and outer surface of feet with scattered black stains, without forming defined pattern of bars; toes clear grey with scattered clear copper flecks. Venter and ventral surfaces of forelimbs and legs whitish grey with scattered clear cream, undefined stains; gular region clear pink. Anal region with distinct white tubercles. Eyes copper on superior one third and black below.
In preservative, the copper color surfaces become clear brownish grey; the dorsolateral and urostyle stripes become cream, the lateral head stripe become clear cream, almost white, and the black stripes on lateral head, dorsolateral body, arms, and legs are maintained; bucal postcommissural gland becomes white; the longitudinal stripe on posterior side of thighs becomes white. Venter greyish white; gular region clear grey; tubercles on anal region white.
Variation: Examined specimens are congruent among them respecting the morphological characters and color. Range, mean, and standard deviation of the measurements of eight males are in Table 1.
Advertisement call ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4): Calls emitted irregularly in a variably long and fast sequence of peeps; call rate about 12 calls/s; call not pulsed, modulated, composed of three harmonics at 3,005 Hz, 5,770 Hz, and 8,527 Hz; fundamental and dominant frequency between 2,800 and 3,058 Hz.
Geographic distribution: The new species is known only from type locality, associated to the northern part of the Mantiqueira Mountain Range Complex, locally called Serra do Brigadeiro.
Habitat and habits: The type locality of L. cupreus is essentially the same as recently described for Chiasmocleis mantiqueira ( Anura , Microhylidae ; see Cruz et al. 2007). The Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, in the Atlantic Rain Forest biome, is a conservation unit managed by the Instituto Estadual de Florestas of the State of Minas Gerais. The 13,000 ha of the Parque involve the highest portions of a set of mountains integrating the Mantiqueira Mountain Range Complex, with maximum of 1,985 m above sea level. The Lagoa das Bromélias (local name meaning Bromeliads’ Lake) is a temporary pond at 1,227 m altitude, that completely dryes up during the dry season (April to September), but with about 250 m 2 of water surface in the wet season (October to March). This pond is found in a forest fragment with especially rich epiphitic flora mainly represented by the Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae plants families.
Males of L. cupreus were found calling at night in densities of up to 20 individuals, only during the early month of the wet season (October), when the dryed pond ground is totally covered by herbaceous vegetation. The males call under these plants, inside small burrows excavated in the soil. Females, egg clutches, and tadpoles are unknown.
Etymology: The specific epithet, “ cupreus ”, is a Latin adjective referred to the copper general color pattern of the new species.
|Males (n = 8)|
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.