Cephalotes basalis (Smith, 1876)

Oliveira, Aline Machado, Powell, Scott & Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado, 2021, A taxonomic study of the Brazilian turtle ants (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Cephalotes), Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 65 (3), No. e 20210028, pp. 1-52 : 21-22

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1590/1806-9665-RBENT-2021-0028

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5512275

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038587E5-FFE0-FFD5-FFFD-FF0BD1B4FEF7

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Cephalotes basalis
status

 

The basalis species group

( Figs. 19 View Figure 19 , 20 View Figure 20 , 21 View Figure 21 )

The basalis group of De Andradeand Baroni Urbani (1999) includes the complanatus group of Paracryptoceus by Kempf (1951) ( C. complanatus , C. cordiae , C. ramiphilus ), and two isolated species, C. basalis and C. manni . Additionally, there are five other species that do not occur in Brazil ( C. brevispineus , C. cordiventris , C. femoralis, C. inca and C. mompox ). Cephalotes manni is morphologically very distinct and can be easilyseparated from all other species in the group, by the combination of dentiform lamellar expansions on pronotum, declivous face of propodeum and anterior face of petiole concave, apices of anterior lamellar expansion of gaster near to postpetiole insertion, and median dorsal projection on hind femora absent. Thus, we transfer C. manni to the monotypicmanni species group, proposed here as discussed in its respective section.

According to the molecular phylogeny (Price et al., 2016, see their Fig. S3 View Figure 3 ), basalis group forms a clade with the exclusively North and Central Americanmultispinosus, wheeleri andtexanus species groups. All species of basalis group recorded for Brazil occur only in the North and Midwest regions ( Fig. 21 View Figure 21 ).

Diagnosis: In workers and soldiers, margin of pronotum with lamellar expansions, without denticles or spines. Declivous face of propodeum and anterior face of petiole truncate ( Fig. 19 View Figure 19 c-d). Hind femora with a median projection dorsally ( Fig. 2j View Figure 2 ). In dorsal view, the anterior lamellarexpansions of the gaster with apices distally directed in relation to the postpetiole insertion.

Brazilian species of basalis group

Cephalotes basalis (Smith, 1876)

Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus basalis = Cephalotes multispinus (Emery, 1890) Obsolete combinations: Cryptocerus cordatus multispinus, Cryptocerus multispinus

Cephalotes complanatus (Guérin-Méneville, 1844) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus complanatus = Cephalotes angulatus (Smith, 1858) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus angulatus = Cephalotes multispinus amazonensis (Forel, 1911) Obsolete combination:Cryptocerusmultispinus amazonensis

Cephalotes cordiae (Stitz, 1913) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus cordiae

Cephalotes ramiphilus (Forel, 1904) Obsolete combination: Cryptoceruscomplanatus ramiphilus

Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the basalis group of Cephalotes based on workers

( Figs. 19 View Figure 19 a-f)

1 Indorsal view, propodeum with onepairof spines ( Fig.19c View Figure 19 )..... C. cordiae

1’ In dorsal view, propodeum with two or more pairs of spines ( Fig. 19d View Figure 19 )..................................................................................................................2

2 In dorsal view, frontal carinae upturned dorsally above the eyes ( Fig. 19a View Figure 19 ).................................................................................................... C. basalis

2’ In dorsal view, frontal carinae not upturned dorsally above the eyes ( Fig. 19b View Figure 19 )..................................................................................................................4

3 Declivousfaceof propodeumfinelystriate ( Fig.19e View Figure 19 )......................... C. ramiphilus

3’ Declivousface of propodeum microalveolate, never striate ( Fig. 19f View Figure 19 )........................................................................................ C. complanatus Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the basalis group of Cephalotes based on soldiers

( Figs. 20 View Figure 20 a-g)

1 In dorsal view, propodeal spines longer than petiolar spines ( Fig. 20a View Figure 20 ).................................................................................................. C. cordiae

1’ In dorsal view, propodeal spines shorter than petiolar spines ( Fig. 20b, c View Figure 20 ).............................................................................................................2

2 In dorsal view, gaster withouttranslucent lamellar anterior expansions ( Fig. 20d View Figure 20 )..................................................................................... C. complanatus

2’ In dorsal view, gaster with translucent lamellar anterior expansions ( Fig. 20e View Figure 20 )..................................................................................................................3

3 Metapleura with more than 30 hairs ( Fig. 20f View Figure 20 )......................... C. basalis

3’ Metapleura with less than 15 hairs ( Fig. 20g View Figure 20 ).................. C. ramiphilus

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Cephalotes