Cephalotes grandinosus (Smith, 1860)

Oliveira, Aline Machado, Powell, Scott & Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado, 2021, A taxonomic study of the Brazilian turtle ants (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Cephalotes), Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 65 (3), No. e 20210028, pp. 1-52 : 31-32

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1590/1806-9665-RBENT-2021-0028

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5512305

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038587E5-FFEA-FFDF-FFFD-FBB4D1B4FB2D

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Cephalotes grandinosus
status

 

The grandinosus species group

( Figs. 33 View Figure 33 , 34 View Figure 34 , 35 View Figure 35 )

The grandinosus groupwas first proposed by De Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999) including five species: C. persimplex , described by De AndradeinDe Andradeand Baroni Urbani (1999), C. klugi , knownonly for the gyne, C. persimilis , C. grandinosus , and C. foliaceus . These last three composed the formerpinelii group by Kempf (1952), along with C. incertus , C. maculatus , C. pinelii , andC. scutulatus .

Grandinosus and pinelii are sister groups in the morphological phylogeny (De Andrade and Baroni Urbani, 1999, see their Fig. 24 View Figure 24 ), sharing many characters, as the strongly dorsoventrally flattened body, dorsum of mesosoma continuous, and lamellarexpansions on mesosoma, petiole, postpetioleand gaster. Both groups differ only by the presence of a lamella on hind femora and the lighter color in grandinosus .

In the molecularphylogeny (Price et al., 2016, see their Fig.S3 View Figure 3 ), the grandinosus andpinelii groups arerecovered asparaphyletic. Cephalotes foliaceus ( grandinosus group) is sister to C. sp. 2 (here described as C. mariadeandrade new species, of thepinelii group). The clade formed by the otherspecies of the grandinosus group ( C. grandinosuş C. klugi , C. persimplex and C. persimilis ) is the sister group of a clade formed by some of the previously designated species of the pinelii group ( C. maculatus , C. liepini , C. nilpiei , C. pinelii and C. pileini ) ( Fig. 54 View Figure54 ).

The morphologicalsimilarities and phylogeneticassociation between speciesof the pinelii andgrandinosus groupssuggest theylikely represent asingle evolutionarylineage ( Fig. 54 View Figure54 ). Evenbeing paraphyletic, these groups are morphologically diagnosable, thus we kept it separate here, since we have not examined the species occurring outside Brazil in this study, what would help to better understand the relationships and limits between these species and redefine these groups.

Diagnosis: In workers, body strongly flattened dorsoventrally. In dorsal view, dorsum of mesosoma continuous, with lamellar lateral expansions. In workers and soldiers, hindfemora with a ventral and/or dorsal lamellar crest, usually crenulate and narrow ( Fig.2k View Figure 2 , 3k View Figure 3 ). Petiole and postpetiole with lamellar lateral expansions.

Brazilian species of grandinosus group

Cephalotes grandinosus (Smith, 1860)

Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus grandinosus = Cephalotes grandinosus nevadensis (Forel, 1912) Obsolete combination:Cryptocerus grandinosus nevadensis

Cephalotes klugi (Emery, 1894) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus klugi

Cephalotes persimilis De Andrade, 1999

Cephalotes persimplex De Andrade, 1999

Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the grandinosus group of Cephalotes based on workers

( Figs. 33 View Figure 33 a-d)

Note: Cephalotes klugi is known only for the gyne.

1 In dorsalview, anterior portion of thelamellar expansions of the gaster flat, continuouswiththegastraltergite ( Fig.33c View Figure 33 )......................... C. grandinosus

1’ Indorsal view, anteriorportion of thelamellar expansionsof thegaster bentdorsally, notcontinuous withthegastral tergite ( Fig.33d View Figure 33 ).......................2

2 Body hairs appressed, relatively broad and uniform, without a submedian constriction ( Fig.33a View Figure 33 )............................................... C. persimplex

2’ Body hairsrelatively narrow, with a submedian constriction, which is not appressed to the body likethe remain partof the hair ( Fig.33b View Figure 33 ).......... .................................................................................................................... C. persimilis

Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the grandinosus group of Cephalotes based on soldiers

( Figs. 34 View Figure 34 a-f)

Note: Cephalotes klugi is known only for the gyne.

1 In frontal view, cephalic disc areolate ( Fig. 34a View Figure 34 ).......... C. grandinosus

1’ Infrontal view, cephalic disc foveate, space between foveae microalveolate ( Fig. 34b View Figure 34 ).....................................................................................2

2 Inlateral view, hairs oflateral faceofhead abundant, most hairstouching eachother ( Fig.34c View Figure 34 ). Hairsof headsubspatulate ( Fig.34d View Figure 34 )......... C. persimplex

2’ Inlateral view, hairsoflateral faceofheadsparse,hairs nevertouching each other ( Fig.34f View Figure 34 ). Hairsof headsubrectangular ( Fig.34e View Figure 34 )............ C. persimilis

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Cephalotes